114 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Absorption spectroscopy, Antibonding molecular orbital, Atom, Atomic electron transition, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Atomic physics, Aufbau principle, Azimuthal quantum number, Bohr model, Bound state, Chemical bond, Chemistry, Classical mechanics, Computational chemistry, Covalent bond, Crystal, Degenerate energy levels, Dirac equation, Effective nuclear charge, Eigenfunction, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Electric field, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron configuration, Electron shell, Electronic band structure, Electronvolt, Emission spectrum, Energy, Erwin Schrödinger, Excited state, Fermi level, Fine structure, Franck–Condon principle, Frequency, G-factor (physics), Ground state, Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics), Heat capacity, Heat transfer, Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity, Hydrogen-like atom, Infinity, Infrared, Internal energy, Ion, ..., Ionization, Ionization energy, J-coupling, Jablonski diagram, Joseph von Fraunhofer, Light, Lone pair, Microwave, Molecular geometry, Molecular Hamiltonian, Molecular orbital, Molecular orbital diagram, Molecular physics, Molecular term symbol, Molecular vibration, Molecule, Niels Bohr, Non-bonding orbital, Orbit, Particle, Particle in a box, Pauli exclusion principle, Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics), Photon, Photon energy, Planck constant, Potential energy, Potential energy surface, Principal quantum number, Probability amplitude, Quantization (physics), Quantum chemistry, Quantum harmonic oscillator, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Rotational transition, Rotational–vibrational coupling, Rovibronic coupling, Rydberg constant, Rydberg formula, Schrödinger equation, Shielding effect, Spectral line, Spectroscopy, Spectrum, Speed of light, Spin (physics), Spin–orbit interaction, Square number, Standing wave, Stationary state, Temperature, Thermal conduction, Translation (geometry), Ultraviolet, Vacuum level, Valence and conduction bands, Vibronic spectroscopy, Wave function, Wavelength, Werner Heisenberg, William Hyde Wollaston, X-ray, X-ray notation. Expand index (64 more) »

## Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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## Absorption spectroscopy

Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.

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## Antibonding molecular orbital

In chemical bonding theory, an antibonding orbital is a type of molecular orbital (MO) that weakens the bond between two atoms and helps to raise the energy of the molecule relative to the separated atoms.

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## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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## Atomic electron transition

Atomic electron transition is a change of an electron from one energy level to another within an atom or artificial atom.

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## Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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## Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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## Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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## Atomic physics

Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.

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## Aufbau principle

The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels.

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## Azimuthal quantum number

The azimuthal quantum number is a quantum number for an atomic orbital that determines its orbital angular momentum and describes the shape of the orbital.

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## Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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## Bound state

In quantum physics, a bound state is a special quantum state of a particle subject to a potential such that the particle has a tendency to remain localised in one or more regions of space.

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## Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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## Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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## Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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## Computational chemistry

Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.

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## Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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## Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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## Degenerate energy levels

In quantum mechanics, an energy level is degenerate if it corresponds to two or more different measurable states of a quantum system.

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## Dirac equation

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.

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## Effective nuclear charge

The effective nuclear charge (often symbolized as Z_ or Z^\ast) is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom.

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## Eigenfunction

In mathematics, an eigenfunction of a linear operator D defined on some function space is any non-zero function f in that space that, when acted upon by D, is only multiplied by some scaling factor called an eigenvalue.

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## Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.

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## Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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## Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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## Electron configuration

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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## Electron shell

In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.

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## Electronic band structure

In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).

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## Electronvolt

In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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## Emission spectrum

The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.

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## Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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## Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.

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## Excited state

In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).

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## Fermi level

The Fermi level chemical potential for electrons (or electrochemical potential for electrons), usually denoted by µ or EF, of a body is a thermodynamic quantity, whose significance is the thermodynamic work required to add one electron to the body (not counting the work required to remove the electron from wherever it came from).

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## Fine structure

In atomic physics, the fine structure describes the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms due to electron spin and relativistic corrections to the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation.

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## Franck–Condon principle

The Franck–Condon principle is a rule in spectroscopy and quantum chemistry that explains the intensity of vibronic transitions.

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## Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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## G-factor (physics)

A g-factor (also called g value or dimensionless magnetic moment) is a dimensionless quantity that characterizes the magnetic moment and gyromagnetic ratio of an atom, a particle or nucleus.

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## Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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## Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.

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## Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

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## Heat transfer

Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.

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## Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity

Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity is a rule based on observation of atomic spectra, which is used to predict the ground state of an atom or molecule with one or more open electronic shells.

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## Hydrogen-like atom

A hydrogen-like ion is any atomic nucleus which has one electron and thus is isoelectronic with hydrogen.

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## Infinity

Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.

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## Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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## Internal energy

In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.

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## Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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## Ionization

Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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## Ionization energy

The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.

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## J-coupling

In nuclear chemistry and nuclear physics, Scalar or J-couplings (also called indirect dipole–dipole coupling) are mediated through chemical bonds connecting two spins.

