219 relations: Agriculturalism, Agriculture (Chinese mythology), Altai Mountains, Ancestor veneration in China, Anhui, Astronomy, Bao Si, Barbarian, Battle of Muye, Beidi, Beta Serpentis, Bin (city), Bo Qin, Book of Rites, Brill Publishers, Bronze, Buzhu, Calendar, Chariots in ancient China, China, Chinese bronze inscriptions, Chinese constellations, Chinese folk religion, Chinese nobility, Chinese philosophy, Chinese sovereign, Chinese surname, Chinese theology, Classic of Poetry, Clerical script, Confucianism, Confucius, Culture hero, Ding (vessel), Disaster, Dongyi, Duke Huan of Lu, Duke of Zhou, Duke Wen of Eastern Zhou, Dynasties in Chinese history, Emperor Huai of Jin, Emperor Ku, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Eta Capricorni, Etiquette and Ceremonial, Family tree of ancient Chinese emperors, Fen River, Fenghao, Fengjian, Feudalism, ..., Four occupations, Girl (Chinese constellation), Gong Liu, Gonghe Regency, Grand chancellor (China), Han (state), Han dynasty, Han Fei, Han River (Hubei), Haojing, Harmony, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Heavenly Market enclosure, Historical capitals of China, History of China, Honour, Horse burial, Hou Ji, Hua–Yi distinction, Hundred Schools of Thought, Hydraulic engineering, Imperial examination, Instability, Irrigation, Jī, Ji (surname), Ji Ju, Jiang (surname), Jiang Yuan, Jiang Ziya, Jixia Academy, King Ai of Zhou, King An of Zhou, King Cheng of Zhou, King Dao of Zhou, King Ding of Zhou, King Gong of Zhou, King Huan of Zhou, King Hui of Wei, King Hui of Zhou, King Ji of Zhou, King Jian of Zhou, King Jing of Zhou (Gai), King Jing of Zhou (Gui), King Kang of Zhou, King Kao of Zhou, King Kuang of Zhou, King Li of Zhou, King Lie of Zhou, King Ling of Zhou, King Mu of Zhou, King Nan of Zhou, King Ping of Zhou, King Qing of Zhou, King Shenjing of Zhou, King Si of Zhou, King Tai of Zhou, King Weilie of Zhou, King Wen of Zhou, King Wu of Zhou, King Xi of Zhou, King Xian of Zhou, King Xiang of Zhou, King Xiao of Zhou, King Xuan of Zhou, King Yi of Zhou (Jian), King Yi of Zhou (Xie), King You of Zhou, King Yuan of Zhou, King Zhao of Zhou, King Zhending of Zhou, King Zhou of Shang, King Zhuang of Chu, King Zhuang of Zhou, Kwang-chih Chang, Laozi, Later Jin (Five Dynasties), Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Legitimacy (political), Linfen, Loess Plateau, London, Lu (state), Luoyang, Mandate of Heaven, Marquess of Shen, Marquess Wen of Wei, Mencius, Middle Ages, Millet, Miraculous births, Mohism, Mozi, Neo-Confucianism, New Book of Tang, Nine Schools of Thought, Ningxia, Old Chinese, Partition of Jin, Posthumous name, Prerogative, Primogeniture, Princeton University Press, Qi (state), Qin (state), Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, Qin's wars of unification, Qishan County, Quanrong, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rebellion of the Three Guards, Records of the Grand Historian, Regular script, Reservoir, Rites of Zhou, School of Diplomacy, School of Names, School of Naturalists, Scythians, Seal script, Shang dynasty, Shang Yang, Shangdi, Shanxi, Shen (state), Sima Qian, Solar eclipse, Son of Heaven, Song (state), Song Lian, Spring and Autumn Annals, Spring and Autumn period, Statue, Stuttgart, Sui dynasty, Sun Tzu, Sunshu Ao, Tai (city), Taibo, Tang of Shang, Taoism, Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, Wangcheng, Warring States period, Weapon, Wei (state), Wei River, Well-field system, Wen Ding, Western Zhou, Wey (state), Women in ancient and imperial China, Wu (state), Wu Yi of Shang, Xi'an, Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, Ximen Bao, Xirong, Xun Kuang, Yan (state), Yangtze, Yellow River, Zhang River, Zhao (state), Zheng (state), Zhongyong of Wu, Zhou clan of Runan, Zhu Xi. Expand index (169 more) » « Shrink index
Agriculturalism, also known as the School of Agrarianism, the School of Agronomists, the School of Tillers, and in Chinese as the Nongjia (農家/农家), was an early agrarian Chinese philosophy that advocated peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism, and was arguably the world's first Communist and Socialist movement that believed in a Classless society.
