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Ligand (biochemistry)

Index Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. [1]

82 relations: Academic Press, Adverse effect, Agonist, Allosteric regulation, Atomic force microscopy, Binding site, BindingDB, Bio-layer interferometry, Biochemistry, Biomolecule, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Circular dichroism, Computational chemistry, Compute Against Cancer, Concentration, Conformational isomerism, Coordination complex, Covalent bond, Dissociation constant, DNA-binding protein, Docking (molecular), Docking@Home, Dopamine receptor D2, Drug, Dual-polarization interferometry, Enzyme, Enzyme activator, Enzyme inhibitor, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Folding@home, Fourier-transform spectroscopy, G protein–coupled receptor, GPCR oligomer, GPUGRID.net, Grid.org, Hemoglobin, Host–guest chemistry, Human Proteome Folding Project, Hydrogen bond, IC50, In vitro, In vivo, Inorganic chemistry, Intermolecular force, Inverse agonist, Ionic bonding, Ki Database, Ligand, Ligand-gated ion channel, ..., Lipinski's rule of five, Mass spectrometry, Metal, Metalorganics, Microscale thermophoresis, Multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance, Nano-, Neurotransmitter, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Non-covalent interactions, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nucleic acid double helix, Oxygen, Paramagnetism, Partition function (statistical mechanics), Pharmacology, Positron emission tomography, Protein, Radioactive tracer, Radioligand, Radionuclide, Raman spectroscopy, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, SAMPL Challenge, Schild regression, Statistical mechanics, Steric effects, Substrate (chemistry), Surface plasmon resonance, Van der Waals force, World Community Grid. Expand index (32 more) »

Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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Adverse effect

In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.

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An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.

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Allosteric regulation

In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

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Atomic force microscopy

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.

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Binding site

In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.

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BindingDB is a public, web-accessible database of measured binding affinities, focusing chiefly on the interactions of proteins considered to be candidate drug-targets with ligands that are small, drug-like molecules.

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Bio-layer interferometry

Bio-layer interferometry (BLI) is a label-free technology for measuring biomolecular interactions.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).

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Circular dichroism

Circular dichroism (CD) is dichroism involving circularly polarized light, i.e., the differential absorption of left- and right-handed light.

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Computational chemistry

Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.

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Compute Against Cancer

Compute Against Cancer is an initiative of Parabon Computation, Inc. powered by the Global Grid Exchange.

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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Conformational isomerism

In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Dissociation constant

In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.

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DNA-binding protein

DNA-binding proteins are proteins that have DNA-binding domains and thus have a specific or general affinity for single- or double-stranded DNA.

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Docking (molecular)

In the field of molecular modeling, docking is a method which predicts the preferred orientation of one molecule to a second when bound to each other to form a stable complex.

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Docking@Home was a distributed computing project hosted by the University of Delaware and running on the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) software platform.

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Dopamine receptor D2

Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.

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A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.

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Dual-polarization interferometry

Dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) is an analytical technique that probes molecular layers adsorbed to the surface of a waveguide using the evanescent wave of a laser beam.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Enzyme activator

Enzyme activators are molecules that bind to enzymes and increase their activity.

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Enzyme inhibitor

4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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Fluorescence spectroscopy

Fluorescence spectroscopy (also known as fluorometry or spectrofluorometry) is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that analyzes fluorescence from a sample.

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Folding@home (FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing project for disease research that simulates protein folding, computational drug design, and other types of molecular dynamics.

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Fourier-transform spectroscopy

Fourier-transform spectroscopy is a measurement technique whereby spectra are collected based on measurements of the coherence of a radiative source, using time-domain or space-domain measurements of the electromagnetic radiation or other type of radiation.

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G protein–coupled receptor

G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.

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GPCR oligomer

A GPCR oligomer is a protein complex that consists of a small number (ὀλίγοι oligoi "a few", μέρος méros "part, piece, component") of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).

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GPUGRID is a distributed computing project hosted by Pompeu Fabra University and running on the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) software platform.

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grid.org was a website and online community established in 2001 for cluster computing and grid computing software users.

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Host–guest chemistry

In supramolecular chemistry, host–guest chemistry describes complexes that are composed of two or more molecules or ions that are held together in unique structural relationships by forces other than those of full covalent bonds.

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Human Proteome Folding Project

The Human Proteome Folding Project (HPF) is a collaborative effort between New York University (Bonneau Lab), the Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) and the University of Washington (Baker Lab), using the Rosetta software developed by the Rosetta Commons.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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In vivo

Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.

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Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.

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Intermolecular force

Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.

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Inverse agonist

In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist.

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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

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Ki Database

The Ki Database (or Ki DB) is a public domain database of published binding affinities (Ki) of drugs and chemical compounds for receptors, neurotransmitter transporters, ion channels, and enzymes.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Ligand-gated ion channel

Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.

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Lipinski's rule of five

Lipinski's rule of five also known as the Pfizer's rule of five or simply the rule of five (RO5) is a rule of thumb to evaluate druglikeness or determine if a chemical compound with a certain pharmacological or biological activity has chemical properties and physical properties that would make it a likely orally active drug in humans.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metal-organic compounds (jargon: metalorganics, metallo-organics) are a class of chemical compounds that contain metals and organic ligands, which confer solubility in organic solvents or volatility.

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Microscale thermophoresis

Microscale thermophoresis (MST) is a technology for the interaction analysis of biomolecules.

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Multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is an established real-time label-free method for biomolecular interaction analysis.

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Nano- (symbol n) is a unit prefix meaning "one billionth".

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

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Non-covalent interactions

A non-covalent interaction differs from a covalent bond in that it does not involve the sharing of electrons, but rather involves more dispersed variations of electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.

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Nucleic acid double helix

In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

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Partition function (statistical mechanics)

In physics, a partition function describes the statistical properties of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Radioactive tracer

A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

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A radioligand is a radioactive biochemical substance (in particular, a ligand that is radiolabeled) that is used for diagnosis or for research-oriented study of the receptor systems of the body.

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Raman spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.

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Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.

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Receptor antagonist

A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.

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SAMPL Challenge

SAMPL (Statistical Assessment of the Modeling of Proteins and Ligands) is a set of community-wide blind challenges aimed to advance computational techniques as standard predictive tools in rational drug design.

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Schild regression

Schild regression analysis, named for Heinz Otto Schild, is a useful tool for studying the effects of agonists and antagonists on the cellular response caused by the receptor or on ligand-receptor binding.

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Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

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Steric effects

Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.

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Substrate (chemistry)

In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.

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Surface plasmon resonance

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is the resonant oscillation of conduction electrons at the interface between negative and positive permittivity material stimulated by incident light.

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Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.

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World Community Grid

World Community Grid (WCG) is an effort to create the world's largest public computing grid to tackle scientific research projects that benefit humanity.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ligand_(biochemistry)

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