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language, Sic, Sidney, British Columbia, Sikhism, Simon Fraser (explorer), Simon Fraser University, Skiing, SkyTrain (Vancouver), Slocan Valley, Slovak language, Smallpox, Smith River, British Columbia, Snowboarding, Social democracy, Socialism, Softball, Solidarity Crisis, Sooke, South Asia, Southeast Alaska, Southeast Asia, Southern Railway of Vancouver Island, Spanish Canadians, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, Speech from the throne, Spirit bear, Spotted owl, Squirrel, Stanley Park, Statistics Canada, Status quo, Steller's jay, Strait of Georgia, Sturgeon, Subarctic climate, Surrey, British Columbia, Swan, Swedish Canadians, Swedish language, Swiss people, Syilx, Symbols of British Columbia, Tagalog language, Taiga Plains Ecozone (CEC), Tamil language, Tan Yu, Taraxacum, Taxus brevifolia, Teck Resources, Telemark skiing, Temperate rainforest, Tennis, Tent caterpillar, The Vancouver Sun, Third party (politics), Thistle, Thompson River, Thompson Rivers University, Thuja plicata, Tit (bird), Tlingit, Tofino, Tom Campbell (Canadian politician), Toronto, Totem pole, Tourism, Trade union, Trading post, Traffic barrier, Traffic light, Trail riding, Trail, British Columbia, Trans-Canada Highway, Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, TransLink (British Columbia), Treaty of 1818, Trolleybus, Trout, Tsawwassen, Tsilhqot'in, Tsimshianic languages, Tsuga, Tsuga heterophylla, Tsuga mertensiana, Tumbler Ridge, Turkish language, Two sets of books, U.S. state, Ujjal Dosanjh, Ukrainian Canadians, Ukrainian language, Ulex, Ultimate Canada, United Church of Canada, United States, University Endowment Lands, University of British Columbia, University of Northern British Columbia, University of the Fraser Valley, University of Victoria, Urdu, Vancouver, Vancouver Fraser Port Authority, Vancouver International Airport, Vancouver Island, Vancouver Island marmot, Vancouver Island University, Vancouver, Washington, Vanderhoof, British Columbia, Vasco Núñez de Balboa, Vermilion Pass, Vernon, British Columbia, Victoria International Airport, Victoria, British Columbia, Vietnamese Canadians, Vietnamese language, View Royal, Visayan languages, Visible minority, W. A. C. Bennett, Wales, Walla Walla, Washington, Washington (state), Washington State Ferries, Watson Lake, Yukon, Welsh Canadians, West Vancouver, Western Asia, Western Canada, Western white pine, Whistler Blackcomb, Whistler, British Columbia, White Pass and Yukon Route, White Rock, British Columbia, Whitewater, Windsurfing, Winnipeg, Winter sport, Wolverine, Woodlouse, Workforce, World War I, World War II, WWOOF, Yale, British Columbia, Yellowhead Highway, Yellowhead Pass, Yeniseian languages, Yoho National Park, York Factory Express, Yukon, 2010 Winter Olympics, 49th parallel north. Expand index (755 more) » « Shrink index
Abbotsford International Airport is located in Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada, southwest of the city centre.
Abbotsford is a city located in British Columbia, adjacent to Greater Vancouver along the Fraser River and Canada–United States border.
Abies amabilis, commonly known as the Pacific silver fir, is a fir native to the Pacific Northwest of North America, occurring in the Pacific Coast Ranges and the Cascade Range from the extreme southeast of Alaska, through western British Columbia, Washington and Oregon, to the extreme northwest of California.
Abies grandis (grand fir, giant fir, lowland white fir, great silver fir, western white fir, Vancouver fir, or Oregon fir) is a fir native to the Pacific Northwest and Northern California of North America, occurring at altitudes of sea level to 1,800 m.
Abies lasiocarpa, commonly called the subalpine fir or Rocky Mountain fir, is a western North American fir tree.
Acer circinatum (vine maple) is a species of maple native to western North America, from southwest British Columbia to northern California, usually within of the Pacific Ocean coast, found along the Columbia Gorge and Coastal Forest.
Acer glabrum is a species of maple native to western North America, from southeastern Alaska, British Columbia and western Alberta, east to western Nebraska, and south through Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana and Colorado to California, Arizona and New Mexico.
Acer macrophyllum, the bigleaf maple or Oregon maple, is a large deciduous tree in the genus Acer.
Affordability of housing in Canada presents a complex paradox.
The Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) is a collection of agricultural land in the Canadian province of British Columbia in which agriculture is recognized as the priority.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Alaska boundary dispute was a territorial dispute between the United States and the United Kingdom, which then controlled Canada's foreign relations.
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Alberta is a western province of Canada.
Highway 93 is a north-south highway in Alberta, Canada.
Sir Alexander Mackenzie (or MacKenzie, Alasdair MacCoinnich; 1764 – 12 March 1820) was a Scottish explorer known for accomplishing the first east to west crossing of North America north of Mexico, which preceded the more famous Lewis and Clark Expedition by 12 years.
Alnus incana, the grey alder or speckled alder, is a species of alder with a wide range across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere.
Alnus rubra, the red alder, is a deciduous broadleaf tree native to western North America (Alaska, Yukon, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho and Montana).
Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing (cross-country, Telemark, or ski jumping) which use skis with free-heel bindings.
The American black bear (Ursus americanus) is a medium-sized bear native to North America.
The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus or Rana catesbeiana), often simply known as the bullfrog in Canada and the United States, is an amphibious frog, a member of the family Ranidae, or “true frogs”.
The American robin (Turdus migratorius) is a migratory songbird of the true thrush genus and Turdidae, the wider thrush family.
The American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) is a large aquatic soaring bird from the order Pelecaniformes.
Americans are citizens of the United States of America.
Amor De Cosmos (August 20, 1825 – July 4, 1897) was a Canadian journalist, publisher and politician.
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to three Canadian cities.
An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes.
Anacortes is a city in Skagit County, Washington, United States.
The Anglican Church of Canada (ACC or ACoC) is the Province of the Anglican Communion in Canada.
Anmore (2016 population 2,210), British Columbia, Canada, is an affluent village municipality in Metro Vancouver.
Arab Canadians come from all of the countries of the Arab world.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Arbutus menziesii, the Pacific madrone or madrona, is a species of tree in the family Ericaceae, native to the western coastal areas of North America, from British Columbia to California.
An arterial road or arterial thoroughfare is a high-capacity urban road.
Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).
Atlin (Tlingit: Áa Tlein) is a community in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, located on the eastern shore of Atlin Lake.
Austrian Canadians are Canadian citizens who are of Austrian ancestry or Austrian-born people who reside in Canada.
Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae, which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, and wolverines.
Banff National Park is Canada's oldest national park and was established in 1885.
Barkerville was the main town of the Cariboo Gold Rush in British Columbia, Canada and is preserved as a historic town.
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Bass is a name shared by many species of fish.
British Columbia Ferry Services Inc., operating as BC Ferries (BCF), is a former provincial Crown corporation, now operating as an independently managed, publicly owned company.
The BC Hydro and Power Authority is a Canadian electric utility in the province of British Columbia, generally known simply as BC Hydro.
The BC Legislature Raids (also known as Railgate after Watergate) resulted from search warrants executed on the Legislature of British Columbia, Canada, in 2003 and has become a collective term for the associated criminal proceedings and ensuant controversies.
BC Rail, known as the British Columbia Railway between 1972 and 1984 and as the Pacific Great Eastern Railway (PGE) before 1972, was a railway that operated in the Canadian province of British Columbia between 1912 and 2004.
BC Transit is a provincial crown corporation responsible for coordinating the delivery of public transportation within British Columbia, Canada, outside Greater Vancouver.
BC-STV is the proposed voting system recommended by the Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform in October 2004 for use in British Columbia, and belongs to the single transferable vote family of voting systems.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
A bed and breakfast (typically shortened to B&B or BnB) is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and breakfast.
Belcarra is a village on the shore of Indian Arm, a side inlet of Burrard Inlet, and is part of Metro Vancouver.
Belgian Canadians (French: Canadiens belges) are Canadian citizens of Belgian ancestry or Belgium-born people who reside in Canada.
Bella Coola is a community in the Bella Coola Valley, in British Columbia, Canada.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Betula occidentalis (Water Birch, also known as Red Birch) is a species of birch native to western North America, in Canada from Yukon east to western Ontario and southwards, and in the United States from eastern Washington east to western North Dakota, and south to eastern California, northern Arizona and northern New Mexico, and southwestern Alaska.
Betula papyrifera (paper birch, also known as white birch and canoe birch) is a short-lived species of birch native to northern North America.
Bicycle gearing is the aspect of a bicycle drivetrain that determines the relation between the cadence, the rate at which the rider pedals, and the rate at which the drive wheel turns.
The bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a species of sheep native to North America named for its large horns.
William Richards "Bill" Bennett, (April 14, 1932 – December 3, 2015) was the 27th Premier of the Canadian province of British Columbia 1975–1986.
William Nicholas "Bill" Vander Zalm (born May 29, 1934) is a politician and entrepreneur in British Columbia, Canada.
The biogeoclimatic zones of British Columbia are a classification system used by the British Columbia Ministry of Forests for the Canadian province's fourteen different ecosystems.
