800 relations: Abdication, Adevărul, Adrian Mutu, Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System, Agerpres, Aircraft, Airlift, Albanian language, Alenia C-27J Spartan, Alexander I of Moldavia, Alexandra Stan, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Alexandru Proca, All-time Olympic Games medal table, Allies of World War II, Amandine (dessert), Amphetamine, Ancient Rome, Andrei Stoica, Andrew the Apostle, Angela Gheorghiu, Anno Domini, Anton Pann, April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests, Arabs, Armenian language, Armistice of Focșani, Aromanian language, Aromanians, Art of Romania, Association football, Association of Tennis Professionals, Atheism, Aurel Vlaicu, Aurel Vlaicu International Airport, Austria-Hungary, Austrian cuisine, Autocephaly, Autocracy, Automobile Dacia, Aviation Week & Space Technology, Avrig, Axis powers, Babeș-Bolyai University, Bacteria, Baia, Balkan Insight, Balkans, Baltic Sea, ..., Banat, Banca Transilvania, Baptists, Basarab I of Wallachia, 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Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
Adevărul (meaning "The Truth", formerly spelled Adevĕrul) is a Romanian daily newspaper, based in Bucharest.
Adrian Mutu (born 8 January 1979) is a former Romanian professional footballer who played as an attacking midfielder or a forward.
The Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System (Aegis BMD or ABMD) is a United States Department of Defense Missile Defense Agency program developed to provide missile defense against short to intermediate-range ballistic missiles.
AGERPRES is the national news agency of Romania.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies or personnel primarily via military transport aircraft.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
The Alenia C-27J Spartan is a military transport aircraft developed and manufactured by Leonardo's Aircraft Division (formerly Alenia Aermacchi until 2016).
Alexander the Good (Alexandru cel Bun or Alexandru I Mușat) was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia, reigning between 1400 and 1432, son of Roman I Mușat.
Alexandra Ioana Stan (born 10 June 1989) is a Romanian singer and songwriter.
Alexandru Ioan Cuza (or Alexandru Ioan I, also anglicised as Alexander John Cuza; 20 March 1820 – 15 May 1873) was Prince of Moldavia, Prince of Wallachia, and later Domnitor (Ruler) of the Romanian Principalities.
The Alexandru Ioan Cuza University (Romanian: Universitatea „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”; acronym: UAIC) is a public university located in Iași, Romania.
Alexandru Proca (October 16, 1897, Bucharest – December 13, 1955, Paris) was a Romanian physicist who studied and worked in France.
The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Amandine is a Romanian chocolate layered cake filled with chocolate with caramel and fondant cream.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrei Cătălin Stoica (born May 1, 1987) is a Romanian kickboxer.
Andrew the Apostle (Ἀνδρέας; ⲁⲛⲇⲣⲉⲁⲥ, Andreas; from the early 1st century BC – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew and referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called (Πρωτόκλητος, Prōtoklētos), was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter.
Angela Gheorghiu (née Burlacu; born 7 September 1965) is a Romanian soprano.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Anton Pann (born Antonie Pantoleon-Petroveanu, and also mentioned as Anton Pantoleon or Petrovici; 1790s—2 November 1854) was an Ottoman-born Wallachian composer, musicologist, and Romanian-language poet, also noted for his activities as a printer, translator, and schoolteacher.
Protests against the April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election results, began on 6 April 2009, in major cities of Moldova (including Bălți and the capital, Chișinău) before the final official results were announced.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The Armistice of Focșani (Armistițiul de la Focșani, also called the Truce of Focșani) was an agreement that ended the hostilities between Romania and the Central Powers in World War I. It was signed on 9 December 1917 in Focșani in Romania.
Aromanian (rrãmãneshti, armãneashti, armãneshce., "Aromanian", or limba rrãmãniascã/ armãneascã/ armãneshce, "Aromanian language"), also known as Macedo-Romanian or Vlach, is an Eastern Romance language, similar to Meglenoromanian, or a dialect of the Romanian language.
The Aromanians (Rrãmãnj, Armãnj; Aromâni) are a Latin European ethnic group native to the Balkans, traditionally living in northern and central Greece, central and southern Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo and south-western Bulgaria.