Agriculture is an important theme in Chinese mythology.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
Chinese ancestor worship, or Chinese ancestor veneration, also called the Chinese patriarchal religion, is an aspect of the Chinese traditional religion which revolves around the ritual celebration of the deified ancestors and tutelary deities of people with the same surname organised into lineage societies in ancestral shrines.
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Bao Si was the concubine of the ancient Chinese sovereign King You of Zhou.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
The Battle of Muye or Mu was a battle fought in ancient China between the Zhou dynasty and Shang dynasty.
The Beidi, Northern Di, or Northern Barbarians were various ethnic groups who lived north of the Chinese (Huaxia) realms during the Zhou dynasty.
Beta Serpentis, Latinized from β Serpentis, is a binary star system in the constellation Serpens, in its head (Serpens Caput).
Bin (Chinese: t 豳, s 彬, p Bīn) was a Chinese settlement during the Xia and Shang dynasties.
Bo Qin (Chinese: 禽, p Bóqín), also known as Qin Fu (禽父), was the founder of the State of Lu during the early Zhou dynasty.
The Book of Rites or Liji is a collection of texts describing the social forms, administration, and ceremonial rites of the Zhou dynasty as they were understood in the Warring States and the early Han periods.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Buzhu or Buku (Chinese: 不窋) was a legendary noble during the Xia dynasty in China.
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes.
The ancient Chinese chariot was used as an attack and pursuit vehicle on the open fields and plains of Ancient China from around 1200 BCE.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese bronze inscriptions, also commonly referred to as Bronze script or Bronzeware script, are writing in a variety of Chinese scripts on Chinese ritual bronzes such as zhōng bells and dǐng tripodal cauldrons from the Shang dynasty to the Zhou dynasty and even later.
Traditional Chinese astronomy has a system of dividing the celestial sphere into asterisms or constellations, known as "officials" (Chinese xīng guān).
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Chinese sovereignty and peerage, the nobility of China, was an important feature of the traditional social and political organization of Imperial China.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
The Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China.
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and among overseas Chinese communities.
Chinese theology, which comes in different interpretations according to the classic texts and the common religion, and specifically Confucian, Taoist and other philosophical formulations, is fundamentally monistic, that is to say it sees the world and the gods of its phenomena as an organic whole, or cosmos, which continuously emerges from a simple principle.
The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.
The clerical script (Japanese: 隷書体, reishotai; Vietnamese: lệ thư), also formerly chancery script, is an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy which evolved from the Warring States period to the Qin dynasty, was dominant in the Han dynasty, and remained in use through the Wei-Jin periods.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
A culture hero is a mythological hero specific to some group (cultural, ethnic, religious, etc.) who changes the world through invention or discovery.
Ding (鼎) were prehistoric and ancient Chinese cauldrons, standing upon legs with a lid and two facing handles.
A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a relatively short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
The Dongyi or Eastern Yi was a collective term, referring to ancient peoples who lived in eastern China during the prehistory of ancient China and in lands located in the Shandong peninsula and some other eastern parts of ancient China.
Duke Huan of Lu (died 694 BC) was from 711 to 694 BC the 15th ruler of the State of Lu during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China.
Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (11th Century BC), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou, was a member of the royal family of the Zhou dynasty who played a major role in consolidating the kingdom established by his elder brother King Wu.
