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Index Cataract

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. [1]

132 relations: Acetylcarnosine, Alport syndrome, Aminoaciduria, Ammar Al-Mawsili, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Aniridia, Antioxidant, Antipsychotic, Atopic dermatitis, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Ayurveda, Capsulorhexis, Cataract, Cataract surgery, Cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis, Chickenpox, Chromosome abnormality, Cockayne syndrome, Congenital cataract, Congenital syphilis, Conradi–Hünermann syndrome, Corticosteroid, Cri du chat syndrome, Crystallin, Cysteine, Cysticercosis, Cytomegalovirus, Denaturation (biochemistry), Depression (mood), Dermatitis, Developed country, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome, Edema, Edwards syndrome, Electrical injury, Endophthalmitis, Epidemiology (journal), Experiment, Eye, Eye examination, Fabry disease, Falling (accident), Galactosemia, Galactosemic cataract, Galen, Genetic disorder, Glare (vision), ..., Glasses, Glutathione peroxidase, Glycation, Greece, Homocystinuria, Humorism, Hyperparathyroidism, Hypertension, Hypervitaminosis D, Hypocalcaemia, Hypoparathyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Ichthyosis, Injury, Intraocular lens, LASIK, Latin, Lens (anatomy), Lens regeneration, Leprosy, Local anesthetic, Lutein, Metabolic disorder, Miosis, Mode-locking, Mucopolysaccharidosis, Myotonic dystrophy, Nd:YAG laser, Neurofibromatosis type II, Nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome, Non-ionizing radiation, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nuclear sclerosis, Oculocerebrorenal syndrome, Onchocerciasis, Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology in medieval Islam, Ophthalmoscopy, Oxford University Press, Patau syndrome, Pemphigus, Phacoemulsification, Philosopher, Physician, Portcullis, Protein, Protein aggregation, Quality of life, Radiation exposure, Radiobiology, Redox, Retina, Retinal detachment, Retinitis pigmentosa, Retinopathy of prematurity, Retrobulbar block, Rubella, Schizophrenia, Sclera, Senescence, Slit lamp, Statin, Stem cell, Sunglasses, Sunlight, Surgeon, Sushruta Samhita, Syringe, Tobacco smoking, Toxoplasmosis, Turner syndrome, Ultraviolet, Uveitis, Visual acuity, Visual field, Visual impairment, Vitamin C, Vitrectomy, Vitreous touch syndrome, Wilson's disease, Zeaxanthin, 1q21.1 deletion syndrome. Expand index (82 more) »


N-Acetylcarnosine (NAC) is a naturally occurring compound chemically related to the dipeptide carnosine.

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Alport syndrome

Alport syndrome is a genetic disorder affecting around 1 in 50,000 children, characterized by glomerulonephritis, end-stage kidney disease, and hearing loss.

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Aminoaciduria occurs when the urine contains abnormally high amounts of amino acids.

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Ammar Al-Mawsili

Abu Al Qasim Ammar ibn Ali was an important eleventh-century Arab Muslim ophthalmologist.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Aniridia is the absence of the iris, usually involving both eyes.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis).

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Aulus Cornelius Celsus

Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.

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Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.

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Capsulorhexis or capsulorrhexis, also known as continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC), is a technique pioneered by Howard Gimbel used to remove the capsule of the lens from the eye during cataract surgery by shear and stretch forces.

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A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.

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Cataract surgery

Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract.

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Cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis

Cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis or cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), also called cerebral cholesterosis, is an autosomal recessive form of xanthomatosis.

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Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).

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Chromosome abnormality

A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.

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Cockayne syndrome

Cockayne syndrome (CS), also called Neill-Dingwall syndrome, is a rare and fatal autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by growth failure, impaired development of the nervous system, abnormal sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity), eye disorders and premature aging.

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Congenital cataract

Congenital cataracts refers to a lens opacity present at birth.

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Congenital syphilis

Congenital syphilis is syphilis present in utero and at birth, and occurs when a child is born to a mother with syphilis.

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Conradi–Hünermann syndrome

Conradi–Hünermann syndrome (also known as "Conradi–Hünermann–Happle syndrome", "Happle syndrome," and "X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata") is a type of chondrodysplasia punctata.