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## Jablonski diagram

In molecular spectroscopy, a Jablonski diagram is a diagram that illustrates the electronic states of a molecule and the transitions between them.

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## Joseph von Fraunhofer

Joseph Ritter von Fraunhofer (6 March 1787 – 7 June 1826) was a Bavarian physicist and optical lens manufacturer.

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## Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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## Lone pair

In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.

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## Microwave

Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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## Molecular geometry

Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.

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## Molecular Hamiltonian

In atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum chemistry, the molecular Hamiltonian is the Hamiltonian operator representing the energy of the electrons and nuclei in a molecule.

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## Molecular orbital

In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.

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## Molecular orbital diagram

A molecular orbital diagram, or MO diagram, is a qualitative descriptive tool explaining chemical bonding in molecules in terms of molecular orbital theory in general and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) molecular orbital method in particular.

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## Molecular physics

Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms as well as the molecular dynamics.

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## Molecular term symbol

In molecular physics, the molecular term symbol is a shorthand expression of the group representation and angular momenta that characterize the state of a molecule, i.e. its electronic quantum state which is an eigenstate of the electronic molecular Hamiltonian.

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## Molecular vibration

A molecular vibration occurs when atoms in a molecule are in periodic motion while the molecule as a whole has constant translational and rotational motion.

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## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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## Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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## Non-bonding orbital

A non-bonding orbital, also known as non-bonding molecular orbital (NBMO), is a molecular orbital whose occupation by electrons neither increases nor decreases the bond order between the involved atoms.

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## Orbit

In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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## Particle

In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.

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## Particle in a box

In quantum mechanics, the particle in a box model (also known as the infinite potential well or the infinite square well) describes a particle free to move in a small space surrounded by impenetrable barriers.

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## Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.

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## Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one.

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## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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## Photon energy

Photon energy is the energy carried by a single photon.

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## Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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## Potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.

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## Potential energy surface

A potential energy surface (PES) describes the energy of a system, especially a collection of atoms, in terms of certain parameters, normally the positions of the atoms.

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## Principal quantum number

In quantum mechanics, the principal quantum number (symbolized n) is one of four quantum numbers which are assigned to all electrons in an atom to describe that electron's state.

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## Probability amplitude

In quantum mechanics, a probability amplitude is a complex number used in describing the behaviour of systems.

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## Quantization (physics)

In physics, quantization is the process of transition from a classical understanding of physical phenomena to a newer understanding known as quantum mechanics.

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## Quantum chemistry

Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.

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## Quantum harmonic oscillator

The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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## Quantum state

In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.

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## Rotational transition

A rotational transition is an abrupt change in angular momentum in quantum physics.

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## Rotational–vibrational coupling

Rotational–vibrational coupling occurs when the rotation frequency of an object is close to or identical to a natural internal vibration frequency.

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## Rovibronic coupling

Rovibronic coupling denotes the simultaneous interactions between rotational, vibrational, and electronic degrees of freedom in a molecule.

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## Rydberg constant

The Rydberg constant, symbol R∞ for heavy atoms or RH for hydrogen, named after the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg, is a physical constant relating to atomic spectra, in the science of spectroscopy.

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## Rydberg formula

The Rydberg formula is used in atomic physics to describe the wavelengths of spectral lines of many chemical elements.

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## Schrödinger equation

In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.

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## Shielding effect

The shielding effect describes the attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron.

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## Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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## Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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## Spectrum

A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.

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## Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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## Spin–orbit interaction

In quantum physics, the spin–orbit interaction (also called spin–orbit effect or spin–orbit coupling) is a relativistic interaction of a particle's spin with its motion inside a potential.

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## Square number

In mathematics, a square number or perfect square is an integer that is the square of an integer; in other words, it is the product of some integer with itself.

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## Standing wave

In physics, a standing wave – also known as a stationary wave – is a wave which oscillates in time but whose peak amplitude profile does not move in space.

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## Stationary state

A stationary state is a quantum state with all observables independent of time.

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## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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## Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.

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## Translation (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure or a space by the same distance in a given direction.

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## Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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## Vacuum level

In physics, the vacuum level refers to the energy of a free stationary electron that is outside of any material (it is in a perfect vacuum).

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## Valence and conduction bands

In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.

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## Vibronic spectroscopy

Vibronic spectra involve simultaneous changes in the vibrational and electronic energy states of a molecule.

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## Wave function

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.

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## Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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## Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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## William Hyde Wollaston

William Hyde Wollaston (6 August 1766 – 22 December 1828) was an English chemist and physicist who is famous for discovering the chemical elements palladium and rhodium.

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## X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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## X-ray notation

X-ray notation is a method of labeling atomic orbitals that grew out of X-ray science.

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## Redirects here:

Atomic energy level, Energy Level, Energy State, Energy level (quantum mechanics), Energy levels, Energy state, Molecular energy state, Quantized electronic structure, Quantized energy levels of atoms, Quantum Energy, Quantum energy, Quantum energy level, Quantum levels.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_level