Duke Wen of Eastern Zhou (?-249 BC), personal name Jī Jié, reigned as King Hui of Zhou over the remaining rump state of the Zhou dynasty from 255 BC to 249 BC, when he was captured and executed by the army of Qin.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
Emperor Huai of Jin (284 – March 14, 313), personal name Sima Chi (司馬熾), courtesy name Fengdu (豐度), was an emperor of the Jin Dynasty (265-420).
Kù, usually referred to as Dì Kù, also known as Gaoxin or Gāoxīn Shì, was (according to many versions of the list) one of the Five Emperors of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors of Chinese mythology: some sources treat Ku as a semi-historical figure, while others make fantastic mythological or religious claims about him.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Eta Capricorni, Latinized from η Capricorni, is a binary star system in the southern constellation of Capricornus.
The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial is a Chinese classic text about Zhou dynasty social behavior and ceremonial ritual as it was practiced and understood during the Spring and Autumn period.
This is a family tree of Chinese kings before the establishment of the title emperor (皇帝) by Shi Huangdi.
The Fen River drains the center of Shanxi Province, China.
Fenghao is the modern name of the twin city formed by the Western Zhou capitals of Feng and Hao on opposite banks of the Feng River near its confluence with the Wei River in Shaanxi, China.
Fēngjiàn (封建) was a political ideology during the later part of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, its social structure forming a decentralized system of government based on four occupations, or "four categories of the people." The Zhou kings enfeoffed their fellow warriors and relatives, creating large domains of land.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The four occupations or "four categories of the people"Hansson, pp.
The Girl mansion (女宿, pinyin: Nǚ Xiù) is one of the Twenty-eight mansions of the Chinese constellations.
Gong Liu or Duke Liu (Chinese: t 劉, s 刘, p Gōng Liú) was a noble of ancient China.
The Gonghe Regency was an interregnum period in Chinese history from 841 to 828 BC, after King Li of Zhou was exiled by his nobles until the ascension of his son, King Xuan of Zhou.
The grand chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government.
Han (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period of ancient China, located in modern-day Shanxi and Henan.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han Fei (233 BC), also known as Han Fei Zi, was a Chinese philosopher of the Warring States period "Chinese Legalist" school.
The Han River, also known by its Chinese names Hanshui and Han Jiang, is a left tributary of the Yangtze in central China.
Hao or Haojing, also called Zongzhou (宗周), was one of the two settlements comprising the capital of the Western Zhou dynasty (1066-770 BCE), the other being Fēng or Fēngjīng (灃京).
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing.
The Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies (HJAS) is an English-language scholarly journal published by the Harvard-Yenching Institute.
The Heavenly Market Enclosure (天市垣, Tian Shi Yuan), is one of the San Yuan or Three enclosures.
There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China".
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Honour (or honor in American English, note) is the idea of a bond between an individual and a society, as a quality of a person that is both of social teaching and of personal ethos, that manifests itself as a code of conduct, and has various elements such as valor, chivalry, honesty, and compassion.
Horse burial is the practice of burying a horse as part of the ritual of human burial, and is found among many Indo-European peoples and others, including Chinese and Turkic peoples.
Hou Ji (or Houji) was a legendary Chinese culture hero credited with introducing millet to humanity during the time of the Xia dynasty.
The distinction between Hua and Yi, also known as Sino–barbarian dichotomy, is an ancient Chinese concept that differentiated a culturally defined "China" (called Hua, Huaxia 華夏, or Xia 夏) from cultural or ethnic outsiders (Yi "barbarians").
The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.
Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
In numerous fields of study, the component of instability within a system is generally characterized by some of the outputs or internal states growing without bounds.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Jī (姬) was the ancestral name of the Zhou dynasty which ruled China between the 11th and 3rd centuries BC.
Ji is the pinyin romanization of a number of distinct Chinese surnames that are written with different characters in Chinese.
Ju (Chinese: 鞠) was a noble of the Xia.
Jiang can be a pinyin transliteration of one of several Chinese surnames.
