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Old Chinese

Index Old Chinese

Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. [1]

148 relations: Adjective, Adjunct (grammar), Adverb, Affricate consonant, Analects, Anyang, Approximant consonant, Areal feature, Aspirated consonant, Austroasiatic languages, Baiyue, Bamboo and wooden slips, Book of Documents, Bound and unbound morphemes, Burning of books and burying of scholars, China, Chinese bronze inscriptions, Chinese characters, Chinese classics, Chinese classifier, Chinese language, Chinese particles, Circa, Classic of Filial Piety, Classic of Poetry, Classical Chinese, Compound (linguistics), Conjunction (grammar), Copula (linguistics), Coronal consonant, Cuneiform script, Demonstrative, Distributive pronoun, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Four Books and Five Classics, Fricative consonant, Function word, Glottal consonant, Grammata Serica Recensa, Grammatical particle, Guillaume Jacques, Han dynasty, Henri Maspero, Hmong–Mien languages, I Ching, Imperative mood, Indefinite pronoun, Indo-European languages, Inflection, Interrogative word, ..., Intransitive verb, Isolating language, James Matisoff, Jerry Norman (sinologist), Khmer language, Kra–Dai languages, Labial consonant, Labialized velar consonant, Lateral consonant, Laurent Sagart, Li Fang-Kuei, Lolo-Burmese languages, Manchu language, Manner of articulation, Maya script, Mencius (book), Mesopotamia, Middle Chinese, Min Chinese, Minor syllable, Modal verb, Mon language, Mongolian language, Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Nasal consonant, North China Plain, Northern and Southern dynasties, Noun, Obstruent, Old Burmese, Old Chinese phonology, Old Tibetan, Oracle bone, Oracle bone script, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Part of speech, Paul K. Benedict, Personal pronoun, Phonology, Place of articulation, Predicate (grammar), Preposition and postposition, Pronoun, Proto-Hmong–Mien language, Proto-Tai language, Proto-Tibeto-Burman language, Qieyun, Qin (state), Qin dynasty, Rebus, Reduplication, Relative clause, Rice, Rime dictionary, Root (linguistics), Scapula, Seal script, Shandong, Shang dynasty, Shuowen Jiezi, Sibilant, Sino-Tibetan languages, Spring and Autumn Annals, Spring and Autumn period, Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Subject–verb–object, Tang dynasty, Tarim Basin, The Cambridge History of China, Tibeto-Burman languages, Tocharian languages, Tone (linguistics), Topic and comment, Transitive verb, Turtle shell, Varieties of Chinese, Velar consonant, Verb, Vietic languages, Vietnamese language, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel, Warring States period, Wei River, Western Zhou, William H. Baxter, Written Chinese, Yangtze, Yellow River, Yes–no question, Yinxu, Zhou dynasty, Zhuangzi (book), Zuo zhuan. Expand index (98 more) »

Adjective

In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Adjunct (grammar)

In linguistics, an adjunct is an optional, or structurally dispensable, part of a sentence, clause, or phrase that, if removed or discarded, will not otherwise affect the remainder of the sentence.

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Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Analects

The Analects (Old Chinese: *run ŋ(r)aʔ), also known as the Analects of Confucius, is a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius's followers.

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Anyang

Anyang is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, China.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Areal feature

In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.

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Baiyue

The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.

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Bamboo and wooden slips

Bamboo and wooden slips were the main media and writing medium for documents in China before the widespread introduction of paper during the first two centuries AD.

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Book of Documents

The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.

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Bound and unbound morphemes

In morphology, a bound morpheme is a morpheme (the most basic unit of meaning) that can appear only as part of a larger word; a free morpheme or unbound morpheme is one that can stand alone or can appear with other morphemes in a lexeme.

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Burning of books and burying of scholars

The burning of books and burying of scholars refers to the supposed burning of texts in 213 BCE and live burial of 460 Confucian scholars in 212 BCE by the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty of ancient China.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese bronze inscriptions

Chinese bronze inscriptions, also commonly referred to as Bronze script or Bronzeware script, are writing in a variety of Chinese scripts on Chinese ritual bronzes such as zhōng bells and dǐng tripodal cauldrons from the Shang dynasty to the Zhou dynasty and even later.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese classics

Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".

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Chinese classifier

The modern Chinese varieties make frequent use of what are called classifiers or measure words.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chinese particles

Both Classical Chinese and modern Chinese contain a number of grammatical particles.