Black Canadians is a designation used for people of Black African descent, who are citizens or permanent residents of Canada.
The black slug (also known as black arion, European black slug, or large black slug) Arion ater L. is a large terrestrial gastropod mollusk in the family Arionidae—the round back slugs.
The Boreal Cordillera Ecozone, as defined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), is a Canadian terrestrial ecozone occupying most of the northern third of British Columbia and southern half of the Yukon.
The Boreal Plains Ecozone, as defined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), is an ecozone in the western Canadian provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.
Byron Ingemar "Boss" Johnson (December 10, 1890 – January 12, 1964), born Björn Ingimar "Bjössi" Jónsson, served as the 24th Premier of the province of British Columbia, Canada, from 1947 to 1952.
The Boundary Country is a historical designation for a district in southern British Columbia lying, as its name suggests, along the boundary between Canada and the United States.
Bowen Island (originally Nex̱wlélex̱m in Sḵwx̱wú7mesh Sníchim), British Columbia, is an island municipality that is part of Metro Vancouver.
The British Columbia Coast or BC Coast is Canada's western continental coastline on the North Pacific Ocean.
The British Columbia Conservative Party is a political party in British Columbia, Canada.
The British Columbia Court of Appeal (BCCA) is the highest appellate court in the province of British Columbia, Canada.
British Columbia Federation of Labour is a central organization for organized labour in British Columbia, Canada.
The British Columbia general election, 1941 was the twentieth general election in the Province of British Columbia, Canada.
The British Columbia general election of 1945 was the twenty-first general election in the Province of British Columbia, Canada.
The British Columbia general election of 1949 was the 22nd general election in the Province of British Columbia, Canada.
The British Columbia general election, 1952 was the 23rd general election in the Province of British Columbia, Canada.
The British Columbia general election of 1953 was the 24th general election in the Province of British Columbia, Canada.
The British Columbia general election of 1975 was the 31st general election in the Province of British Columbia, Canada.
The British Columbia general election of 1991 was the 35th provincial election in the Province of British Columbia, Canada.
The 39th British Columbia general election was held on May 12, 2009, to elect members of the Legislative Assembly in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
Highway 1 is part of the British Columbia section of the Trans-Canada Highway.
Highway 2, known locally as the Tupper Highway, is one of the two short connections from Dawson Creek to the border between B.C. and Alberta.
Highway 5 is a north-south route in southern British Columbia, Canada.
Highway 93 is a north–south route through the southeastern part of British Columbia, in the Regional District of East Kootenay and takes its number from U.S. Highway 93 that it connects with at the Canada–United States border.
Highway 97 is the longest continuously numbered route in the Canadian province of British Columbia (and the longest provincial highway in any province), running from the Canada–United States border near Osoyoos in the south to the British Columbia/Yukon boundary in the north at Watson Lake, Yukon.
The British Columbia Institute of Technology (also referred to as BCIT), is a public polytechnic institution of higher education.
The British Columbia Interior, BC Interior or Interior of British Columbia, usually referred to only as the Interior, is one of the three main regions of the Canadian province of British Columbia, the other two being the Lower Mainland, which comprises the overlapping areas of Greater Vancouver and the Fraser Valley, and the Coast, which includes Vancouver Island and also including the Lower Mainland (from the perspective of the Interior).
The British Columbia Liberal Party (also referred to as the BC Liberals) is a centre-right provincial political party in British Columbia, Canada.
British Columbia Magazine is a geographic and travel magazine in British Columbia.
The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure is the British Columbia government ministry responsible for transport infrastructure and law in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
The New Democratic Party of British Columbia (BC NDP) is a social-democratic provincial political party in British Columbia, Canada, which currently governs the province, and previously governed from 1972 to 1975, and then again from 1991 to 2001.
The British Columbia Resources Investment Corporation, or BCRIC (pronounced "brick") was a holding company formed under the government of William R. Bennett.
The British Columbia Social Credit Party, whose members are known as Socreds, was the governing political party of British Columbia, Canada, for all but three years between the 1952 provincial election and the 1991 election.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), also known as the common rat, street rat, sewer rat, Hanover rat, Norway rat, Norwegian rat, Parisian rat or wharf rat, is one of the best known and most common rats.
The brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a European species of salmonid fish that has been widely introduced into suitable environments globally.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Bulkley Valley is located in the northwest Central Interior of British Columbia, Canada.
Burnaby is a city in British Columbia, Canada, located immediately to the east of Vancouver.
Burnaby Lake is a lake located in Burnaby, British Columbia and is the focal geographic feature and namesake of Burnaby Lake Regional Park.
Burrard Inlet is a relatively shallow-sided coastal fjord in southwestern British Columbia, Canada.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
The Cabinet of Canada (Cabinet du Canada) is a body of ministers of the Crown that, along with the Canadian monarch, and within the tenets of the Westminster system, forms the government of Canada.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Camassia is a genus of plants in the asparagus family native to Canada and the United States.
Camosun College is a community college located in Greater Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Campbell River or Wiwek̓a̱m is a coastal city in British Columbia on the east coast of Vancouver Island at the south end of Discovery Passage, which lies along the important coastal Inside Passage shipping route.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population.
The Canada goose (Branta canadensis), also called the Canadian goose, is a large wild goose species with a black head and neck, white cheeks, white under its chin, and a brown body.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area (end zone).
The Canadian Northern Railway (CNoR) is a historic Canadian transcontinental railway.
The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), also known formerly as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railroad incorporated in 1881.
The Canadian Pacific Railway is a Canadian Class I railway that stretches from Montreal, Quebec, to Vancouver, British Columbia.
The Canadian Prairies is a region in Western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions, natural or political.
The Canadian Rockies (Rocheuses canadiennes) comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains.
Cape Horn (Cabo de Hornos) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island.
Capilano University(or Capilano College and Capilano University College in other names) is a teaching-focused university and college based in North Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with programming serving the Sunshine Coast and the Sea-to-Sky corridor.
The Capital Regional District (CRD) is a local government administrative district encompassing the southern tip of Vancouver Island and the southern Gulf Islands in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Cariboo is an intermontane region of British Columbia along a plateau stretching from the Fraser Canyon to the Cariboo Mountains.
Cariboo District was a federal electoral district in British Columbia, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1871 to 1872.
The Cariboo Gold Rush was a gold rush in the Colony of British Columbia, which earlier joined the Canadian province of British Columbia.
The Cariboo Road (also called the Cariboo Wagon Road, the Great North Road or the Queen's Highway) was a project initiated in 1860 by the Governor of the Colony of British Columbia, James Douglas.
The concept of Cascadian bioregionalism is closely identified with the environmental movement.
The Cassiar Country, also referred to simply as the Cassiar, is a historical geographic region of the Canadian province of British Columbia.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.
Centaurea is a genus of between 350 and 600 species of herbaceous thistle-like flowering plants in the family Asteraceae.
Central Saanich is a district municipality in Greater Victoria and a member municipality of the Capital Regional District.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
A chalet (pronounced in British English; in American English usually), also called Swiss chalet, is a type of building or house, typical of the Alpine region in Europe.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Chilcotin region of British Columbia is usually known simply as "the Chilcotin", and also in speech commonly as "the Chilcotin Country" or simply Chilcotin.
Chilliwack is the seventh largest city in British Columbia, Canada.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese Canadians are Canadians of full or partial Chinese ancestry, sometimes referenced as a CBC or Chinese-born Canadian (with light homage to the CBC, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, or to its American equivalent ABC).
Chinese Filipinos (Filipino: Pilipinong Tsino, Tsinoy or Intsik) are Filipinos of Chinese descent, mostly born and raised in the Philippines.
The Chinese Immigration Act, 1923, known today as the Chinese Exclusion Act, was an act passed by the Parliament of Canada, banning most forms of Chinese immigration to Canada.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinook winds, or simply Chinooks, are föhn winds in the interior West of North America, where the Canadian Prairies and Great Plains meet various mountain ranges, although the original usage is in reference to wet, warm coastal winds in the Pacific Northwest.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Christina Joan Clark (born October 29, 1965) is a former Canadian politician who served as the 35th Premier of British Columbia, Canada from 2011 to 2017.
Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.
A classification yard (American and Canadian English) or marshalling yard (British, Hong Kong, Indian, Australian and Canadian English) is a railway yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railway cars onto one of several tracks.
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) (Fédération du Commonwealth Coopératif, from 1955 the Parti social démocratique du Canada) was a social-democraticThese sources describe the CCF as a social-democratic political party.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
The Coast Mountains are a major mountain range in the Pacific Coast Ranges of western North America, extending from southwestern Yukon through the Alaska Panhandle and virtually all of the Coast of British Columbia south to the Fraser River.
The coat of arms of British Columbia is the heraldic symbol representing the Canadian province of British Columbia.
The College of New Caledonia (CNC) is a post-secondary educational institution that serves the residents of the Central Interior of British Columbia.
The College of the Rockies is a Canadian public community college, located in the southeast corner of British Columbia, Canada.
The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed also to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
The Colony of British Columbia was a crown colony in British North America from 1858 until 1866.
The Colony of British Columbia was a British Crown Colony that resulted from the amalgamation of the two former colonies, the Colony of Vancouver Island and the mainland Colony of British Columbia.