Jiang Yuan is an important figure in Chinese mythology and history.
Jiang Ziya (century), also known by several other names, was a Chinese noble who helped kings Wen and Wu of Zhou overthrow the Shang in ancient China.
The Jixia Academy or Academy of the Gate of ChiNeedham, Joseph.
King Ai of Zhou was the twenty-ninth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the seventeenth of Eastern Zhou.
King An of Zhou was the thirty-third king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twenty first of Eastern Zhou.
King Cheng of Zhou or King Ch'eng of Chou was the second king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
King Dao of Zhou (died 520 BC), or King Tao of Chou, was the twenty-fifth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the thirteenth of Eastern Zhou.
King Ding of Zhou, or King Ting of Chou, was the twenty-first king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the ninth of Eastern Zhou.
King Gong of Zhou or King Kung of Chou was the sixth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
King Huan of Zhou (died 697 BC) was the fourteenth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the second of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BC).
King Hui of Wei (simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese: 魏惠王), originally called Marquis Hui of Wei, and after 344, King Hui of Liang (simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese: 梁惠王) was the third ruler of the state of Wei during the Warring States period, ruling from approximately 370 BC–319 BC.
King Hui of Zhou was the seventeenth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the fifth of Eastern Zhou.
Jili was a leader of the Predynastic Zhou during the Shang dynasty of ancient China.
King Jian of Zhou, or King Chien of Chou, was the twenty-second king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the tenth of Eastern Zhou.
King Jing of Zhou,, or King Ching of Chou, was the twenty-sixth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the fourteenth of Eastern Zhou.
King Jing of Zhou,, or King Ching of Chou, was the twenty-fourth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twelfth of Eastern Zhou.
King Kang of Zhou or King K’ang of Chou was the third sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and son of the King Cheng of Zhou.
King Kao of Zhou was the thirty first king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the nineteenth of Eastern Zhou.
King Kuang of Zhou, or King K’uang of Chou, was the twentieth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the eighth of Eastern Zhou.
King Li of Zhou (died in 828 BC) was the tenth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
King Lie of Zhou, or King Lieh of Chou, was the thirty-fourth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twenty-second of Eastern Zhou.
King Ling of Zhou was the twenty-third king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the eleventh of Eastern Zhou.
King Mu of Zhou was the fifth king of the Zhou dynasty of China.
King Nan of Zhou (?–256 BC), born Ji Yan and less commonly known as King Yin of Zhou, was the 37th and last king of the Chinese Zhou dynasty, the son of King Shenjing of Zhou and grandson of King Xian of Zhou.
King Ping of Zhou (died 720 BC), formerly romanized as King P’ing of Chou, was the thirteenth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the first of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.
King Qing of Zhou, or King Ch’ing of Chou, was the nineteenth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the seventh of Eastern Zhou.
King Shenjing of Zhou, or King Shenching of Chou, was the thirty-sixth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twenty-fourth of Eastern Zhou.
King Si of Zhou was the thirtieth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the eighteenth of Eastern Zhou.
King Tai of Zhou or Gugong Danfu was a great leader of the Zhou clan during the Shang dynasty.
King Weilie of Zhou, or King Weilieh of Chou, was the thirty-second king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twentieth of Eastern Zhou.
King Wen of Zhou (1152 1056 BC) was king of Zhou during the late Shang dynasty in ancient China.
King Wu of Zhou was the first king of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
King Xi of Zhou (died 677 BC) was the sixteenth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the fourth of Eastern Zhou.
King Xian of Zhou, or King Hsien of Chou, was the thirty-fifth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twenty-third of Eastern Zhou.
King Xiang of Zhou (died 619BC), name Ji Zheng, was the eighteenth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the sixth of the Eastern Zhou.
King Xiao of Zhou or King Hsiao of Chou was the eighth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
King Xuan of Zhou was the eleventh king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
King Yì of Zhou was the seventh king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
King Yi of Zhou was the ninth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
King You of Zhou (795–771 BC) was the eleventh king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the last of Western Zhou Dynasty.
