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Index Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light. [1]

202 relations: Academic publishing, Active galactic nucleus, Advantage Business Media, AIM-4 Falcon, AIM-9 Sidewinder, Albert Einstein, Arnolfini Portrait, Astronomer, Émilie du Châtelet, Bell Labs, Black body, Black-body radiation, Boidae, Bolometer, Brain implant, Buprestidae, C band (infrared), Camera phone, Cannabis cultivation, Carbon black, Cirrus cloud, Climate, Common vampire bat, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Convective heat transfer, Corona, Cumulonimbus cloud, Dead Sea Scrolls, Deutsches Institut für Normung, Digital camera, Dipole, Dispersion (optics), Dispersive prism, Doc (computing), Edmond Becquerel, El Niño, Electric current, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electronvolt, Emissivity, Extremely high frequency, Extremely low frequency, Far infrared, Far-infrared laser, Film scanner, FLIR Systems, Fog, Free-space optical communication, Gamma ray, ..., George E. Smith, Global warming, Gustav Kirchhoff, Heat, Heinrich Welker, Helium, Hertz, Hughes Aircraft Company, Human eye, Image intensifier, Image scanner, Indium antimonide, Indium gallium arsenide, Infra-red search and track, Infrared astronomy, Infrared cleaning, Infrared cut-off filter, Infrared Data Association, Infrared non-destructive testing of materials, Infrared photography, Infrared signature, Infrared spectroscopy, Infrared thermometer, Infrared window, Inpainting, International Commission on Illumination, International Organization for Standardization, Irradiance, John Herschel, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Journal of the Optical Society of America, Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation, Laser, Lead selenide, Lens (optics), Leopoldo Nobili, Light, Light-emitting diode, List of infrared articles, List of light sources, Low-level laser therapy, Max Planck, Melanophila acuminata, Mercury cadmium telluride, Microbolometer, Microwave, Millimetre, Missile guidance, Modulation, Mogao Caves, Molecular cloud, Molecule, Motion picture film scanner, Nanometre, NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Near-infrared spectroscopy, Night vision, Night vision device, Optical communication, Optical fiber, Optical filter, Organic compound, Organism, Pablo Picasso, Pachliopta aristolochiae, Pentimento, People counter, Personal digital assistant, Photodiode, Photoelectric effect, Photometric system, Photon, Pit viper, Planck's law, Planet, Prime version, Protostar, Pyrgeometer, Pyrometer, Pythonidae, Quantum, Radiant energy, Radio wave, Rat, RC-5, Red, Redshift, Refraction, Refractive index and extinction coefficient of thin film materials, Relativistic beaming, Remote control, Remote infrared audible signage, Robert Clark Jones, Robert W. Wood, Royal Radar Establishment, Royal Society, Samuel Pierpont Langley, Selenium, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Solar irradiance, Spectral density, Spectroscopy, Spontaneous emission, Stefan–Boltzmann law, Stratocumulus cloud, Stratus cloud, Sun, Target acquisition, Telecommunication, Telescope, Temperature, Terahertz radiation, Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, Thallium(I) sulfide, Theodore Case, Thermal conduction, Thermal efficiency, Thermal radiation, Thermographic camera, Thermography, Thermometer, Thermopile, Triatoma infestans, Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet catastrophe, Underdrawing, United States Army Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center, Universe, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Vacuum, Vibration, Videotelephony, Villa of the Papyri, Visible spectrum, Visible-light astronomy, Watt, Wave–particle duality, Wavelength, Weather forecasting, Weather satellite, Wien's displacement law, Wilhelm Wien, Willard Boyle, William Coblentz, William Herschel, Willoughby Smith, Wireless, Woman Ironing, World War II, X-ray, Zielgerät 1229. Expand index (152 more) »

Academic publishing

Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.

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Active galactic nucleus

An active galactic nucleus (AGN) is a compact region at the center of a galaxy that has a much higher than normal luminosity over at least some portion—and possibly all—of the electromagnetic spectrum, with characteristics indicating that the excess luminosity is not produced by stars.

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Advantage Business Media

Advantage Business Marketing (ABM) is a private, American digital marketing and information services company owned by the venture capital firm Owner Resource Group.

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AIM-4 Falcon

The Hughes AIM-4 Falcon was the first operational guided air-to-air missile of the United States Air Force.

