123 relations: Abegg's rule, Adduct, Alexander Butlerov, American Institute of Physics, Ammonia, Anisotropy, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic orbital, August Kekulé, Ångström, Bohr model, Bohr model of the chemical bond, Bond length, Boron trifluoride, Carbon, Cation–pi interaction, Chemical affinity, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, Chemical polarity, Chemical species, Classical physics, Condensed matter physics, Conformational isomerism, Coordinate covalent bond, Coordination complex, Coulomb's law, Covalent bond, Crystal, Delocalized electron, Density functional theory, Diamond, Diatomic molecule, Dihydrogen cation, Double bond, Ductility, Dudley R. Herschbach, Dynamic equilibrium, Edward Frankland, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electronegativity, Electrostatics, Elementary charge, Energy, Ethanol, Fluorine, Force, ..., Fritz London, Functional group, Gilbert N. Lewis, Halogen, Hermann Kolbe, Hexane, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Intermolecular force, Ion, Ionic bonding, Isaac Newton, Isotropy, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, John Lennard-Jones, Journal of Chemical Physics, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand field theory, Linear combination of atomic orbitals, London dispersion force, Lone pair, Lustre (mineralogy), Matter wave, Melting point, Metal, Metallic bonding, Miscibility, Molecular orbital, Molecular orbital theory, Molecule, Niels Bohr, Nitrogen, Nylon, Octet rule, Opticks, Orbital hybridisation, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Oxidation state, Oxygen, Partial charge, Pi bond, Proton, Quadruple bond, Quantum chemistry, Quantum mechanics, Quartz, Radical (chemistry), Reflectance, Resonance (chemistry), Salt (chemistry), Schrödinger equation, Sigma bond, Silicate minerals, Single bond, Sodium chloride, Solvent, Thermal conductivity, Three-center four-electron bond, Three-center two-electron bond, Transition metal, Triple bond, Ultimate tensile strength, Valence (chemistry), Valence bond theory, Valence electron, Voltaic pile, VSEPR theory, Walter Heitler, Walther Kossel, Wave–particle duality, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (73 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, Abegg’s rule states that the difference between the maximum positive and negative valence of an element is frequently eight.
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.
Alexander Mikhaylovich Butlerov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Бу́тлеров; 15 September 1828 – 17 August 1886) was a Russian chemist, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure (1857–1861), the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas, the discoverer of hexamine (1859), the discoverer of formaldehyde (1859) and the discoverer of the formose reaction (1861).
The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
Friedrich August Kekulé, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz (7 September 1829 – 13 July 1896), was a German organic chemist.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
In addition to the model of the atom, Niels Bohr also proposed a model of the chemical bond.
In molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.
Boron trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Cation–π interaction is a noncovalent molecular interaction between the face of an electron-rich π system (e.g. benzene, ethylene, acetylene) and an adjacent cation (e.g. Li+, Na+).
In chemical physics and physical chemistry, chemical affinity is the electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species are capable of forming chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
A chemical species is a chemical substance or ensemble composed of chemically identical molecular entities that can explore the same set of molecular energy levels on a characteristic or delineated time scale.
Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).
A coordinate covalent bond, also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.
Density functional theory (DFT) is a computational quantum mechanical modelling method used in physics, chemistry and materials science to investigate the electronic structure (principally the ground state) of many-body systems, in particular atoms, molecules, and the condensed phases.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
The hydrogen molecular ion, dihydrogen cation, or, is the simplest molecular ion.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Dudley Robert Herschbach (born June 18, 1932) is an American chemist at Harvard University.
In chemistry, a dynamic equilibrium exists once a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change.
Sir Edward Frankland, (18 January 1825 – 9 August 1899) was a British chemist.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
Fritz Wolfgang London (March 7, 1900 – March 30, 1954) was a Jewish-German physicist and professor at Duke University.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe (27 September 1818 – 25 November 1884), was a seminal contributor in the birth of modern organic chemistry.
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Sir John Edward Lennard-Jones KBE, FRS (27 October 1894 – 1 November 1954) was an English mathematician who was a professor of theoretical physics at University of Bristol, and then of theoretical science at the University of Cambridge.
The Journal of Chemical Physics is a scientific journal published by the American Institute of Physics that carries research papers on chemical physics.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Ligand field theory (LFT) describes the bonding, orbital arrangement, and other characteristics of coordination complexes.
A linear combination of atomic orbitals or LCAO is a quantum superposition of atomic orbitals and a technique for calculating molecular orbitals in quantum chemistry.
London dispersion forces (LDF, also known as dispersion forces, London forces, instantaneous dipole–induced dipole forces, or loosely van der Waals forces) are a type of force acting between atoms and molecules.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.
In chemistry, molecular orbital (MO) theory is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electron configuration as a noble gas.
Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704.
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A partial charge is a non-integer charge value when measured in elementary charge units.
In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.
A quadruple bond is a type of chemical bond between two atoms involving eight electrons.
Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
In chemistry, a single bond is a chemical bond between two atoms involving two valence electrons.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
The 3-center 4-electron (3c–4e−) bond is a model used to explain bonding in certain hypervalent molecules such as tetratomic and hexatomic interhalogen compounds, sulfur tetrafluoride, the xenon fluorides, and the bifluoride ion.
A three-center two-electron bond is an electron-deficient chemical bond where three atoms share two electrons.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
In chemistry, valence bond (VB) theory is one of two basic theories, along with molecular orbital (MO) theory, that were developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.
Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model used in chemistry to predict the geometry of individual molecules from the number of electron pairs surrounding their central atoms.
Walter Heinrich Heitler (2 January 1904 – 15 November 1981) was a German physicist who made contributions to quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory.
Walther Ludwig Julius Kossel (4 January 1888 in Berlin, Germany – 22 May 1956 in Tübingen, Germany) was a German physicist known for his theory of the chemical bond (ionic bond/octet rule), Sommerfeld–Kossel displacement law of atomic spectra, the Kossel-Stranski model for crystal growth, and the Kossel effect.
Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Atomic bond, Atomic bonds, Bond (chemical), Bond (chemistry), Bond Types, Bond types, Bonding (chemistry), Bonding Theories, Bonding theories, Bonding theory, Chemical Bond, Chemical Bonds, Chemical bonding, Chemical bonds, Chemical interactions, Interatomic bond.