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Circa

Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.

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Classic of Filial Piety

The Classic of Filial Piety, also known by its Chinese name as the Xiaojing, is a Confucian classic treatise giving advice on filial piety: that is, how to behave towards a senior such as a father, an elder brother, or ruler.

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Classic of Poetry

The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.

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Classical Chinese

Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.

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Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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Conjunction (grammar)

In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.

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Copula (linguistics)

In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.

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Coronal consonant

Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.

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Cuneiform script

Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.

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Demonstrative

Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

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Distributive pronoun

A distributive pronoun considers members of a group separately, rather than collectively.

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Egyptian hieroglyphs

Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.

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Four Books and Five Classics

The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Function word

In linguistics, function words (also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning and express grammatical relationships among other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Grammata Serica Recensa

The Grammata Serica Recensa is a dictionary of Middle Chinese and Old Chinese published by the Swedish sinologist Bernard Karlgren in 1957.

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Grammatical particle

In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

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Guillaume Jacques

Guillaume Jacques (b. 1979) is a French linguist of Breton descent who specializes in the study of Sino-Tibetan languages: Old Chinese, Tangut, Tibetan, Rgyalrongic and Kiranti languages.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Henri Maspero

Henri Paul Gaston Maspero (15 December 188317 March 1945) was a French sinologist and professor who contributed to a variety of topics relating to East Asia.

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Hmong–Mien languages

The Hmong–Mien (also known as Miao–Yao) languages are a highly tonal language family of southern China and northern Southeast Asia.

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I Ching

The I Ching,.

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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Indefinite pronoun

An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that refers to non-specific beings, objects, or places.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Inflection

In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Interrogative word

An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.

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Intransitive verb

In grammar, an intransitive verb does not allow a direct object.

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Isolating language

An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever.

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James Matisoff

James A. Matisoff (Chinese name: 马蒂索夫 Mǎdìsuǒfū or 马提索夫 Mǎtísuǒfū; born July 14, 1937) is a professor emeritus of Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley and noted authority on Tibeto-Burman languages and other languages of mainland Southeast Asia.

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Jerry Norman (sinologist)

Jerry Lee Norman (July 16, 1936July 7, 2012) was an American sinologist and linguist known for his studies of Chinese dialects and historical phonology, particularly on the Min Chinese dialects, and of the Manchu language.

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Khmer language

Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.

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Kra–Dai languages

The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Labialized velar consonant

A labialized velar or labiovelar is a velar consonant that is labialized, with a /w/-like secondary articulation.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Laurent Sagart

Laurent Sagart (born 1951) is a senior researcher at the Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l'Asie orientale (CRLAO – UMR 8563) unit of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).

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Li Fang-Kuei

Li Fang-Kuei (20 August 190221 August 1987) was a Chinese linguist, known for his studies of the varieties of Chinese, and for his reconstructions of Old Chinese and Proto-Tai.

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Lolo-Burmese languages

The Lolo-Burmese languages (also Burmic languages) of Burma and Southern China form a coherent branch of the Sino-Tibetan family.

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Manchu language

Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.

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Manner of articulation

In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.

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Maya script

Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.

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Mencius (book)

The Mencius (Old Chinese: *mˤraŋ-s tsəʔ) is a collection of anecdotes and conversations of the Confucian thinker and philosopher Mencius on topics in moral and political philosophy, often between Mencius and the rulers of the various Warring States.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Middle Chinese

Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.

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Min Chinese

Min or Miin (BUC: Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by over 70 million people in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, or Chaoshan area, Leizhou peninsula and Part of Zhongshan), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang, Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo, some towns in Liyang, Jiangyin City in Jiangsu province, and Taiwan.

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Minor syllable

Minor syllable is a term used primarily in the description of Mon-Khmer languages, where a word typically consists of a reduced (minor) syllable followed by a full tonic or stressed syllable.

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Modal verb

A modal verb is a type of verb that is used to indicate modality – that is: likelihood, ability, permission and obligation, and advice.

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Mon language

The Mon language (ဘာသာ မန်; မွန်ဘာသာ) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar and Thailand.

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Mongolian language

The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.

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Morpheme

A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Morphological derivation

Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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North China Plain

The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.

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Northern and Southern dynasties

The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.

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Noun

A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Obstruent

An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.