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AIM-9 Sidewinder

The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a short-range air-to-air missile developed by the United States Navy at China Lake, California, in the 1950s, and subsequently adopted by the United States Air Force.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Arnolfini Portrait

The Arnolfini Portrait (or The Arnolfini Wedding, The Arnolfini Marriage, the Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife, or other titles) is a 1434 oil painting on oak panel by the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck.

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An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Émilie du Châtelet

Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Marquise Du Châtelet (17 December 1706 – 10 September 1749) was a French natural philosopher, mathematician, physicist, and author during the early 1730s until her untimely death due to childbirth in 1749.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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Black-body radiation

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).

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The Boidae (Common names: boas, boids) are a family of nonvenomous snakes primarily found in the Americas, although also existing in Africa, Madagascar, Europe, Asia, and some Pacific Islands.

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A bolometer is a device for measuring the power of incident electromagnetic radiation via the heating of a material with a temperature-dependent electrical resistance.

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Brain implant

Brain implants, often referred to as neural implants, are technological devices that connect directly to a biological subject's brain – usually placed on the surface of the brain, or attached to the brain's cortex.

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Buprestidae is a family of beetles known as jewel beetles or metallic wood-boring beetles because of their glossy iridescent colors.

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C band (infrared)

In infrared optical communications, C-band refers to the wavelength range 1530–1565 nm, which corresponds to the amplification range of erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs).

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Camera phone

A camera phone is a mobile phone which is able to capture photographs and often record video using one or more built-in digital cameras.

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Cannabis cultivation

This article presents common techniques and facts regarding the cultivation of the flowering plant Cannabis, primarily for the production and consumption of cannabis flowers ("buds").

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Carbon black

Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.

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Cirrus cloud

Cirrus (cloud classification symbol: Ci) is a genus of atmospheric cloud generally characterized by thin, wispy strands, giving the type its name from the Latin word cirrus, meaning a ringlet or curling lock of hair.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Common vampire bat

The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) is a small, leaf-nosed bat native to the Americas.

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Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences

Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (English: Proceedings of the Academy of sciences), or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1666.

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Convective heat transfer

Convective heat transfer, often referred to simply as convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids.

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A corona (Latin, 'crown') is an aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars.

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Cumulonimbus cloud

Cumulonimbus, from the Latin cumulus ("heaped") and nimbus ("rainstorm"), is a dense, towering vertical cloud, forming from water vapor carried by powerful upward air currents.

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Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.

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Deutsches Institut für Normung

Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body.

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Digital camera

A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.

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In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.

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Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

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Dispersive prism

In optics, a dispersive prism is an optical prism, usually having the shape of a geometrical triangular prism, used as a spectroscopic component.

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Doc (computing)

In computing, DOC or doc (an abbreviation of "document") is a filename extension for word processing documents, most commonly in the proprietary Microsoft Word Binary File Format.

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Edmond Becquerel

Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (24 March 1820 – 11 May 1891), known as Edmond Becquerel, was a French physicist who studied the solar spectrum, magnetism, electricity and optics.

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El Niño

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting energy as thermal radiation.

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Extremely high frequency

Extremely high frequency (EHF) is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz).

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Extremely low frequency

Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the ITU designation for electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz, and corresponding wavelengths of 100,000 to 10,000 kilometers, respectively.

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Far infrared

Far infrared (FIR) is a region in the infrared spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.

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Far-infrared laser

Far-infrared laser or terahertz laser (FIR laser, THz laser) is a laser with output wavelength in between 30-1000 µm (frequency 0.3-10 THz), in the far infrared or terahertz frequency band of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Film scanner

A film scanner is a device made for scanning photographic film directly into a computer without the use of any intermediate printmaking.

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FLIR Systems

FLIR Systems is the world's largest commercial company specializing in the design and production of thermal imaging cameras, components and imaging sensors.

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Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.

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Free-space optical communication

Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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George E. Smith

George Elwood Smith (born May 10, 1930) is an American scientist, applied physicist, and co-inventor of the charge-coupled device (CCD).