Art of Romania encompasses the artists and artistic movements in Romania.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in September 1972 by Donald Dell, Bob Briner, Jack Kramer, and Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of male professional tennis players.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Aurel Vlaicu (November 19, 1882 – September 13, 1913) was a Romanian engineer, inventor, airplane constructor and early pilot.
Bucharest Aurel Vlaicu Airport (largely known as Băneasa Airport or Bucharest City Airport) is located in Băneasa district, Bucharest, Romania, north of the city center.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Austrian cuisine is a style of cuisine native to Austria and composed of influences from throughout the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Independent Catholic churches).
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
Automobile Dacia S.A. is a Romanian car manufacturer that takes its name from the historic region that constitutes the present-day Romania.
Aviation Week & Space Technology, often abbreviated Aviation Week or AW&ST, is the flagship magazine of the Aviation Week Network.
Avrig (Freck, Felek) is a town in the Sibiu County, Romania.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Babeș-Bolyai University (Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Babeș-Bolyai Tudományegyetem, Babeș-Bolyai Universität), commonly known after its abbreviation, UBB, is a public university in Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baia (Stadt Molde/Moldenmarkt, Moldvabánya, Civitas Moldaviae) is a commune in the Suceava County, Romania with a population of 6,793 (2002 census).
Balkan Insight is a publication of the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN), that focuses on news, analysis, commentary and investigative reporting from southeast Europe.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the Körös/Criș river, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part in northeastern Serbia (mostly included in Vojvodina, except a part included in the Belgrade Region); and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary (Csongrád county).
Banca Transilvania S.A. is a banking institution with headquarters in Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Basarab I, also known as Basarab the Founder (Basarab Întemeietorul), was a voivode, and later the first independent ruler of Wallachia who lived in the first half of the.
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of Baia (Bătălia de la Baia, moldvabányai csata) was fought on December 15, 1467, between the Moldavian prince, Stephen the Great and Hungarian king, Matthias Corvinus.
The Battle of Posada (November 9, 1330 – November 12, 1330) was fought between Basarab I of Wallachia and Charles I (also known as Charles Robert) of Hungary.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
This article is about the main brands of beer produced and served in Romania, also revolving around the history of this beverage on the territory of the Romanian lands, since at least the times of the Romanian Old Kingdom (specifically during the late Modern Age) to contemporary times.
Benjamin Adekunle Miron Adegbuyi (born January 24, 1985) is a Romanian kickboxer and professional boxer fighting in the heavyweight division.
The Berca Mud Volcanoes (Vulcanii Noroioși de la Pâclele Mici) is a geological and botanical reservation located in Scorțoasa commune close to Berca in Buzău County in Romania.
The Berlin International Film Festival (Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), usually called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Biertan (Birthälm, Biyertan, Berethalom) is a commune in central Romania, in the north of the Sibiu County, 80 km north of Sibiu and 29 km east of Mediaş.
Bird in Space (L'Oiseau dans l'espace) is a series of sculptures by Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Biserica Neagră or Black Church (Schwarze Kirche; Biserica Neagră; Fekete templom) is a church in Brașov, a city in south-eastern Transylvania, Romania.
Bistrița (Bistritz, archaic Nösen; Beszterce) is the capital city of Bistrița-Năsăud County, in northern Transylvania, Romania.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Bogdan I, or Bogdan the Founder (Bogdan Întemeietorul), was the first independent ruler, or voivode, of Moldavia in the 1360s.
The bombing of Romania in World War II comprised two series of events: until August 1944, Allied operations, and, following the overthrow of Ion Antonescu's dictatorship, operations by Nazi Germany.
Brașov (Corona, Kronstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Kruhnen, Brassó) is a city in Romania and the administrative centre of Brașov County.
Brașov County is a county (județ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Brașov.
Braşov metropolitan area is a metropolitan area in Braşov County, Romania, that includes the municipality of Braşov and 12 other nearby communities.
Bran Castle (Castelul Bran; Törzburg; Törcsvár), situated near Bran and in the immediate vicinity of Brașov, is a national monument and landmark in Romania.
Bran (Törzburg; Törcsvár) is a commune in Brașov County, Romania.
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.
Briquetage is a coarse ceramic material used to make evaporation vessels and supporting pillars used in extracting salt from brine or seawater.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
The Brukenthal National Museum (Muzeul Naţional Brukenthal; Brukenthalmuseum) is a museum, erected in the late 18th century in Sibiu, Transylvania, Romania, housed in the palace of Samuel von Brukenthal — who was Habsburg governor of Transylvania and who established its first collections around 1790.