The Colony of Vancouver Island, officially known as the Island of Vancouver and its Dependencies, was a Crown colony of British North America from 1849 to 1866, after which it was united with the mainland to form the Colony of British Columbia.
"Columbia" is a historical name used by both Europeans and Americans to describe the Americas, the New World, and often, more specifically, the United States of America.
The Columbia District was a fur trading district in the Pacific Northwest region of British North America in the 19th century.
The Columbia Mountains are a group of mountain ranges along the upper Columbia River in southeastern British Columbia, and also in Montana, Idaho and Washington.
Columbia Rediviva (commonly known as Columbia) was a privately owned ship under the command of John Kendrick, along with Captain Robert Gray, best known for going to the Pacific Northwest for the maritime fur trade.
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
The Columbia River drainage basin is the drainage basin of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
The Columbia River Treaty is a 1964 agreement between Canada and the United States on the development and operation of dams in the upper Columbia River basin for power and flood control benefits in both countries.
Colville is a city in Stevens County, Washington, United States.
Colwood is a city located on Vancouver Island to the southwest of Victoria, capital of British Columbia.
The common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) is a bird in the pheasant family (Phasianidae).
The common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), also known as the European starling, or in the British Isles just the starling, is a medium-sized passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae.
In anthropology and archaeology, a complex society is a social formation that is described as a formative or developed state.
Conference and resort hotels are hotels which often contain full-sized luxury facilities with full-service accommodations and amenities.
In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.
A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.
The Conseil scolaire francophone de la Colombie-Britannique (also known as Francophone Education Authority or School District No 93) is the French-language school board for all French schools located in British Columbia.
Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport using intermodal containers (also called shipping containers and ISO containers).
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
Coquitlam is a city in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada.
Cornus nuttallii, the Pacific dogwood or mountain dogwood, is a species of dogwood native to western North America from the lowlands of southern British Columbia to the mountains of southern California, with an inland population in central Idaho.
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
Courtenay is a city on the east coast of Vancouver Island, in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
Cowbirds are birds belonging to the genus Molothrus in the family Icteridae.
The Cowichan Valley is a region around the Cowichan River, Cowichan Bay and Cowichan Lake on Vancouver Island, in British Columbia, Canada.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
Cranbrook is a city in southeast British Columbia, Canada, located on the west side of the Kootenay River at its confluence with the St. Mary's River, It is the largest urban centre in the region known as the East Kootenay.
Crataegus douglasii is a North American species of hawthorn known by the common names black hawthorn and Douglas' thornapple.
The crested myna (Acridotheres cristatellus) is a species of starling native to southeastern China and Indochina.
Croatian Canadians are Canadian citizens who are of Croatian descent.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance.
Canadian Crown corporations are state-owned enterprises owned by the Sovereign of Canada (i.e. the Crown).
The Crowsnest Highway is an east-west highway in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada.
Crowsnest Pass (sometimes referred to as Crow's Nest Pass, passe du Nid-de-Corbeau) is a low mountain pass across the Continental Divide of the Canadian Rockies on the Alberta–British Columbia border.
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, and sometimes the different destinations along the way (i.e., ports of call), are part of the experience.
The culture of the Netherlands is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the foreign influences built up by centuries of the Dutch people's mercantile and explorative spirit.
Cupressus nootkatensis is a species of trees in the cypress family native to the coastal regions of northwestern North America.
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles.
The surname Cuyp (sometimes spelled Kuyp) is shared by three painters who lived during the Dutch Golden Age.
Cytisus scoparius, the common broom or Scotch broom, syn. Sarothamnus scoparius, is a perennial leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe.
Czech Canadians are Canadian citizens of Czech ancestry or Czech Republic-born people who reside in Canada.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Dakelh (pronounced) or Carrier are the indigenous people of a large portion of the Central Interior of British Columbia, Canada.
Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) is a species of porpoise found only in the North Pacific.
Arthur Daniel Miller (born December 24, 1944) is a Canadian politician.
Danish Canadians (Danish: Dansk-canadiere) are Canadian citizens of Danish ancestry.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
David Barrett, (October 2, 1930 – February 2, 2018), commonly known as Dave Barrett, was a politician and social worker in British Columbia, Canada.
David Eby, Q.C. (born July 21, 1977 in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada) is a lawyer and Member of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, serving as Attorney General.
David See-chai Lam, OC CVO OBC (July 25, 1923November 22, 2010) was a Hong Kong-born Canadian real estate entrepreneur, politician, and philanthropist.
David Thompson (30 April 1770 – 10 February 1857) was a British-Canadian fur trader, surveyor, and map-maker, known to some native peoples as Koo-Koo-Sint or "the Stargazer." Over Thompson's career, he travelled some across North America, mapping of North America along the way.
Dawson Creek is a city in northeastern British Columbia, Canada.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Dean Channel is the upper end of one of the longest inlets of the British Columbia Coast, from its head at the mouth of the Kimsquit River.
In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (a cumulative amount) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in years).
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
Delta is a city in British Columbia, and forms part of Greater Vancouver.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Canada, including population density, ethnicity, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population, the People of Canada.
This article is about the demographics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during its existence from 1945 until 1991.
The Dené people are an aboriginal group of First Nations who inhabit the northern boreal and Arctic regions of Canada.
A deputy prime minister or vice prime minister is, in some countries, a government minister who can take the position of acting prime minister when the prime minister is temporarily absent.
Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was a member of the British royal family.
Disc Golf (also called Frisbee Golf or sometimes Frolf) is a flying disc sport in which players throw a disc at a target; it is played using rules similar to golf.
The District of Athabasca was a regional administrative district of Canada's Northwest Territories.
Downtown Vancouver is the southeastern portion of the peninsula in the north-central part of the City of Vancouver.
Draft evasion is any successful attempt to elude a government-imposed obligation to serve in the military forces of one's nation.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Driving under the influence (DUI), driving while impaired/driving while intoxicated (DWI), operating while intoxicated (OWI), or drink-driving (UK) is currently the crime or offense of driving or operating a motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol or other drugs (including recreational drugs and those prescribed by physicians), to a level that renders the driver incapable of operating a motor vehicle safely.
Thomas Dufferin ("Duff") Pattullo (January 19, 1873 – March 30, 1956) was the 22nd Premier of British Columbia, Canada from 1933 to 1941.
Dutch Canadians are any Canadian citizens of Dutch ancestry.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Eastern religions are the religions originating in East, South and Southeast Asia and thus having dissimilarities with Western religions.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
The ecozones of Canada consist of fifteen terrestrial and five marine ecozones in Canada.
Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton, PC (25 May 1803 – 18 January 1873) was an English novelist, poet, playwright and politician.
The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.
Emily Carr University of Art and Design (formerly the Emily Carr Institute of Art and Design), known as ECUAD, is a public post-secondary art school and university located in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
The Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipelines was a project to build a twin pipeline from Bruderheim, Alberta to Kitimat, British Columbia.
English Canadians or Anglo-Canadians (Canadiens anglais) refers to either Canadians of English ethnic origin and heritage, or to English-speaking, or Anglophone, Canadians of any ethnic origin; it is used primarily in contrast with French Canadians.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
The Township of Esquimalt is a municipality at the southern tip of Vancouver Island, in British Columbia, Canada.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European Canadians (also known as White Canadians or Euro-Canadians) are Canadians with ancestry from Europe.
The Evergreen Extension (previously known as the Evergreen Line) is a long extension of the Millennium Line of Metro Vancouver's SkyTrain rapid transit system.
The Executive Council of British Columbia (informally and more commonly, the Cabinet of British Columbia) is the cabinet of that Canadian province.
The 1986 World Exposition on Transportation and Communication, or simply Expo 86, was a World's Fair held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from Friday, May 2 until Monday, October 13, 1986.
The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.
False Creek is a short inlet in the heart of Vancouver.
Fantasy Gardens, also known as Fantasy Garden World, was a former amusement park in Richmond, British Columbia that was located at the corner of Steveston Highway and No.
The Fast Ferry Scandal, also referred to as the Fast Ferries Scandal, "FastCat Fiasco", Fast Ferries Fiasco, was a political affair in the late 1990s relating to the construction of three fast ferries by the Canadian provincial crown corporation BC Ferries under direction of the British Columbia New Democratic Party then headed by premier Glen Clark.
Faye Leung (born 18 March 1979) was the senior principal dancer of the Hong Kong Ballet (HKB) from 1996 to 2008.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice.
Filipino Canadians (French: Canadiens philippins; Filipino: Pilipinong Kanadyano; Baybayin) are Canadians of Filipino descent or people born in the Philippines who reside in Canada.
A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation.
Finnish Canadians are Canadian citizens of Finnish ancestry or Finns who emigrated to and reside in Canada.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.
The fisher (Pekania pennanti) is a small, carnivorous mammal native to North America.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
The flag of British Columbia is based upon the shield of the provincial arms of British Columbia.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
Forficula auricularia, the common earwig or European earwig, is an omnivorous insect in the family Forficulidae.
Fort Chipewyan, commonly referred to as Fort Chip, is a hamlet in northern Alberta, Canada, within the Regional Municipality (RM) of Wood Buffalo.
Fort Fraser is an unincorporated community of about 500 people, situated near the base of Fraser Mountain, close to the village municipality of Fraser Lake and the Nechako River.
Fort Langley is a village community forming part of the Township of Langley in British Columbia, Canada.