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Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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Cri du chat syndrome

Cri du chat syndrome, also known as chromosome 5p deletion syndrome, 5p− syndrome (pronounced "five P minus") or Lejeune's syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder due to chromosome deletion on chromosome 5.

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In anatomy, a crystallin is a water-soluble structural protein found in the lens and the cornea of the eye accounting for the transparency of the structure.

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Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.

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Cysticercosis is a tissue infection caused by the young form of the pork tapeworm.

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and megalo-, "large") is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae.

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Denaturation (biochemistry)

Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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Edwards syndrome

Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all, or part of a third copy of chromosome 18.

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Electrical injury

Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.

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Endophthalmitis is an inflammation of the interior of the eye.

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Epidemiology (journal)

Epidemiology is a bi-monthly, peer-reviewed journal for epidemiologic research, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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Eyes are organs of the visual system.

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Eye examination

An eye examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes.

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Fabry disease

Fabry disease is a rare genetic disease.

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Falling (accident)

Falling is the second leading cause of accidental death worldwide and is a major cause of personal injury, especially for the elderly.

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Galactosemia (British galactosaemia, from Greek γαλακτόζη + αίμα, meaning galactose + blood, accumulation of galactose in blood) is a rare genetic metabolic disorder that affects an individual's ability to metabolize the sugar galactose properly.

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Galactosemic cataract

A galactosemic cataract is cataract which is associated with the consequences of galactosemia.

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Glare (vision)

Glare is difficulty seeing in the presence of bright light such as direct or reflected sunlight or artificial light such as car headlamps at night.

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Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.

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Glutathione peroxidase

Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage.

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Glycation (sometimes called non-enzymatic glycosylation) is the result of the covalent bonding of a sugar molecule, such as glucose or fructose, to a protein or lipid molecule, without the controlling action of an enzyme.

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No description.

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Classical homocystinuria, also known as cystathionine beta synthase deficiency or CBS deficiency, is an inherited disorder of the metabolism of the amino acid methionine due to a deficiency of cystathionine beta synthase.

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Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.

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Hyperparathyroidism is an increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the blood.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypervitaminosis D

Hypervitaminosis D is a state of vitamin D toxicity.

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Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.

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Hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands with underproduction of parathyroid hormone.

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

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Ichthyosis is a family of rare genetic skin disorders characterized by dry, thickened, scaly skin.

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Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.

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Intraocular lens

Intraocular lens (IOL) is a lens implanted in the eye as part of a treatment for cataracts or myopia.

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LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

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Lens regeneration

The regeneration of the lens of the eye has been studied, mostly in amphibians and rabbits, from the 18th century.

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Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.

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Local anesthetic

A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.

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Lutein (Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. from Latin luteus meaning "yellow") is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids.

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Metabolic disorder

A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.

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Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.

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Mode-locking is a technique in optics by which a laser can be made to produce pulses of light of extremely short duration, on the order of picoseconds (10−12 s) or femtoseconds (10−15 s).

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Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of metabolic disorders caused by the absence or malfunctioning of lysosomal enzymes needed to break down molecules called glycosaminoglycans.

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Myotonic dystrophy

Myotonic dystrophy is a long term genetic disorder that affects muscle function.

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Nd:YAG laser

Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; Nd:Y3Al5O12) is a crystal that is used as a lasing medium for solid-state lasers.

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Neurofibromatosis type II

Neurofibromatosis type II (also known as MISME syndrome - multiple inherited schwannomas, meningiomas, and ependymomas) is a genetic condition which may be inherited or may arise spontaneously. The main manifestation of the condition is the development of symmetric, benign brain tumors in the region of the cranial nerve VIII, which is the "auditory-vestibular nerve" that transmits sensory information from the inner ear to the brain. Many people with this condition also experience visual problems. NF II is caused by mutations of the "Merlin" gene, which seems to influence the form and movement of cells. The principal treatments consist of neurosurgical removal of the tumors and surgical treatment of the eye lesions. Historically the underlying disorder has not had any therapy due to the cell function caused by the genetic mutation. However, new drug research and some clinical trials have shown some promise in having beneficial effects. Collaborative research to find better treatments is ongoing, such as the work of the Synodos NF-2 Consortium of scientists.