The Bucegi Mountains (Romanian: Munții Bucegi; are located in central Romania, south of the city of Brașov. They are part of the Southern Carpathians group of the Carpathian Mountains. At, Omu is its highest point., p. 11 To the east, the Bucegi Mountains have a very steep slope towards the popular tourist destination Prahova Valley (a.o. Bușteni and Sinaia). At a higher elevation is the Bucegi Plateau, where wind and rain have turned the rocks into spectacular figures such as the Sphinx and Babele. The Bucegi is believed to be the Dacian holy mountain Kogainon, on which the God Zalmoxis resided in a cave.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
The Bucharest Metro (Metroul București) is an underground rapid transit system that serves the capital of Romania, Bucharest.
The Bucharest Metropolitan Area (Romanian: Zona Metropolitana București) is a proposed metropolitan area project that includes Bucharest, the capital city of Romania, and surrounding communes.
The București - Ilfov development region is a development region in Romania, encompassing the national capital, Bucharest, as well as the surrounding Ilfov County.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bulgarian cuisine (translit) is a representative of the cuisine of Eastern Europe.
Bunești (Bodendorf; Szászbuda) is a commune in Brașov County, Romania.
Burebista (Βυρεβίστας, Βοιρεβίστας) was a Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 82/81BC to 45/44BC.
A cabbage roll is a dish consisting of cooked cabbage leaves wrapped around a variety of fillings.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.
Carol I (20 April 1839 – 27 September (O.S.) / 10 October (N.S.) 1914), born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was the monarch of Romania from 1866 to 1914.
Carol II (15 October 18934 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from 8 June 1930 until his enforced abdication on 6 September 1940.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
The Catholic Church (Biserica Catolică din România, Romániai Római Katolikus Egyház, Katholische Kirche in Rumänien) in Romania is a Latin Rite Christian church, part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Căile Ferate Române (abbreviated as the CFR) is the state railway carrier of Romania.
Călin Peter Netzer (born 1 May 1975) is a Romanian film director who won Golden Bear at the 63rd Berlin International Film Festival.
The Ceahlău Massif is one of the most notorious mountains of Romania.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Centru (Centre) is a development region in Romania.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
The Nuclear Power Plant in Cernavodă (Centrala Nucleară de la Cernavodă) is a nuclear power plant in Romania.
Fotbal Club CFR 1907 Cluj, commonly known as CFR Cluj, is a Romanian professional football club based in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj County.
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților) is the lower house in Romania's bicameral parliament.
Child's Pose (Poziția copilului) is a 2013 Romanian drama film directed by Călin Peter Netzer.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Chronica Hungarorum (Chronicle of the Hungarians) is the title of several works treating the early Hungarian history.
The eight Romanian Orthodox Churches of Moldavia are located in Suceava County, northern Moldavia, and were built approximately between 1487 and 1583.
Ciorbă, from Persian shorba (شوربا) is a general Romanian word describing sour soups consisting of various vegetables and meat.
Ciprian Porumbescu (born Ciprian Gołęmbiowski on October 14, 1853 – June 6, 1883) was a Romanian composer born in Șipotele Sucevei in Bukovina (now Shepit, Putyla Raion, Ukraine).
A city proper is the area contained within city limits.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Cluj County (Kolozs megye) is a county (județ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca.
Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg; Kolozsvár,; Medieval Latin: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; and קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country.
The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area is a metropolitan area founded in December 2008.
The Coandă effect is the tendency of a fluid jet to stay attached to a convex surface.
The Coandă-1910, designed by Romanian inventor Henri Coandă, was an unconventional sesquiplane aircraft powered by a ducted fan.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Colectiv nightclub fire was a deadly fire in Bucharest, Romania, on 30 October 2015, which killed 64 people (26 on site, 38 in hospitals) and injured 147.
The collectivization of agriculture in Romania took place in the early years of the Communist regime.
A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
A commune (comună in Romanian) is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania.
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.
Constanța is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in the Dobruja region.
The Constanța metropolitan area, is a metropolitan area, established in 2007, that includes the municipality of Constanța, the towns of Năvodari, Ovidiu, Eforie, Murfatlar, Techirghiol and 8 communes: Mihail Kogălniceanu, Cumpăna, Valu lui Traian, Lumina, Tuzla, Agigea, Corbu and Poarta Albă.