Fort Nelson is a community in northeast British Columbia, Canada within the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality (NRRM).
Fort Nez Percés (or Fort Nez Percé, with or without the accent), later known as (Old) Fort Walla Walla, was a fortified fur trading post on the Columbia River on the territory of modern-day Wallula, Washington.
Fort Vancouver was a 19th-century fur trading post that was the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia Department, located in the Pacific Northwest.
Fort Victoria began as a fur trading post of the Hudson’s Bay Company and was the headquarters of HBC operations in the Columbia District, a large fur trading area now part of the province of British Columbia, Canada and the U.S. state of Washington.
FortisBC Inc is an electric power and gas distribution/retail company in the Canadian province of British Columbia, a subsidiary of Newfoundland-based Fortis Inc., Canada’s largest private utility company.
Sir Francis Drake (– 28 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era.
The Fraser Canyon is a major landform of the Fraser River where it descends rapidly through narrow rock gorges in the Coast Mountains en route from the Interior Plateau of British Columbia to the Fraser Valley.
The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, (also Fraser Gold Rush and Fraser River Gold Rush) began in 1857 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton.
The Fraser River is the longest river within British Columbia, Canada, rising at Fraser Pass near Blackrock Mountain in the Rocky Mountains and flowing for, into the Strait of Georgia at the city of Vancouver.
The Fraser Valley is the region of the Fraser River basin in southwestern British Columbia downstream of the Fraser Canyon.
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
Gastown is the original settlement that became the core of the creation of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
The Gastown riot, known also in the plural as Gastown riots, also known as "The Battle of Maple Tree Square," occurred in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, on August 7, 1971.
The Gatling gun is one of the best-known early rapid-fire spring loaded, hand cranked weapons and a forerunner of the modern machine gun.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
Captain George Vancouver (22 June 1757 – 10 May 1798) was a British officer of the Royal Navy, best known for his 1791–95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of contemporary Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon.
German Canadians (Deutsch-Kanadier or Deutschkanadier) are Canadian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Glacier National Park is one of seven national parks in British Columbia, and is part of a system of 43 parks and park reserves across Canada.
Glen David Clark (born November 22, 1957) is a Canadian business executive and former politician, serving as the 31st Premier of British Columbia from 1996 to 1999.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
Gordon Muir Campbell, (born January 12, 1948) is a Canadian diplomat and politician who was the 35th Mayor of Vancouver from 1986 to 1993 and the 34th Premier of British Columbia from 2001 to 2011.
Government House of British Columbia is the official residence of the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, as well as that in Victoria of the Canadian monarch, and has casually been described as "the Ceremonial Home of all British Columbians." It stands in the provincial capital on a estate at 1401 Rockland Avenue; while the equivalent building in many countries has a prominent, central place in the capital, the site of British Columbia's Government House is relatively unobtrusive within Victoria, giving it more the character of a private home.
Grace Mary McCarthy, OC, OBC, LLD, DTech, FRAIC (Hon.) (née Winterbottom; October 14, 1927 – May 24, 2017) was a Canadian politician and florist in British Columbia.
Grade separation is the name given to a method of aligning a junction of two or more surface transport axes at different heights (grades) so that they will not disrupt the traffic flow on other transit routes when they cross each other.
The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway was a historical Canadian transcontinental railway running from Winnipeg to the Pacific coast at Prince Rupert, British Columbia.
Granville Street is a major street in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, and part of Highway 99.
The gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), also known as the grey whale,Britannica Micro.: v. IV, p. 693.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Greater Vancouver, also known as Metro Vancouver, is the metropolitan area with its major urban centre being the city of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Greater Victoria (also known as the Greater Victoria Region) is located in British Columbia, Canada, on the southern tip of Vancouver Island.
Greek Canadians (Ελληνοκαναδοί) are Canadian citizens who have full or partial Greek heritage or people who emigrated from Greece and reside in Canada.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Green Party of British Columbia is a political party in British Columbia, Canada.
The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos ssp.) is a large population of the brown bear inhabiting North America.
Grosbeak is a form taxon containing various species of seed-eating passerine birds with large beaks.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Gulf Islands are the islands in the Strait of Georgia (also known as the Salish Sea or the Gulf of Georgia), between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia, Canada.
Gulf Islands National Park Reserve is the sixth of eight National Park Reserves in a system of 46 parks and park reserves across Canada.
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site, often referred to simply as Gwaii Haanas, is located in the southernmost Haida Gwaii (formerly known as Queen Charlotte Islands), off the mainland of British Columbia, Canada.
Haida (X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii (A Canadian archipelago) and the Haida language.
Halibut is a common name principally applied to the two flatfish in the genus Hippoglossus from the family of right-eye flounders.
The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere.
The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is one of six species of porpoise.
The harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) is a small sea duck.
The harmonized sales tax (HST) is a consumption tax in Canada.
Hastings Street is one of the most important east-west traffic corridors in the cities of Vancouver and Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, and used to be a part of the decommissioned Highway 7A.
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
Hedera helix, the common ivy, English ivy, European ivy, or just ivy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Araliaceae, native to most of Europe and western Asia.
Henry Pybus "Budge" Bell-Irving, (January 21, 1913 – September 21, 2002) was the 23rd Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia from 1978 to 1983.
Herbert Bertie Anscomb (February 23, 1892 – November 12, 1972) was a Conservative politician and British Columbia cabinet minister.
The herons are the long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae, with 64 recognised species, some of which are referred to as egrets or bitterns rather than herons.
The District of Highlands (locally known as "The Highlands") is a district municipality near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) is a member of a counterculture, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.
Canadian Jews or, alternatively, Jewish Canadians are Canadian citizens of the Jewish faith and/or Jewish ethnicity.
A hobo is a migrant worker or homeless vagrant, especially one who is impoverished.
Hollywood North is a colloquialism used to describe film production industries and/or film locations north of its namesake, Hollywood, California.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.
Hudson's Hope is a district municipality in northeastern British Columbia, Canada, in the Peace River Regional District.
The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a species of baleen whale.
Hungarian Canadians (Kanadai magyarok) are persons in Canada of Hungarian ancestry.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) system with an electric propulsion system (hybrid vehicle drivetrain).
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Icelandic Canadians are Canadian citizens of Icelandic ancestry or Iceland-born people who reside in Canada.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.
Ilocano (also Ilokano;; Ilocano: Pagsasao nga Ilokano) is the third most-spoken native language of the Philippines.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
*See main article: Independent Power Producer Independent Power Producer (IPP) projects have had a significant presence in British Columbia since the 1980s.
Articles related to British Columbia include.
In Canada, an Indian reserve (réserve indienne) is specified by the Indian Act as a "tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band." First Nations reserves are the areas set aside for First Nations people after a contract with the Canadian state ("the Crown"), and are not to be confused with land claims areas, which involve all of that First Nations' traditional lands: a much larger territory than any other reserve.
Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Native Canadians or Aboriginal Canadians, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indo-Canadians or Indian Canadians are Canadian citizens whose heritage is fully or partially Indian Subcontinent (including Indian and other origins), children of persons who immigrated from India and/or Indian Subcontinent to Canada, or persons of Indian/Indian Subcontinent origin who have Canadian citizenship.
The Inside Passage is a coastal route for ships and boats along a network of passages which weave through the islands on the Pacific NW coast of North America.
The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) is a provincial crown corporation in British Columbia created in 1973 by the NDP government of Premier Dave Barrett.
In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that uses grade separation, and typically one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without interruption from any other crossing traffic stream.
The Interior Plateau comprises a large region of the Interior of British Columbia, and lies between the Cariboo and Monashee Mountains on the east, and the Hazelton Mountains, Coast Mountains and Cascade Range on the west.
International Woodworkers of America (IWA) was an industrial union of lumbermen, sawmill workers, timber transportation workers and others formed in 1937.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Iranian Canadians or Persian Canadians are citizens of Canada whose national background is traced from Iran or people possessing Iranian and Canadian dual citizenship.
Irish Canadians (Gaedheal-Cheanadaigh) are Canadian citizens who have full or partial Irish heritage including descendants who trace their ancestry to immigrants who originated in Ireland.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Italian Canadians (Italo-canadesi, Italo-Canadiens) comprise Canadian citizens who have full or partial Italian heritage and Italians who emigrated to or reside in Canada.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
Sir James Douglas KCB (August 15, 1803 – August 2, 1877), influential in the history of Canada first a fur trader and later a colonial governor, is often credited as "The Father of British Columbia".
Janet Austin (born 1956/57) is the 30th and current Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, having served since April 24, 2018.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
In 1942, Japanese Canadian Internment occurred when over 22,000 Japanese Canadians from British Columbia were evacuated and interned in the name of ‘national security’.
are Canadian citizens of Japanese ancestry.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning.
Jays are several species of medium-sized, usually colorful and noisy, passerine birds in the crow family, Corvidae.
Jogging is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace.
John Finlay (1774 – December 19, 1833) was a fur trader and explorer with the North West Company.
John Hart (31 March 1879 in Mohill, County Leitrim, Ireland – 7 April 1957 in Victoria, British Columbia) was the 23rd Premier of British Columbia, Canada, from December 9, 1941 to December 29, 1947.
John Joseph Horgan (born August 7, 1959) is a Canadian politician serving as the 36th and current Premier of British Columbia since July 2017.