King Yuan of Zhou was the twenty-seventh king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the fifteenth of Eastern Zhou.
King Zhao of Zhou, personal name Jī Xiá, was the fourth king of the Chinese Zhou dynasty.
King Zhending of Zhou, or King Chenting of Chou, was the twenty-eighth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the sixteenth of Eastern Zhou.
King Zhou was the pejorative posthumous name given to Di Xin, the last king of the Shang dynasty of ancient China.
King Zhuang of Chu (reigned 613-591 BC) was a monarch of the Zhou Dynasty State of Chu during the Spring and Autumn period in ancient China.
King Zhuang of Zhou (died 682 BC) or King Chuang of Chou was the fifteenth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the third of Eastern Zhou.
Kwang-chih Chang (1931 – January 3, 2001), commonly known as K.C. Chang, was a Chinese-American archaeologist and sinologist.
Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
The Later Jìn (936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.
Linfen is a prefecture-level city in southern Shanxi province, People's Republic of China.
The Loess Plateau, also known as the Huangtu Plateau, is a plateau located around the Wei River valley and the southern half of the Ordos Loop of the Yellow River in central China.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lu (c. 1042–249 BC) was a vassal state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.
The Marquess of Shen (Chinese: 侯, p Shēnhóu; d. 771 BCE) was a Qiang ruler of Shen during China’s Zhou dynasty.
Marquess Wen of Wei (Wèi Wén Hóu; died 396 BCE) was the first Marquess to rule the State of Wei during the Warring States period of Chinese history (475–220 BCE).
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
Stories of miraculous births often include conceptions by miraculous circumstances and features such as intervention by a deity, supernatural elements, astronomical signs, hardship or, in the case of some mythologies, complex plots related to creation.
Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi (c. 470 BC – c. 391 BC) and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi.
Mozi (Latinized as Micius; c. 470 – c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (墨翟), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.
The Nine Schools of Thought were the primary schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought period of China during the Eastern Zhou dynasty.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
The Partition of Jin, the watershed between the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, refers to the division of the State of Jin between rival families into the three states of Han, Zhao and Wei.
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life.
In law, a prerogative is an exclusive right given from a government or state and invested in an individual or group, the content of which is separate from the body of rights enjoyed under the general law of the normative state.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
Qin's wars of unification were a series of military campaigns launched in the late 3rd century BC by the Qin state against the other six major states — Han, Zhao, Yan, Wei, Chu and Qi — within the territories that formed modern China.
Qishan County is a county of Baoji, Shaanxi, China.
The Quanrong or Dog Rong were an ethnic group classified by the ancient Chinese as "Qiang" active in the northwestern part of China during the Zhou dynasty (1046–221 BCE) and after.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
The Rebellion of the Three Guards, or less commonly the Wu Geng Rebellion, was a civil war, instigated by an alliance of discontent Zhou princes, Shang loyalists, vassal states and non-Chinese peoples against the Zhou government under the Duke of Zhou's regency in the latter 11th century BC.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
Regular script (Hepburn: kaisho), also called 正楷, 真書 (zhēnshū), 楷體 (kǎitǐ) and 正書 (zhèngshū), is the newest of the Chinese script styles (appearing by the Cao Wei dynasty ca. 200 CE and maturing stylistically around the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and publications (after the Ming and gothic styles, used exclusively in print).
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
The Rites of Zhou, originally known as "Officers of Zhou" is actually a work on bureaucracy and organizational theory.
The School of Diplomacy, or the School of Vertical and Horizontal Alliances was a political and diplomatic clique during the Warring States period of Chinese history (476-220 BCE).
The Logicians or School of Names was a school of Chinese philosophy that grew out of Mohism during the Warring States period in 479–221 BCE.
The School of Naturalists or the School of Yin-yang (陰陽家/阴阳家; Yīnyángjiā; Yin-yang-chia; "School of Yin-Yang") was a Warring States era philosophy that synthesized the concepts of yin-yang and the Five Elements.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Seal script is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shang Yang, or Wei YangAntonio S. Cua (ed.), 2003, p. 362, Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy (born with the surname Gongsun in Wey, Zhou Kingdom; c. 390 – 338 BCE), was a statesman and reformer of the State of Qin during the Warring States period of ancient China.