Constantin Brâncoveanu (1654 – August 15, 1714) was Prince of Wallachia between 1688 and 1714.
Constantin Brâncuși (February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957) was a Romanian sculptor, painter and photographer who made his career in France.
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
The Constitution of Romania was adopted on 21 November 1991.
The Constitutional Court of Romania (Curtea Constituţională a României) is the institution which rules on whether the laws, decrees or other bills enacted by Romanian authorities are in conformity with the Constitution.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Cornel Dinu (born 2 August 1948) is a retired Romanian football defender.
Corruption in Romania can be found in the politics, military, health care and private businesses and poses concerns for foreign investors.
Corvin Castle, also known as Hunyadi Castle or Hunedoara Castle (Romanian: Castelul Huniazilor or Castelul Corvinilor; Hungarian: Vajdahunyadi vár), is a Gothic-Renaissance castle in Hunedoara, Romania.
Cosmin Marius Contra (born 15 December 1975) is a Romanian former footballer, and is the current coach of Romania.
Costică Ştefănescu (26 March 1951 – 20 August 2013) was a Romanian football player and coach who last managed Qatari side Al Shamal.
Costin D. Neniţescu in foreign scientific publication written as Nenitzescu (15 July 1902 – 28 July 1970) was a prominent Romanian chemist, and a professor at the Polytechnic University of Bucharest.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
A total of 41 counties (județe), along with the municipality of Bucharest, constitute the official administrative divisions of Romania.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Covasna (Kovászna) is a county (județ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Sfântu Gheorghe.
Cozonac or Kozunak (козунак), is a traditional Bulgarian and Romanian sweet leavened bread, which is a type of Stollen.
Craiova metropolitan area is a metropolitan area, founded on 11 February 2009, and formed by Craiova and other 23 other nearby communities.
Crème fraîche (English pronunciation:,, lit. "fresh cream") is a dairy product, a soured cream containing 10–45% butterfat, with a pH of around 4.5.
Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Crispbread (knäckebröd, hårt bröd, hårdbröd, spisbröd, knäcke, knækbrød, knekkebrød, näkkileipä, näkileib, hrökkbrauð, knekkbreyð, 'Knäckebrot' or 'Knäcke', Knackbrood, knäckebröd) is a flat and dry type of bread or cracker, containing mostly rye flour.
Cristian Eugen Chivu (born 26 October 1980) is a Romanian former footballer.
Cristian Mungiu (born 27 April 1968) is a Romanian filmmaker, winner of the Palme d'Or in 2007.
Cristina Georgiana Neagu (born 26 August 1988) is a Romanian professional handballer for who plays CSM București and the Romania national team.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Cucuteni is a commune in Iași County, Romania, with a population of 1,446 as of 2002.
The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture (and), also known as the Tripolye culture, is a Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture (5200 to 3500 BC) in Eastern Europe.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
The Dacians (Daci; loc Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians.
Daniel Vasile Petrescu (born 22 December 1967) is a Romanian football manager and former professional footballer who played as a full-back or a winger.
Dancesport denotes competitive ballroom dancing, as contrasted to social or exhibition dancing.
Daniel Florin Ghiță (born April 22, 1981) is a Romanian super heavyweight kickboxer.
Daniel Philippidis (Δανιήλ Φιλιππίδης; Dimitrie Daniil Philippide; c. 1750 – 1832) was a Greek scholar, figure of the modern Greek Enlightenment and member of the patriotic organization Filiki Etaireia.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării; Дельта Дунаю, Deľta Dunayu) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent.
The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis.
Dâmbovița (also spelt Dîmbovița) is a county (județ) of Romania, in Muntenia, with the capital city at Târgoviște.
Decebalus (r. 87–106 AD) was the last king of Dacia.
“Deșteaptă-te, române!” (variously translated as “Awaken thee, Romanian!”, “Awaken, Romanian!”, or “Wake up, Romanian!”) is the national anthem of Romania.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democratic Party (Partidul Democrat, PD) was a social-democratic and, later, a centre-right political party in Romania.
This article presents the demographic history of Romania through census results.
Demographically, the Roman Empire was an ordinary premodern state.