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Gustav Kirchhoff

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

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In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

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Heinrich Welker

Heinrich Johann Welker (September 9, 1912 in Ingolstadt – December 25, 1981 in Erlangen) was a German theoretical and applied physicist who invented the "transistron", a transistor made at Westinghouse independently of the first successful transistor made at Bell Laboratories.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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Hughes Aircraft Company

The Hughes Aircraft Company was a major American aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1932 by Howard Hughes in Glendale, California as a division of Hughes Tool Company.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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Image intensifier

An image intensifier or image intensifier tube is a vacuum tube device for increasing the intensity of available light in an optical system to allow use under low-light conditions, such as at night, to facilitate visual imaging of low-light processes, such as fluorescence of materials in X-rays or gamma rays (X-ray image intensifier), or for conversion of non-visible light sources, such as near-infrared or short wave infrared to visible.

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Image scanner

An image scanner—often abbreviated to just scanner, although the term is ambiguous out of context (barcode scanner, CT scanner etc.)—is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting or an object and converts it to a digital image.

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Indium antimonide

Indium antimonide (InSb) is a crystalline compound made from the elements indium (In) and antimony (Sb).

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Indium gallium arsenide

Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) (alternatively gallium indium arsenide, GaInAs) is a ternary alloy (chemical compound) of indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs).

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Infra-red search and track

An infrared search and track (IRST) system (sometimes known as infrared sighting and tracking) is a method for detecting and tracking objects which give off infrared radiation (see Infrared signature) such as jet aircraft and helicopters.

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Infrared astronomy

Infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that studies astronomical objects visible in infrared (IR) radiation.

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Infrared cleaning

Infrared cleaning is a technique used by some film scanners and flatbed scanners to reduce or remove the effect of dust and scratches upon the finished scan.

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Infrared cut-off filter

Infrared cut-off filters, sometimes called IR filters or heat-absorbing filters, are designed to reflect or block mid-infrared wavelengths while passing visible light.

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Infrared Data Association

The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) is an industry-driven interest group that was founded in 1993 by around 50 companies.

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Infrared non-destructive testing of materials

Active thermography is an advanced nondestructive testing procedure, which uses a thermography measurement of a tested material thermal response after its external excitation.

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Infrared photography

Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range.

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Infrared signature

The term infrared signature is used by defense scientists and the military to describe the appearance of objects to infrared sensors.

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Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.

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Infrared thermometer

An infrared thermometer is a thermometer which infers temperature from a portion of the thermal radiation sometimes called black-body radiation emitted by the object being measured.

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Infrared window

The infrared atmospheric window is the overall dynamic property of the earth's atmosphere, taken as a whole at each place and occasion of interest, that lets some infrared radiation from the cloud tops and land-sea surface pass directly to space without intermediate absorption and re-emission, and thus without heating the atmosphere.

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Inpainting is the process of reconstructing lost or deteriorated parts of images and videos.

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International Commission on Illumination

The International Commission on Illumination (usually abbreviated CIE for its French name, Commission internationale de l'éclairage) is the international authority on light, illumination, colour, and colour spaces.

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International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.

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John Herschel

Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical work.

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John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.

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Journal of the Optical Society of America

The Journal of the Optical Society of America is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of optics, published by The Optical Society.

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Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation

In heat transfer, Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation refers to wavelength-specific radiative emission and absorption by a material body in thermodynamic equilibrium, including radiative exchange equilibrium.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Lead selenide

Lead selenide (PbSe), or lead(II) selenide, a selenide of lead, is a semiconductor material.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Leopoldo Nobili

Leopoldo Nobili, born on 5 July 1784 in Trassilico (Toscana) and died on 22 August 1835 in Florence, was an Italian physicist who invented a number of instruments critical to investigating thermodynamics and electrochemistry.

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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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List of infrared articles

This is a list of Infrared topics.

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List of light sources

This is a list of sources of light, including both natural and artificial processes that emit light.

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Low-level laser therapy

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a form of alternative medicine that applies low-level (low-power) lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to the surface of or in orifices of the body.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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Melanophila acuminata

Melanophila acuminata, known generally as the black fire beetle or fire bug, is a species of metallic wood-boring beetle in the family Buprestidae.

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Mercury cadmium telluride

HgCdTe or mercury cadmium telluride (also cadmium mercury telluride, MCT, MerCad Telluride, MerCadTel, MerCaT or CMT) is an alloy of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and mercury telluride (HgTe) with a tunable bandgap spanning the shortwave infrared to the very long wave infrared regions.

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A microbolometer is a specific type of bolometer used as a detector in a thermal camera.

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Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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The millimetre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.

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Missile guidance

Missile guidance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile or a guided bomb to its intended target.