Shangdi, also written simply, "Emperor", is the Chinese term for "Supreme Deity" or "Highest Deity" in the theology of the classical texts, especially deriving from Shang theology and finding an equivalent in the later Tian ("Heaven" or "Great Whole") of Zhou theology.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
The State of Shen was a Chinese vassal state during the Zhou dynasty (1046 – 221 BCE) ruled by the Jiāng family (姜) as an earldom.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.
Son of Heaven, or Tian Zi, was the sacred imperial title of the Chinese emperor.
Sòng (Old Chinese: *) was a state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, with its capital at Shangqiu.
Song Lian (宋濂, 1310–1381), style name Jinglian (景濂), was a literary and political adviser to the Ming dynasty founder, and one of the principal figures in the Mongol Yuan Dynasty Jinhua school of Neo-Confucianism.
The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
A statue is a sculpture, representing one or more people or animals (including abstract concepts allegorically represented as people or animals), free-standing (as opposed to a relief) and normally full-length (as opposed to a bust) and at least close to life-size, or larger.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.
Sunshu Ao (孫叔敖, ca. 630, † ca. 593 BCE) was a Chinese hydrologist and politician.
Tai (Chinese: 邰 or 斄, Tái) was a former settlement in China during the Xia dynasty.
Taibo or Wu Taibo was the eldest son of King Tai of Zhou and the legendary founder of the State of Wu.
Tang (– 1646 BC) or Cheng Tang (成湯), recorded on oracle bones as Da Yi (大乙), was the first king of the Shang dynasty in Chinese history.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng is an important archaeological site in Leigudun Community (擂鼓墩社区), Nanjiao Subdistrict (南郊街道), Zengdu District, Suizhou (then Sui County), Hubei, China, dated sometime after 433 BC.
Wangcheng was an ancient Chinese city located beside the ceremonial eastern capital of Luoyi during the Zhou dynasty.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Wei (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period.
The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces.
The well-field system was a Chinese land distribution method.
Wen Wu Ding or Wen Ding was a king of the Shang dynasty of China from 1112 to 1102 BC.
The Western Zhou (西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
Wei (Old Chinese: *ɢʷat-s), commonly spelled Wey to distinguish from the larger Wei (魏) state, was an ancient Chinese state that was founded in the early Western Zhou dynasty and rose to prominence during the Spring and Autumn period.
The study of women's history in the context of imperial China has been pursued since at least the late 1990s.
Wu (Old Chinese: *) was one of the states during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn period.
Wu Yi (Chinese: 武乙) was king of the Shang dynasty of ancient China from 1147 to 1112 BC.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project was a multi-disciplinary project commissioned by the People's Republic of China in 1996 to determine with accuracy the location and time frame of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties.
Ximen Bao was a Chinese hydraulic engineer, philosopher, and politician.
Xirong or Rong were various people who lived primarily in and around the extremities of ancient China known as early as the Shang dynasty (1765–1122 BCE).
Xun Kuang (c. 310c. 235 BC, alt. c. 314c. 217 BC), also widely known as Xunzi ("Master Xun"), was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who lived during the Warring States period and contributed to the Hundred Schools of Thought.
Yan (Old Chinese pronunciation: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
The Zhang River is a tributary of the Wei River in China.
Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China.
Zheng (Old Chinese: *) was a vassal state in China during the Zhou Dynasty (1046–221 BCE) located in the centre of ancient China in modern-day Henan Province on the North China Plain about east of the royal capital at Luoyang.
Zhongyong was the second ruler of the ancient Chinese State of Wu according to traditional Chinese history.
The Zhou family of Runan was a notable Chinese family which descended from Ji Lie (姬烈), the youngest son of King Ping of the Zhou dynasty in 8th century BCE China.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.
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