The Deutscher Wetterdienst or DWD for short, is the German Meteorological Office, based in Offenbach am Main, Germany, which monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany and provides weather services for the general public and for nautical, aviational or agricultural purposes.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
The development regions of Romania (Romanian Regiunile de dezvoltare ale României) refer to the eight regional divisions created in Romania in 1998 in order to better co-ordinate regional development as Romania progressed towards accession to the European Union.
Diego Armando Maradona Franco (born 30 October 1960) is an Argentine retired professional footballer and manager.
Dimitrie or Demetrius Cantemir (1673–1723), also known by other spellings, was a Moldavian soldier, statesman, and man of letters.
Dinu Constantin Lipatti (2 December 1950) was a Romanian classical pianist and composer whose career was cut short by his death from causes related to Hodgkin's disease at age 33.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.
Domnitor (pl. Domnitori) was the official title of the ruler of Romania between 1862 and 1881.
Dracula is an 1897 Gothic horror novel by Irish author Bram Stoker.
The character of Count Dracula from the 1897 novel Dracula by Bram Stoker, has remained popular over the years, and many films have used the Count as a villain, while others have named him in their titles, such as Dracula's Daughter, The Brides of Dracula, and Dracula's Dog.
Drob, fully named Drob de Miel (Lamb Drob) or Drob de Paste (Easter Drob) is a traditional Romanian dish, similar to a haggis, usually served at the Easter table.
Dudu Georgescu (born 1 September 1950) is a retired Romanian footballer who played as a forward.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Easter eggs, also called Paschal eggs, are decorated eggs that are usually used as gifts on the occasion of Easter.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Eastern Europe (specifically in the Balkans) from the local variant of Vulgar Latin.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Eduard Caudella (22 May (or 3 June) 1841 – 15 April 1924) was a Romanian opera composer, also a violin virtuoso, conductor, teacher and critic.
Education in Romania is based on a free-tuition, egalitarian system.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
Electrica is a Romanian state-owned company specialised in electric power supply and distribution.
Eliezer "Elie" Wiesel (’Ēlí‘ézer Vízēl; September 30, 1928 – July 2, 2016) was a Romanian-born American Jewish writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Laureate, and Holocaust survivor.
Emil Cioran (8 April 1911 – 20 June 1995) was a Romanian philosopher and essayist, who published works in both Romanian and French.
Emil Constantinescu (born 19 November 1939) is a Romanian professor and politician, who served as the third President of Romania, from 1996 to 2000.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An enemy of the State is a person accused of certain crimes against the state, such as treason.
Eugène Ionesco (born Eugen Ionescu,; 26 November 1909 – 28 March 1994) was a Romanian-French playwright who wrote mostly in French, and one of the foremost figures of the French Avant-garde theatre.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Euro-orphan or EU orphan is a neologism used metaphorically to describe a "social orphan" in the European Union whose parents have migrated to another member state, typically for economic reasons.
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
The EuroBasket 2017 was the 40th edition of the EuroBasket championship that was organized by FIBA Europe and held between 31 August and 17 September 2017.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.
The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) was launched along with the Bologna Process' decade anniversary, in March 2010, during the Budapest-Vienna Ministerial Conference.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
The Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is a new Research Infrastructure (RI) of pan-European interest and part of the European ESFRI Roadmap.
Șerban Țițeica (– May 28, 1985) was a Romanian quantum physicist.
Ștefan Luchian (last name also spelled Lukian; 1 February 1868 – 28 June 1916) was a Romanian painter, famous for his landscapes and still life works.
Ştefan Odobleja (13 October 1902 – 4 September 1978) was a Romanian scientist considered to be one of the precursors of cybernetics.
Ștefan Procopiu (January 19, 1890 – August 22, 1972) was a Romanian physicist.
Țuică (sometimes spelled tuica, tzuika, tsuika, tsuica, or tzuica) is a traditional Romanian spirit that contains ~ 24–65% alcohol by volume (usually 40–55%), prepared only from plums.
The Fântânele-Cogealac Wind Farm is the largest onshore wind farm in Romania and in Europe, with installed nameplate capacity of 600 MW from 240 General Electric 2.5xl wind turbines.
Fotbal Club Dinamo București, commonly known as Dinamo București, or simply as Dinamo within Romania, is a Romanian professional football club based in Bucharest.
Fotbal Club Petrolul Ploiești, commonly known as Petrolul Ploiești, or simply as Petrolul, is a Romanian professional football club based in Ploiești, Prahova County, currently playing in the Liga II.