John Robson (14 March 1824 – 29 June 1892) was a Canadian journalist and politician, who served as the ninth Premier of the Province of British Columbia.
Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (22 May 1743 – 26 March 1794) was a Spanish naval officer born in Lima, Peru.
Juan José Pérez Hernández (born Joan Perés ca. 1725 – November 3, 1775), often simply Juan Pérez, was an 18th-century Spanish explorer.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain juniper) is a species of juniper native to western North America, in Canada in British Columbia and southwest Alberta, in the United States from Washington east to North Dakota, south to Arizona and also locally western Texas, and northernmost Mexico from Sonora east to Coahuila.
Kamloops is a city in south-central British Columbia in Canada at the confluence of the two branches of the Thompson River near Kamloops Lake.
A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft which is propelled by means of a double-bladed paddle.
Kelowna is a city on Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada.
Kelowna International Airport is a Canadian airport located approximately 10 minutes or northeast of Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada, on Highway 97.
Kelowna West, formerly Westside-Kelowna, is a provincial electoral district in British Columbia, Canada established by the ''Electoral Districts Act, 2008''.
Kemano was a settlement situated 75 km (47 mi) southeast of Kitimat in the province of British Columbia in Canada.
The Kemano Generating Station is situated 75 km (47 mi) southeast of Kitimat in the province of British Columbia, Canada.
The Kermode bear (Ursus americanus kermodei), also known as the spirit bear (particularly in British Columbia), is a rare subspecies of the American black bear living in the Central and North Coast regions of British Columbia, Canada.
Kicking Horse Pass (el. 1627 m, 5339 ft) is a high mountain pass across the Continental Divide of the Americas of the Canadian Rockies on the Alberta/British Columbia border, and lying within Yoho and Banff National Parks.
Kingsway is a major thoroughfare that crosses through the Canadian cities of Vancouver and Burnaby, British Columbia.
Kitimat is a district municipality in the North Coast region of British Columbia, Canada.
Kootenay National Park is a national park located in southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and is one component of the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World Heritage Site.
The Kootenays or Kootenay is a region of southeastern British Columbia.
Korean Canadians are Canadian citizens of Korean ancestry.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
The is a north-flowing ocean current on the west side of the North Pacific Ocean.
The Kwakiutl (natively Kwakwa̱ka̱’wakw "Kwak'wala-speaking peoples") are a Pacific Northwest Coast Indigenous people.
Kwantlen Polytechnic University (commonly abbreviated to KPU) is a public degree-granting undergraduate polytechnic university in British Columbia with campuses in Surrey, Richmond, Cloverdale and Langley.
There have been various groups in Canada that have nominated candidates under the label Labour Party or Independent Labour Party or other variations from the 1870s until the 1960s.
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball.
Land grabbing is the contentious issue of large-scale land acquisitions: the buying or leasing of large pieces of land by domestic and transnational companies, governments, and individuals.
Langara College (snəw̓eyəɬ leləm̓ in hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓) is a public degree-granting college in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, which serves approximately 22,000 students annually through its university, career, and continuing studies programs.
Langford is a city on southern Vancouver Island in the province of British Columbia, Canada.
The City of Langley is a municipality in the Metro Vancouver Regional District.
The Township of Langley is a district municipality immediately east of the City of Surrey in southwestern British Columbia, Canada.
Larix laricina, commonly known as the tamarack, hackmatack, eastern larch, black larch, red larch, or American larch, is a species of larch native to Canada, from eastern Yukon and Inuvik, Northwest Territories east to Newfoundland, and also south into the upper northeastern United States from Minnesota to Cranesville Swamp, Maryland; there is also an isolated population in central Alaska.
Larix lyallii, the subalpine larch, or simply alpine larch, is a deciduous, coniferous tree native to northwestern North America.
Larix occidentalis, the western larch, is a species of larch native to the mountains of western North America (Pacific Northwest); in Canada in southeastern British Columbia and southwestern Alberta, and in the United States in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, northern Idaho, and western Montana.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin American Canadians are Canadians who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The Legislative Assembly of British Columbia is one of two components of the Parliament of British Columbia, while the other is Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.
The Liberal Party of Canada (Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federal political party in Canada.
A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction.
The Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia is the viceregal representative of the, in the province of British Columbia, Canada.
Lillooet, formerly Cayoosh Flat, is a community on the Fraser River in British Columbia, Canada, about up the British Columbia Railway line from Vancouver.
Lions Bay is a small, mostly residential community in British Columbia, Canada, located between Vancouver and Squamish on the steep eastern shore of Howe Sound.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.
Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories.
The table below lists the census metropolitan areas and agglomerations in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2016 Census.
The number of Canadians who are of English descent is largely unknowable given the propensity of many Canadians to use the term "English Canadian" or "English-Canadian" to mean anglophone Canadian.
This is a list of First Nations governments (also band governments) in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
This is a list of islands of British Columbia.
The Mayor of the City of Vancouver is the official head and chief executive officer of Vancouver, British Columbia.
This is a list of postal codes in Canada where the first letter is V. Postal codes beginning with V are located within the Canadian province of British Columbia.
This is a list of Regional District Electoral Areas in the province of British Columbia, Canada, sorted by regional district.
The Canadian province of British Columbia is partitioned into regional districts, as a means to better enable municipalities and rural areas to work together at a regional level.
A stock character is a dramatic or literary character representing a type in a conventional manner and recurring in many works.
The following is a list of the busiest airports in Canada.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Longboarding is the act of riding on a longboard.
The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae; also known as long-horned or longhorn beetles or longicorns) are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body.
The loons (North America) or divers (Great Britain/Ireland) are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Eurasia.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The Lower Mainland is a name commonly applied to the region surrounding and including Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Lymantria dispar dispar, commonly known as the gypsy moth, European gypsy moth, or North American gypsy moth, is a moth in the family Erebidae that is of Eurasian origin.
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrifeFlora of NW Europe) is a flowering plant belonging to the family Lythraceae.
Lytton in British Columbia, Canada, sits at the confluence of the Thompson River and Fraser River on the east side of the Fraser.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malus fusca, with the common names Oregon crabapple and Pacific crabapple, is a North American species of crabapple.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Maple Ridge is a city in British Columbia, located in the northeastern section of Greater Vancouver between the Fraser River and the Golden Ears, which is a group of mountain summits which are the southernmost of the Garibaldi Ranges of the Coast Mountains.
Marmots are large squirrels in the genus Marmota, with 15 species.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
The Métis in Canada are a group of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers.
McGowan's War was a bloodless war that took place in Yale, British Columbia in the fall of 1858.
A megaproject is an extremely large-scale investment project.
The District of Metchosin is a municipality and community in Greater Victoria on the southern tip of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Metro Vancouver Electoral Area A is a part of Metro Vancouver in British Columbia.
Metro Vancouver is a political body and corporate entity designated by provincial legislation as one of the regional districts in British Columbia, Canada.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
Michael Franklin Harcourt (born January 6, 1943) served as the 30th Premier of the province of British Columbia in Canada from 1991 to 1996, and before that as the 39th mayor of BC's largest city, Vancouver from 1980 to 1986.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The minke whale, or lesser rorqual, is a type of baleen whale.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
Mission is a district municipality in the Lower Mainland of the province of British Columbia, Canada.
A money bag (moneybag, bag of money, money sack, sack of money, bag of gold, gold bag, sack of gold, etc.) is a bag (normally with a drawstring) of money (or gold) used to hold and transport coins and banknotes from/to a mint, bank, ATM, vending machine, business, or other institution.
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
The Montane Cordillera Ecozone, as defined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), is an ecozone in south-central British Columbia and southwestern Alberta, Canada (an ecozone is equivalent to a Level I ecoregion in the United States).
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
Mount Revelstoke National Park is located adjacent to the city of Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada.
A mountain bike or mountain bicycle (abbreviated Mtn Bike or MTB) is a bicycle designed for off-road cycling.
The mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), also known as the Rocky Mountain goat, is a large hoofed mammal endemic to North America.
The Mountain Time Zone of North America keeps time by subtracting seven hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) when standard time is in effect, and by subtracting six hours during daylight saving time (UTC−6).
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra and tribe Ondatrini, is a medium-sized semiaquatic rodent native to North America and is an introduced species in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America.
The Mustelidae (from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others.
The M/V Coho is a passenger and vehicle ferry owned and operated by Black Ball Line.
Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.
Nanaimo (Canada 2016 Census population 90,504) is a city on the east coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
National Historic Sites of Canada (Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) are places that have been designated by the federal Minister of the Environment on the advice of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada (HSMBC), as being of national historic significance.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
National Parks of Canada are protected natural spaces throughout the country that represent distinct geographical regions of the nation.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
The Nechako River arises on the Nechako Plateau east of the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains of British Columbia, Canada, and flows north toward Fort Fraser, then east to Prince George where it enters the Fraser River.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
New Caledonia was a fur-trading district of the Hudson's Bay Company that comprised the territory of the north-central portions of present-day British Columbia, Canada.
The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a social democraticThe party is widely described as social democratic.
New Westminster is a historically important city in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia, Canada, and a member municipality of Metro Vancouver.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The Nootka Sound Conventions were a series of three agreements between the Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Great Britain, signed in the 1790s, which averted a war between the two empires over overlapping claims to portions of the Pacific Northwest coast of North America.