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In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.

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Mogao Caves

The Mogao Caves, also known as the Thousand Buddha Grottoes or Caves of the Thousand Buddhas, form a system of 492 temples southeast of the center of Dunhuang, an oasis strategically located at a religious and cultural crossroads on the Silk Road, in Gansu province, China.

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Molecular cloud

A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Motion picture film scanner

A motion picture film scanner is a device used in digital filmmaking to scan original film for storage as high-resolution digital intermediate files.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (NASA IRTF) is a telescope optimized for use in infrared astronomy and located at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii.

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Near-infrared spectroscopy

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 780 nm to 2500 nm).

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Night vision

Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions.

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Night vision device

A night vision device (NVD), also known as night optical/observation device (NOD) and night vision goggles (NVG), is an optoelectronic device that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness.

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Optical communication

Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Optical filter

An optical filter is a device that selectively transmits light of different wavelengths, usually implemented as a glass plane or plastic device in the optical path, which are either dyed in the bulk or have interference coatings.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.

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Pachliopta aristolochiae

Pachliopta aristolochiae, the common rose, is a swallowtail butterfly belonging to the genus Pachliopta, the roses, or red-bodied swallowtails.

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A pentimento (plural pentimenti) is an alteration in a painting, evidenced by traces of previous work, showing that the artist has changed their mind as to the composition during the process of painting.

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People counter

A people counter is an electronic device that is used to measure the number of people traversing a certain passage or entrance.

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Personal digital assistant

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.

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A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current.

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Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.

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Photometric system

In astronomy, a photometric system is a set of well-defined passbands (or filters), with a known sensitivity to incident radiation.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Pit viper

The Crotalinae, commonly known as pit vipers,Mehrtens JM.

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Planck's law

Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.

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A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Prime version

In the art world, if an artwork exists in several versions, the one known or believed to be the earliest is called the prime version.

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A protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud.

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A pyrgeometer is a device that measures near-surface infra-red radiation spectrum in the wavelength spectrum approximately from 4.5 µm to 100 µm.

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A pyrometer is a type of remote-sensing thermometer used to measure the temperature of a surface.

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The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python (πυθων), are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia.

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In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.

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Radiant energy

In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.

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Radio wave

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.

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Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.

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The RC-5 protocol was developed by Philips in the late 1980s as a semi-proprietary consumer IR (infrared) remote control communication protocol for consumer electronics.

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Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.

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In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.

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Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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Refractive index and extinction coefficient of thin film materials


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Relativistic beaming

Relativistic beaming (also known as Doppler beaming, Doppler boosting, or the headlight effect) is the process by which relativistic effects modify the apparent luminosity of emitting matter that is moving at speeds close to the speed of light.

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Remote control

In electronics, a remote control or clicker is a component of an electronic device used to operate the device from a distance, usually wirelessly.

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Remote infrared audible signage

Remote infrared audible signage (RIAS) was developed by Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute (as Talking SignsR) so that print-handicapped people, such as those that are blind or have low-vision, or are illiterate, foreign, or visually impaired, would be able to access the same type of information available through textual print signs within the built environment.

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Robert Clark Jones


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Robert W. Wood

Robert Williams Wood (May 2, 1868 – August 11, 1955) was an American physicist and inventor.

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Royal Radar Establishment

The Royal Radar Establishment is a research center in Malvern, Worcestershire in the United Kingdom.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Samuel Pierpont Langley

Samuel Pierpont Langley (August 22, 1834 – February 27, 1906) was an American astronomer, physicist, inventor of the bolometer and aviation pioneer.

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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Spectral density

The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Spontaneous emission

Spontaneous emission is the process in which a quantum mechanical system (such as an atom, molecule or subatomic particle) transitions from an excited energy state to a lower energy state (e.g., its ground state) and emits a quantum in the form of a photon.

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Stefan–Boltzmann law

The Stefan–Boltzmann law describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature.

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Stratocumulus cloud

A stratocumulus cloud belongs to a genus-type of clouds characterized by large dark, rounded masses, usually in groups, lines, or waves, the individual elements being larger than those in altocumulus, and the whole being at a lower altitude, usually below 2,400 meters (8,000 ft).

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Stratus cloud

Stratus clouds are low-level clouds characterized by horizontal layering with a uniform base, as opposed to convective or cumuliform clouds that are formed by rising thermals.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Target acquisition

Target acquisition is the detection, identification, and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of lethal and non-lethal means.