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Nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome

Nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as basal-cell nevus syndrome, multiple basal-cell carcinoma syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, and Gorlin–Goltz syndrome, is an inherited medical condition involving defects within multiple body systems such as the skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine system, and bones.

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Non-ionizing radiation

Non-ionizing (or non-ionising) radiation refers to any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy per quantum (photon energy) to ionize atoms or molecules—that is, to completely remove an electron from an atom or molecule.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.

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Nuclear sclerosis

Nuclear sclerosis is an age-related change in the density of the crystalline lens nucleus that occurs in all older animals.

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Oculocerebrorenal syndrome

Oculocerebrorenal syndrome (also called Lowe syndrome) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, hypotonia, intellectual disability, proximal tubular acidosis, aminoaciduria, and low-molecular-weight proteinuria.

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Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a disease caused by infection with the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus.

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Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.

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Ophthalmology in medieval Islam

Ophthalmology was one of the foremost branches in medieval Islamic medicine.

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Ophthalmoscopy, also called funduscopy, is a test that allows a health professional to see inside the fundus of the eye and other structures using an ophthalmoscope (or funduscope).

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Patau syndrome

Patau syndrome is a syndrome caused by a chromosomal abnormality, in which some or all of the cells of the body contain extra genetic material from chromosome 13.

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Pemphigus is a rare group of blistering autoimmune diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes.

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Phacoemulsification is a modern cataract surgery in which the eye's internal lens is emulsified with an ultrasonic handpiece and aspirated from the eye.

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A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

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A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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A portcullis (from the French porte coulissante, "sliding door") is a heavy vertically-closing gate typically found in medieval fortifications, consisting of a latticed grille made of wood, metal, or a combination of the two, which slides down grooves inset within each jamb of the gateway.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein aggregation

Protein aggregation is a biological phenomenon in which mis-folded proteins aggregate (i.e., accumulate and clump together) either intra- or extracellularly.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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Radiation exposure

Radiation exposure is a measure of the ionization of air due to ionizing radiation from photons; that is, gamma rays and X-rays.

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Radiobiology (also known as radiation biology) is a field of clinical and basic medical sciences that involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things, especially health effects of radiation.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Retinal detachment

Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina separates from the layer underneath.

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Retinitis pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disorder of the eyes that causes loss of vision.

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Retinopathy of prematurity

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), also called retrolental fibroplasia (RLF) and Terry syndrome, is a disease of the eye affecting prematurely born babies generally having received intensive neonatal care, in which oxygen therapy is used on them due to the premature development of their lungs.

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Retrobulbar block

A retrobulbar block is a regional anesthetic nerve block in the retrobulbar space, the area located behind the globe of the eye.

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Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.

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Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.

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Slit lamp

The slit lamp is an instrument consisting of a high-intensity light source that can be focused to shine a thin sheet of light into the eye.

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Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Sunglasses or sun glasses (informally called shades) are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes.

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Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.

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In medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations.

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Sushruta Samhita

The Sushruta Samhita (सुश्रुतसंहिता, IAST: Suśrutasaṃhitā, literally "Suśruta's Compendium") is an ancient Sanskrit text on medicine and surgery, and one of the most important such treatises on this subject to survive from the ancient world.

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A syringe is a simple reciprocating pump consisting of a plunger (though in modern syringes it's actually a piston) that fits tightly within a cylindrical tube called a barrel.

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

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Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome (TS), also known as 45,X or 45,X0, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.

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Visual acuity

Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.

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Visual field

The visual field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments".

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Vitrectomy is surgery to remove some or all of the vitreous humor from the eye.

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Vitreous touch syndrome

Vitreous touch syndrome, also known as vitreous wick syndrome is a late complication of intra capsular cataract extraction wherein the vitreous bulges through the pupillary aperture, and touches and attaches to the corneal endothelium.

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Wilson's disease

Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.

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Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature.

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1q21.1 deletion syndrome

1q21.1 deletion syndrome or 1q21.1 (recurrent) microdeletion is a rare aberration of chromosome 1.

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Anterior subcapsular cataract, Cataract induction, Cataracts, Cateract, Cateracts, Juvenile cataract, Nuclear cataract, Senile cataract, Traumatic cataract.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cataract

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