The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis), also known as the northern river otter or the common otter, is a semiaquatic mammal endemic to the North American continent found in and along its waterways and coasts.
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The North Pacific Current (sometimes referred to as the North Pacific Drift) is a slow warm water current that flows west-to-east between 30 and 50 degrees north in the Pacific Ocean.
North Saanich is located on the Saanich Peninsula, approximately 25 km (16 mi) north of Victoria, British Columbia on southern Vancouver Island.
The City of North Vancouver is a waterfront municipality on the north shore of Burrard Inlet, directly across from Vancouver, British Columbia.
The District of North Vancouver is a district municipality in British Columbia, Canada, and is part of Metro Vancouver.
The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in Montreal from 1779 to 1821.
Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Norwegian Canadians refer to Canadian citizens who identify themselves as being of full or partial Norwegian ancestry, or people who emigrated from Norway and reside in Canada.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
The Nuu-chah-nulth (Nuučaan̓uł), also formerly referred to as the Nootka, Nutka, Aht, Nuuchahnulth or Tahkaht, are one of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast in Canada.
Oak Bay is a seaside municipality incorporated in 1906 that is located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, in the Canadian province of British Columbia, Canada.
The Okanagan, also known as the Okanagan Valley and sometimes as the Okanagan Country, is a region in the Canadian province of British Columbia defined by the basin of Okanagan Lake and the Canadian portion of the Okanagan River.
The Omineca Country, also called the Omineca District or the Omineca, is a historical geographic region of the Northern Interior of British Columbia, roughly defined by the basin of the Omineca River but including areas to the south which allowed access to the region during the Omineca Gold Rush of the 1860s.
The On-to-Ottawa Trek was a long journey where a thousand unemployed men protested the dismal conditions in federal relief camps scattered in remote areas across Western Canada.
Oncorhynchus is a genus of fish in the family Salmonidae; it contains the Pacific salmon and Pacific trout.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
The Territory of Oregon was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from August 14, 1848, until February 14, 1859, when the southwestern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Oregon.
The Oregon Treaty is a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States that was signed on June 15, 1846, in Washington, D.C. Signed under the presidency of James K. Polk, the treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country; the area had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818.
Osoyoos is the southern-most town in the Okanagan Valley in British Columbia between Penticton and Omak.
The osprey or more specifically the western osprey (Pandion haliaetus) — also called sea hawk, river hawk, and fish hawk — is a diurnal, fish-eating bird of prey with a cosmopolitan range.
Outdoor recreation or outdoor activity refers to leisure pursuits engaged in the outdoors, often in natural or semi-natural settings out of town.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to British Columbia: British Columbia – westernmost of Canada's provinces.
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
A country's Pacific coast is the part of its coast bordering the Pacific Ocean.
The Pacific Marine Ecozone, as defined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), is a Canadian and American marine ecozone extending to the international waters of the Pacific Ocean from the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon.
The Pacific Maritime Ecozone, as defined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), is a Canadian terrestrial ecozone, spanning a strip approximately 200 kilometres wide along the British Columbian coast, then narrowing along the border with Alaska.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Pacific oyster, Japanese oyster, or Miyagi oyster (Magallana gigas) previously and currently also known as Crassostrea gigas, considered by part of the scientific community to be the proper denomination, an accepted alternative in.
The Pacific Press Publishing Association, or Pacific Press for short, is one of two major Seventh-day Adventist publishing houses in North America.
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve is a Canadian national park reserve in British Columbia comprising three separate regions: Long Beach, the Broken Group Islands, and the West Coast Trail.
The Pacific Time Zone (PT) is a time zone encompassing parts of western Canada, the western United States, and western Mexico.
The Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) is a very active dolphin found in the cool to temperate waters of the North Pacific Ocean.
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
The Peace River (French: rivière de la Paix) is a -long river in Canada that originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows to the northeast through northern Alberta.
The Peace River Country (or Peace Country) is an aspen parkland region centring on the Peace River in Canada.
Penticton is a city in the Okanagan Valley of the Southern Interior of British Columbia, Canada, situated between Okanagan and Skaha Lakes.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Picea engelmannii, with common names Engelmann spruce, white spruce, mountain spruce, or silver spruce, is a species of spruce native to western North America, from central British Columbia and southwest Alberta, southwest to northern California and southeast to Arizona and New Mexico; there are also two isolated populations in northern Mexico.
Picea glauca, the white spruce, is a species of spruce native to the northern temperate and boreal forests in North America.
Picea mariana, the black spruce, is a North American species of spruce tree in the pine family.
Picea sitchensis, the Sitka spruce, is a large, coniferous, evergreen tree growing to almost 100 m (330 ft) tall, with a trunk diameter at breast height that can exceed 5 m (16 ft).
The Pig War was a confrontation in 1859 between the United States and United Kingdom over the British–U.S. border in the San Juan Islands, between Vancouver Island and the mainland.
Pinus albicaulis, known by the common names whitebark pine, white pine, pitch pine, scrub pine, and creeping pine, is a conifer tree native to the mountains of the western United States and Canada, specifically subalpine areas of the Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range, Pacific Coast Ranges, and Rocky Mountains from Wyoming northwards.
Pinus contorta, with the common names lodgepole pine and shore pine, and also known as twisted pine, and contorta pine, is a common tree in western North America.
Pinus flexilis, the limber pine, is a species of pine tree-the family Pinaceae that occurs in the mountains of the Western United States, Mexico, and Canada.
Pinus ponderosa, commonly known as the ponderosa pine, bull pine, blackjack pine, or western yellow-pine, is a very large pine tree species of variable habitat native to the western United States and Canada.
Pitt Meadows is a city in southwestern British Columbia, Canada and a member municipality in Metro Vancouver.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
Polish Canadians are citizens of Canada with Polish ancestry, and Poles who immigrated to Canada from abroad.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
A poll tax, also known as head tax or capitation, is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
Populus balsamifera, commonly called balsam poplar, bam, bamtree, eastern balsam-poplar, hackmatack, tacamahac poplar, tacamahaca, is a tree species in the balsam poplar species group in the poplar genus, Populus. The genus name Populus is from the Latin for poplar, and the specific epithet balsamifera from Latin for "balsam-bearing".
Populus tremuloides is a deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America, one of several species referred to by the common name aspen.
Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood, western balsam-poplar or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to western North America.
Port Angeles is a city in and the county seat of Clallam County, Washington, United States.
Port Coquitlam is a city in British Columbia, Canada.
Port Moody is a city in Metro Vancouver, enveloping the east end of Burrard Inlet in British Columbia, Canada.
Portuguese Canadians (italic) are Canadian citizens of full or partial Portuguese heritage or people who migrated from Portugal and reside in Canada.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A potlatch is a gift-giving feast practiced by indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of Canada and the United States,Harkin, Michael E., 2001, Potlatch in Anthropology, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds., vol 17, pp.
In Canada, a premier is the head of government of a province or territory.
The Premier of British Columbia is the first minister, head of government, and de facto chief executive for the Canadian province of British Columbia.
Prince George, with a population of 74,003 (census agglomeration of 86,622),Statistics Canada 2016 Census is the largest city in northern British Columbia, Canada, and is the "Northern Capital" of BC.
Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland (17 December 1619 – 29 November 1682) was a noted German soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman, colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century.
The Prince Rupert Port Authority (PRPA) is a port authority operating under the Canada Marine Act as an autonomous and commercially viable agency.
Prince Rupert is a port city in the province of British Columbia, Canada.
The prohibition of alcohol in Canada arose in various stages, from local municipal bans in the late 19th century, to provincial bans in the early 20th century, and national prohibition (a temporary wartime measure) from 1918 to 1920.
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867.
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
Ischigualasto Provincial Park A provincial park (or territorial park) is a park administered by one of the provinces of a country, as opposed to a national park.
Prunus emarginata, the bitter cherry or Oregon cherry, is a species of Prunus native to western North America, from British Columbia south to Baja California, and east as far as western Wyoming and New Mexico.
Prunus pensylvanica, also known as bird cherry, fire cherry, pin cherry, and red cherry, is a North American cherry species in the genus Prunus.
Prunus virginiana, commonly called bitter-berry, chokecherry, Virginia bird cherry and western chokecherry (also black chokecherry for P. virginiana var. demissa), is a species of bird cherry (Prunus subgenus Padus) native to North America; the natural historic range of P. virginiana includes most of Canada (including Northwest Territories but excluding Yukon, Nunavut, and Labrador), most of the United States (including Alaska but excluding some states in the Southeast) and northern Mexico (Sonora, Chihuahua, Baja California, Durango, Zacatecas, Coahuila and Nuevo León).
Pseudotsuga menziesii var.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Punjabi Canadians, are Canadian citizens whose heritage originates wholly or partly in the Punjab, a region in northern South Asia, which encompasses India and Pakistan.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Quercus garryana, the Garry oak, Oregon white oak, Oregon oak, or Hu'dshnam, from the traditional Klamath language, is a tree species with a range stretching from southern California to southwestern British Columbia.
Rafting and white water rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water.
The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America.
Ranked voting describes certain voting systems in which voters rank outcomes in a hierarchy on the ordinal scale (ordinal voting systems).
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
A raven is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus.
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.