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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Terahertz radiation

Terahertz radiation – also known as submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, tremendously high frequency (THF), T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux or THz – consists of electromagnetic waves within the ITU-designated band of frequencies from 0.3 to 3 terahertz (THz; 1012 Hz).

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Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

In physics, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a spectroscopic technique in which the properties of matter are probed with short pulses of terahertz radiation.

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Thallium(I) sulfide

Thallium(I) sulfide, Tl2S, is a chemical compound of thallium and sulfur.

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Theodore Case

Theodore Willard Case (December 12, 1888 – May 13, 1944) was an American chemist, physicist, and inventor known for the invention of the Movietone sound-on-film sound film system.

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Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.

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Thermal efficiency

In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example.

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Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

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Thermographic camera

A thermographic camera (also called an infrared camera or thermal imaging camera) is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light.

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Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science.

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A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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A thermopile is an electronic device that converts thermal energy into electrical energy.

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Triatoma infestans

Triatoma infestans, commonly called winchuka (vinchuca) in Argentina, Bolivia and Chile, barbeiro in Brazil and also known as "kissing bug" or "barber bug" in English, is a blood-sucking bug (like all the members of its subfamily Triatominae) and the most important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi which can lead to Chagas disease.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Ultraviolet catastrophe

The ultraviolet catastrophe, also called the Rayleigh–Jeans catastrophe, was the prediction of late 19th century/early 20th century classical physics that an ideal black body at thermal equilibrium will emit radiation in all frequency ranges, emitting more energy as the frequency increases.

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Underdrawing is a preparatory drawing done on a painting ground before paint is applied, for example, an imprimatura or an underpainting.

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United States Army Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center

The Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (or CERDEC) is the United States Army information technologies and integrated systems center.

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The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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Unmanned aerial vehicle

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.

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Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.

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Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time.

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Villa of the Papyri

The Villa of the Papyri (Villa dei Papiri, also known as Villa dei Pisoni) is named after its unique library of papyri (or scrolls), but is also one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum and in the Roman world.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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Visible-light astronomy

Visible-light astronomy encompasses a wide variety of observations via telescopes that are sensitive in the range of visible light (optical telescopes).

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Weather forecasting

Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.

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Weather satellite

The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.

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Wien's displacement law

Wien's displacement law states that the black body radiation curve for different temperatures peaks at a wavelength inversely proportional to the temperature.

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Wilhelm Wien

Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (13 January 1864 – 30 August 1928) was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at any one reference temperature.

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Willard Boyle

Willard Sterling Boyle, (August 19, 1924May 7, 2011) was a Canadian physicist, pioneer in the field of laser technology and co-inventor of the charge-coupled device.

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William Coblentz

William Weber Coblentz (November 20, 1873 – September 15, 1962) was an American physicist notable for his contributions to infrared radiometry and spectroscopy.

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William Herschel

Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.

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Willoughby Smith

Willoughby Smith (6 April 1828, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk – 17 July 1891, Eastbourne, Sussex) was an English electrical engineer who discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium.

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Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.

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Woman Ironing

Woman Ironing (1904) is an oil painting by Pablo Picasso completed during the artist's Blue Period (1901—1904).

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Zielgerät 1229

The ZG 1229 Vampir 1229 (ZG 1229), also known in its code name Vampir, was an active infrared device developed for the Wehrmacht for the Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifle during World War II, intended primarily for night use.

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1300 nm, 1550 nm, 830 nm, 850 nm, About infrared, Applications of infrared radiation, Calorific Rays, Calorific rays, IR radiation, IR-A, IR-B, IR-C, Infared, Infra Red, Infra red, Infra-Red, Infra-red, Infra-red light, Infra-red radiation, Infra-red reflectography, InfraRed, Infrared Radiation, Infrared Ray, Infrared Rays, Infrared bands, Infrared communication, Infrared light, Infrared radiation, Infrared rays, Infrared reflectography, Infrared sources, Infrared spectrum, LWIR, Line of light, Long-wave infrared, MIR photons, MWIR, Mid infrared, Mid-infrared, Mid-wave infrared, NIR Photons, Near Infrared, Near infrared, Near-infrared, Near-infrared light, Short-wave infrared, Short-wavelength infrared, Thermal infrared, Thermal infrared radiation.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared

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