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Old Burmese

Old Burmese was an early form of the Burmese language, as attested in the stone inscriptions of Pagan, and is the oldest phase of Burmese linguistic history.

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Old Chinese phonology

Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence.

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Old Tibetan

Old Tibetan refers to the period of Tibetan language reflected in documents from the adoption of writing by the Tibetan Empire in the mid-7th century to works of the early 11th century.

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Oracle bone

Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.

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Oracle bone script

Oracle bone script was the form of Chinese characters used on oracle bonesanimal bones or turtle plastrons used in pyromantic divinationin the late 2nd millennium BCE, and is the earliest known form of Chinese writing.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatalization (phonetics)

In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.

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Part of speech

In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.

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Paul K. Benedict

Paul King Benedict (July 5, 1912 – July 21, 1997) was an American anthropologist, mental health professional, and linguist who specialized in languages of East and Southeast Asia.

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Personal pronoun

Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Place of articulation

In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).

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Predicate (grammar)

There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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Pronoun

In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Proto-Hmong–Mien language

The Proto-Hmong–Mien language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Hmong–Mien languages.

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Proto-Tai language

Proto-Tai is the reconstructed common ancestor (proto-language) of all the Tai languages, including modern Lao, Shan, Tai Lü, Tai Dam, Ahom, Northern Thai, Thai, Bouyei, and Zhuang.

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Proto-Tibeto-Burman language

The Proto-Tibeto-Burman language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Tibeto-Burman languages, the Sino-Tibetan languages except for Chinese.

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Qieyun

The Qieyun is a Chinese rime dictionary, published in 601 CE during the Sui dynasty.

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Qin (state)

Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.

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Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.

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Rebus

A rebus is a puzzle device which combines the use of illustrated pictures with individual letters to depict words and/or phrases.

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Reduplication

Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.

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Relative clause

A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.

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Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Rime dictionary

A rime dictionary, rhyme dictionary, or rime book is an ancient type of Chinese dictionary that collates characters by tone and rhyme, instead of by radical.

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Root (linguistics)

A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.

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Scapula

In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas; also known as shoulder bone, shoulder blade or wing bone) is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).

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Seal script

Seal script is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.

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Shandong

Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.

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Shang dynasty

The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.

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Shuowen Jiezi

Shuowen Jiezi, often shortened to Shuowen, was an early 2nd-century Chinese dictionary from the Han Dynasty.

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Sibilant

Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.

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Sino-Tibetan languages

The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.

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Spring and Autumn Annals

The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.

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Spring and Autumn period

The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Subject (grammar)

The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.

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Subject–verb–object

In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tarim Basin

The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.

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The Cambridge History of China

The Cambridge History of China is an ongoing series of books published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) covering the history of China from the founding of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC to 1982.

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Tibeto-Burman languages

The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.

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Tocharian languages

Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian, is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Topic and comment

In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.

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Transitive verb

A transitive verb is a verb that requires one or more objects.

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Turtle shell

The turtle shell is a highly complicated shield for the ventral and dorsal parts of turtles, tortoises and terrapins (all classified as "turtles" by zoologists), completely enclosing all the vital organs of the turtle and in some cases even the head.

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Varieties of Chinese

Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Verb

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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Vietic languages

The Vietic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic language family.

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Vietnamese language

Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voicelessness

In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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Vowel

A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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Wei River

The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces.

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Western Zhou

The Western Zhou (西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.

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William H. Baxter

William Hubbard Baxter III (born March 3, 1949) is an American linguist specializing in the history of the Chinese language and best known for his work on the reconstruction on Old Chinese.

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Written Chinese

Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.

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Yangtze

The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.

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Yes–no question

In linguistics, a yes–no question, formally known as a polar question or a general question, is a question whose expected answer is either "yes" or "no".

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Yinxu

Yinxu (modern) is the site of one of the ancient and major historical capitals of China.

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Zhou dynasty

The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.

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Zhuangzi (book)

The Zhuangzi (Mandarin:; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476221) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage.

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Zuo zhuan

The Zuo zhuan, generally translated The Zuo Tradition or The Commentary of Zuo, is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ancient Chinese chronicle ''Spring and Autumn Annals'' (''Chunqiu'' 春秋).

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Redirects here:

Archaic Chinese, Archaic Chinese language, Classic Chinese, ISO 639:och, Old Chinese language.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Chinese

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