A regional park is an area of land preserved on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, recreational use or other reason, and under the administration of a form of local government.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
Rhamnus purshiana (cascara buckthorn, cascara, bearberry, and in the Chinook Jargon, chittem and chitticum; syn. Frangula purshiana, Rhamnus purshianus) is a species of buckthorn native to western North America from southern British Columbia south to central California, and eastward to northwestern Montana.
His Excellency, Major-General The Honourable Richard Clement Moody (13 February 1813 – 31 March 1887) was a British Imperialist, Colonial Governor, Royal Engineer, musician, and architect.
Richmond is a coastal city located in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
A right-of-way (ROW) is a right to make a way over a piece of land, usually to and from another piece of land.
Rio Tinto Alcan Inc. (now Rio Tinto) is a Canadian company based in Montreal.
Rita Margaret Johnston (born April 22, 1935; née Leichert) is a Canadian politician in British Columbia.
Robert Beaven (January 20, 1836 – September 18, 1920), son of James Beaven, was a British Columbia politician and businessman.
Robert Bonner, LL.B. (September 10, 1920 – August 12, 2005) was a Canadian lawyer, politician, and corporate executive.
Robert Burnaby (November 30, 1828 – January 10, 1878) was an English merchant, politician and civil servant in British Columbia, where he served as Private Secretary to Richard Clement Moody, the founder and first Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
Roberts Bank is an undersea bank in the Strait of Georgia on the south side of the estuary of the Fraser River approximately 35 kilometers south of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Romanian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Romanian descent or Romania-born people who reside in Canada.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Columbia Detachment of the Royal Engineers was a contingent of the Royal Engineers of the British Army that was responsible for the foundation of British Columbia as the Colony of British Columbia (1858–66).
Royal Lethington (Pat) Maitland (January 9, 1898 – March 28, 1946) was a British Columbia lawyer and politician.
Royal Roads University is a public university with its main campus in Colwood, British Columbia.
Rubus armeniacus, the Himalayan blackberry or Armenian blackberry, is a species of Rubus in the blackberry group Rubus subgenus Rubus series Discolores (P.J. Müll.) Focke.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.
Russian Canadians comprise Canadian citizens of Russian heritage or Russians who emigrated to and reside in Canada.
The Russian colonization of the Americas covers the period from 1732 to 1867, when the Russian Empire laid claim to northern Pacific Coast territories in the Americas.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The District of Saanich is a district municipality on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, within the Greater Victoria area.
Saanichton, British Columbia is a village, in the municipality of Central Saanich, located between Victoria and the BC Ferry Terminal, west of the Pat Bay Highway (Hwy 17), at the junction of Mount Newton Cross Road and East Saanich Road.
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.
The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of the Pacific Northwest in North America (the Canadian province of British Columbia and the American states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana).
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes.
Salvelinus is a genus of salmonid fish often called char or charr; some species are called "trout".
Same-sex marriage in Canada was progressively introduced in several provinces by court decisions beginning in 2003 before being legally recognized nationwide with the enactment of the Civil Marriage Act on July 20, 2005.
Samuel Black (May 3, 1780 – February 8, 1841) British fur trader and explorer, Clerk in the New North Nest Company (XYC) and Wintering Partner in the North West Company (NWC), and later Clerk, Chief Trader, and Chief factor in the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) for the Columbia District.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scottish Canadians are people of Scottish descent or heritage living in Canada.
A sea kayak or touring kayak is a kayak developed for the sport of paddling on open waters of lakes, bays, and the ocean.
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies.
Securities fraud, also known as stock fraud and investment fraud, is a deceptive practice in the stock or commodities markets that induces investors to make purchase or sale decisions on the basis of false information, frequently resulting in losses, in violation of securities laws.
The Secwepemc (Secwepemc: or), known in English as the Shuswap people, are a First Nations people residing in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity.
Selkirk College is a community college in British Columbia, Canada.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the Monarch (represented by the Governor General).
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
The Latin adverb sic ("thus", "just as"; in full: sic erat scriptum, "thus was it written") inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous or archaic spelling, surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might otherwise be taken as an error of transcription.
Sidney is a town located at the northern end of the Saanich Peninsula, on Vancouver Island in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Simon Fraser (20 May 1776 – 18 August 1862) was a fur trader and explorer of Scottish ancestry who charted much of what is now the Canadian province of British Columbia (B.C.). He also built the first European settlement in B.C..
Simon Fraser University (SFU) is a public research university in British Columbia, Canada with campuses in Burnaby (Main Campus), Surrey, and Vancouver.
Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
SkyTrain is the metropolitan rail system of the Metro Vancouver Regional District, serving Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and surrounding municipalities.
The Slocan Valley is a valley in the West Kootenay region of British Columbia, Canada.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Smith River is an unincorporated settlement in the Liard Country of far northern British Columbia, Canada.
Snowboarding is a recreational activity and Olympic and Paralympic sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Softball is a variant of baseball played with a larger ball (11 in. to 12 in. sized ball) on a smaller field.
The Solidarity Crisis refers to a protest movement in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1983 that emerged in response to the Social Credit (Socred) government's economic policy of "restraint." A mass coalition, the Solidarity Coalition, was formed, composed of community organizations and trade unions, which many expected would culminate in a general strike.
Sooke is a district municipality situated on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, Canada.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Alaska, sometimes referred to as the Alaska Panhandle, is the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Alaska, bordered to the east by the northern half of the Canadian province of British Columbia.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
| The Southern Railway of Vancouver Island is in length, and is the only remaining railway on Vancouver Island, after the formal closure of the Englewood Railway in November 2017.
Spanish Canadians (Spanish: Español-Canadienses; French: Canadiens Espagnols) are Canadians of full or partial Spanish heritage or people who hold a European Union citizenship from Spain as well as one from Canada.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A speech from the throne (or throne speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the reigning sovereign, or a representative thereof, reads a prepared speech to members of the nation's legislature when a session is opened, outlining the government's agenda and focus for the forthcoming session; or in some cases, closed.
Spirit bear refers to any white-coated (leucistic) American black bear.
The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is a species of true owl.
Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents.
Stanley Park is a public park that borders the downtown of Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada and is almost entirely surrounded by waters of Vancouver Harbour and English Bay.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
Status quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.
The Steller's jay (Cyanocitta stelleri) is a jay native to western North America, closely related to the blue jay found in the rest of the continent, but with a black head and upper body.
The Strait of Georgia or the Georgia Strait is an arm of the Pacific Ocean between Vancouver Island, and the mainland coast of British Columbia, Canada and extreme northern Washington, United States.
Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.
The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
Surrey is a city in the province of British Columbia, Canada, located south of the Fraser River and north of the Canada–United States border. It is a member municipality of the Metro Vancouver regional district and metropolitan area. Mainly a suburban city, Surrey is the second-largest city by population after the city of Vancouver and the province's third largest city by area, after Abbotsford and Prince George. The six "town centres" the City of Surrey comprises are: Fleetwood, Whalley/City Centre, Guildford, Newton, Cloverdale, and South Surrey.
Swans are birds of the family Anatidae within the genus Cygnus.
Swedish Canadians (Svenskkanadensare) are Canadian citizens of Swedish ancestry or Swedes who emigrated to and reside in Canada.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The Swiss (die Schweizer, les Suisses, gli Svizzeri, ils Svizzers) are the citizens of Switzerland, or people of Swiss ancestry. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. About 11% of citizens live abroad (0.8 million, of whom 0.6 million hold multiple citizenship). About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union (0.46 million). The largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada. Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, and the Swiss are not usually considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy (Eidgenossenschaft) or Willensnation ("nation of will", "nation by choice", that is, a consociational state), a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term. The demonym Swiss (formerly in English also Switzer) and the name of Switzerland, ultimately derive from the toponym Schwyz, have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century.
The Okanagan people, also spelled Okanogan, are a First Nations and Native American people whose traditional territory spans the U.S.-Canada boundary in Washington state and British Columbia in the Okanagan Country region.
British Columbia is Canada's westernmost province, and has established several provincial symbols.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
The Taiga Plain Ecozone, as defined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), is a Canadian terrestrial ecozone that covers most of the western Northwest Territories, extending to northwest Alberta, northeast British Columbia and slightly overlapping northeastern Yukon.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tan Yu (April 5 1927 – 12 March 2002) was a Chinese philanthropist and businessman who founded the Asiaworld Internationale Group and established the KTTI Foundation, which provided scholarships to and supported the education of thousands of young students.
Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions.
Taxus brevifolia, the Pacific yew or western yew, is a conifer native to the Pacific Northwest of North America.
Teck Resources Limited known as Teck Cominco until late 2008, is a Canadian metals and mining company.
Telemark skiing is a skiing technique that combines elements of Alpine and Nordic skiing.
Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
Tent caterpillars are moderately sized caterpillars, or moth larvae, belonging to the genus Malacosoma in the family Lasiocampidae.
The Vancouver Sun is a daily newspaper first published in the Canadian province of British Columbia on 12 February 1912.
In electoral politics, a third party is any party contending for votes that failed to outpoll either of its two strongest rivals (or, in the context of an impending election, is considered highly unlikely to do so).
Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae.
The Thompson River is the largest tributary of the Fraser River, flowing through the south-central portion of British Columbia, Canada.
Thompson Rivers University (commonly referred to as TRU) is a public teaching and research university offering undergraduate and graduate degrees and vocational training.
Thuja plicata, commonly called western or Pacific redcedar, giant or western arborvitae, giant cedar, or shinglewood, is a species of Thuja, an evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae native to western North America.
The tits, chickadees, and titmice constitute the Paridae, a large family of small passerine birds which occur mainly in the Northern Hemisphere and Africa.
The Tlingit (or; also spelled Tlinkit) are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.
Tofino is a district of approximately 1,876 residents on the west coast of Vancouver Island in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
Thomas J. Campbell, (October 5, 1927 – January 27, 2012) was a Canadian politician, who served as the 31st mayor of Vancouver, British Columbia from 1967 through 1972.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Totem poles (Gyáa'aang in the Haida language) are monumental carvings, a type of Northwest Coast art, consisting of poles, posts or pillars, carved with symbols or figures.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
A trading post, trading station, or trading house was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America, although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans.
Traffic barriers (sometimes called Armco barriers,AK Steel (formerly Armco) genericized trademark also known in North America as guardrails or guard rails and in Britain as crash barriers) keep vehicles within their roadway and prevent them from colliding with dangerous obstacles such as boulders, sign supports, trees, bridge abutments, buildings, walls, and large storm drains, or from traversing steep (non-recoverable) slopes or entering deep water.
Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights, robots (in South Africa and most of Africa), and traffic control signals (in technical parlance), are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.
Trail riding is riding outdoors on trails, bridle paths, and forest roads, but not on roads regularly used by motorised traffic.
Trail is a city in the West Kootenay region of the Interior of British Columbia, Canada.
The Trans-Canada Highway (French: Route Transcanadienne) is a transcontinental federal-provincial highway system that travels through all ten provinces of Canada from the Pacific Ocean on the west to the Atlantic on the east.
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in Mainland China, took place on 1 July 1997.
TransLink, formally the South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority, is the statutory authority responsible for the regional transportation network of Metro Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada, including public transport, major roads and bridges.
The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was an international treaty signed in 1818 between the above parties.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
Tsawwassen (from sc̓əwaθən, meaning "facing the ocean") is a suburban, mostly residential community located on a peninsula in the southwestern corner of the Municipality of Delta, British Columbia, Canada.
The Tsilhqot'in (also spelled Chilcotin, Tsilhqut'in, Tŝinlhqot’in, Chilkhodin, Tsilkótin, Tsilkotin) are a First Nation band government of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group that live in British Columbia, Canada.
The Tsimshianic languages are a family of languages spoken in northwestern British Columbia and in Southeast Alaska on Annette Island and Ketchikan.
Tsuga (from 栂 (ツガ), the name of Tsuga sieboldii) is a genus of conifers in the subfamily Abietoideae.
Tsuga heterophylla, the western hemlock or western hemlock-spruce, is a species of hemlock native to the west coast of North America, with its northwestern limit on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, and its southeastern limit in northern Sonoma County, California.
Tsuga mertensiana, known as mountain hemlock, is a species of hemlock native to the west coast of North America, with its northwestern limit on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, and its southeastern limit in northern Tulare County, California.
Tumbler Ridge is a district municipality in the foothills of the Canadian Rockies in northeastern British Columbia, Canada, and a member municipality of the Peace River Regional District.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The concept of "two sets of books" refers to the practice of attempting to hide or disguise certain financial transactions from outsiders by having a set of fraudulent accounting records (or "books") for official use and another, the real set, for personal records.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Ujjal Dev Singh Dosanjh, (ਉੱਜਲ ਦੇਵ ਸਿੰਘ ਦੁਸਾਂਝ), (born September 9, 1947) is a Canadian lawyer and politician.
Ukrainian Canadians (translit) are Canadian citizens of Ukrainian descent or Ukrainian-born people who immigrated to Canada.
Ulex (commonly known as gorse, furze or whin) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae.
Ultimate Canada is a not-for-profit organization that serves as the governing body of the sport of Ultimate (also known as "Ultimate Frisbee") in Canada.
The United Church of Canada (Église unie du Canada) is a mainline Reformed denomination and the largest Protestant Christian denomination in Canada, and the largest Canadian Christian denomination after the Catholic Church.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University Endowment Lands (UEL) is an unincorporated area that lies to the west of the city of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, and adjacent to the University of British Columbia and the lands associated with that campus.
The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna, British Columbia.
The University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC) is a small, research-intensive university, the main campus of which is located in Prince George, British Columbia.
The University of the Fraser Valley (UFV), formerly known as University College of the Fraser Valley and Fraser Valley College, is a Canadian public university with campuses in Abbotsford, Chilliwack, Mission and Hope, British Columbia.
The University of Victoria (UVic) is a major research university located in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
The Vancouver Fraser Port Authority,, Port of Vancouver responsible for overseeing the Port of Vancouver, is a non-shareholder, financially self-sufficient Crown corporation established by the Government of Canada in January 2008, pursuant to the Canada Marine Act, and accountable to the federal Minister of Transport.
Vancouver International Airport is located on Sea Island in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, about from Downtown Vancouver.
Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of Canada.
The Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis) naturally occurs only in the high mountains of Vancouver Island, in British Columbia.
Vancouver Island University (abbreviated as VIU, formerly known as Malaspina University-College and before that as Malaspina College) is a Canadian public university serving Vancouver Island and coastal British Columbia.
Vancouver is a city on the north bank of the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington, and the largest suburb of Portland, Oregon.
Vanderhoof is a district municipality that lies near the geographical centre of British Columbia, Canada.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa (c. 1475around January 12–21, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador.
Vermilion Pass (el.) is a high mountain pass in the Canadian Rockies, traversing the continental divide.
Vernon is a city in the Okanagan region of the Southern Interior of British Columbia, Canada.
Victoria International Airport serves Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Victoria, the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, is on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast.
Vietnamese Canadians (Người Canada gốc Việt), (Canadiens vietnamiens) are Canadian citizens who have ancestry from Vietnam.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
View Royal is a town in Greater Victoria and a member municipality of the Capital Regional District of British Columbia, Canada.
Visayan (Bisaya or Binisaya) is a group of languages of the Philippines that are related to Tagalog and Bikol languages, all three of which are part of the Central Philippine languages.
A visible minority is defined by the Canadian government as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".
William Andrew Cecil Bennett (September 6, 1900February 23, 1979) was a Canadian politician.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Walla Walla is the largest city and the county seat of Walla Walla County, Washington, United States.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Washington State Ferries (WSF) is a government agency that operates automobile and passenger ferry service in the U.S. state of Washington as part of the Washington State Department of Transportation.
Watson Lake is a town in Yukon, Canada located at mile 635 on the Alaska Highway close to the British Columbia border.
Welsh Canadians are Canadian citizens of Welsh descent or Wales-born people who reside in Canada.
West Vancouver is a district municipality in the province of British Columbia, Canada.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
Western white pine (Pinus monticola) also called silver pine, and California mountain pine, in the family Pinaceae, is a species of pine that occurs in the mountains of the western United States and Canada, specifically the Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Range, the Coast Range, and the northern Rocky Mountains.
Whistler Blackcomb is a ski resort located north of Vancouver, in British Columbia, Canada.
Whistler (Squamish language: Sḵwiḵw) is a resort town in the southern Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in the province of British Columbia, Canada, approximately north of Vancouver and south of the town of Pemberton.
The White Pass and Yukon Route (WP&Y, WP&YR) is a Canadian and U.S. Class II narrow-gauge railroad linking the port of Skagway, Alaska, with Whitehorse, the capital of Yukon.
White Rock is a city in British Columbia, Canada, and a member municipality of Metro Vancouver.
Whitewater is formed in a rapid, when a river's gradient increases enough to create so much turbulence that air is entrained into the water body, that is, it forms a bubbly or aerated and unstable current; the frothy water appears white.
Windsurfing is a surface water sport that combines elements of surfing and sailing.
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada.
A winter sport or winter activity is a recreational activity or sport which is played on snow or ice.
The wolverine (also spelled wolverene), Gulo gulo (Gulo is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae.
A woodlouse (plural woodlice) is a terrestrial isopod crustacean with a rigid, segmented, long exoskeleton and fourteen jointed limbs.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms (WWOOF), or Willing Workers on Organic Farms, is a hospitality service operated by a loose network of national organizations that facilitate homestays on organic farms.
Yale is an unincorporated town in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
The Yellowhead Highway (Route Yellowhead) is a major interprovincial highway in Western Canada that runs from Winnipeg to Graham Island off the coast of British Columbia via Saskatoon and Edmonton.
The Yellowhead Pass is a mountain pass across the Continental Divide of the Americas in the Canadian Rockies.
The Yeniseian languages (sometimes known as Yeniseic or Yenisei-Ostyak;"Ostyak" is a concept of areal rather than genetic linguistics. In addition to the Yeniseian languages it also includes the Uralic languages Khanty and Selkup. occasionally spelled with -ss-) are a family of languages that were spoken in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia.
Yoho National Park is located in the Canadian Rocky Mountains along the western slope of the Continental Divide of the Americas in southeastern British Columbia.
The York Factory Express, usually called "the Express" and also the Columbia Express and the Communication, was a 19th-century fur brigade operated by the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC).
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 12 to 28 February 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49° north of Earth's equator.
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