Fotbal Club Rapid București, commonly known as Rapid București, or simply as Rapid, is a Romanian football club based in Bucharest.
FCSB, short for Fotbal Club Steaua București and colloquially known as simply Steaua, is a Romanian professional football club based in Bucharest.
FCU Craiova 1948, commonly known as FC U Craiova, is a Romanian football club based in Craiova, Dolj County, and currently a member of the Liga III.
Fotbal Club UTA Arad, commonly known as UTA Arad, or simply as UTA, is a Romanian professional football club based in the city of Arad, Arad County, currently playing in Liga II.
Ferdinand I (Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad; 24 August 1865 – 20 July 1927), nicknamed Întregitorul ("the Unifier"), was King of Romania from 10 October 1914 until his death in 1927.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics, (NUTS, for the French nomenclature d'unités territoriales statistiques), is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative divisions of countries for statistical purposes.
The national flag of Romania (drapelul României) is a tricolor with vertical stripes, beginning from the flagpole: blue, yellow and red.
A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Florea Dumitrache (22 May 1948 – 26 April 2007) was a Romanian football forward.
Florin Mergea (born 26 January 1985) is a Romanian tennis player and a doubles specialist.
Ford Romania is an automobile manufacturing company operated by Ford of Europe, located in Craiova, Romania.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
The foundation of Wallachia (Descălecatul Țării Românești), that is the establishment of the first independent Romanian principality, was achieved at the beginning of the 14th century, through the unification of smaller political units that had existed between the Carpathian Mountains, and the Rivers Danube, Siret and Milcov.
The founding of Moldavia began with the arrival of a Vlach (Romanian) voivode (military leader), Dragoș, soon followed by his people from Maramureș to the region of the Moldova River.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Open (Championnats Internationaux de France de Tennis), officially called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France.
Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.
Functional illiteracy is reading and writing skills that are inadequate "to manage daily living and employment tasks that require reading skills beyond a basic level".
Gabriel Bethlen (Bethlen Gábor; 15 November 1580 – 25 November 1629) was Prince of Transylvania from 1613 to 1629 and Duke of Opole from 1622 to 1625.
Galați (also known by other alternative names) is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Moldavia, eastern Romania.
Gândul ("The Thought") is a Romanian daily newspaper published in Bucharest.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
George Coșbuc (20 September 1866 – 9 May 1918) was a Romanian poet, translator, teacher, and journalist, best remembered for his verses describing, praising and eulogizing rural life, its many travails but also its occasions for joy.
George Emil Palade ForMemRS HonFRMS (November 19, 1912 – October 8, 2008) was a Romanian-American cell biologist.
George Enescu (19 August 1881 – 4 May 1955), known in France as Georges Enesco, was a Romanian composer, violinist, pianist, conductor, and teacher.
The George Enescu Festival (also known as George Enescu International Festival and Competition), held in honor of the celebrated Romanian composer George Enescu, is the biggest classical music festival and classical international competition held in Romania and one of the biggest in Eastern Europe.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The cuisine of Germany has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gesta Hungarorum, or The Deeds of the Hungarians, is the first extant Hungarian book about history.
The Getae or or Gets (Γέται, singular Γέτης) were several Thracian tribes that once inhabited the regions to either side of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria and southern Romania.
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (8 November 1901 – 19 March 1965) was a Romanian communist politician who served as the first Communist leader of Romania from 1947 to 1965 as General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party.
Gheorghe "Gică" Hagi (born 5 February 1965) is a Romanian former professional footballer, considered one of the best attacking midfielders in Europe during the 1980s and '90s and the greatest Romanian footballer of all time.
Gheorghe Lazăr (5 June 1779 – 17 September 1823), born and died in Avrig, Sibiu County, was a Transylvanian, later Romanian scholar, the founder of the first Romanian language school in Bucharest, 1818.
Gheorghe Dumitru Mureșan (born February 14, 1971), also known as "Ghiță", is a Romanian retired professional basketball player.
Gheorghe "Gică" Popescu (born 9 October 1967) is a retired Romanian football defender, former captain of FC Barcelona and key part of the Romania national team in the 1990s.
Gheorghe Zamfir (born April 6, 1941) is a Romanian pan flute (nai) musician.
Giurgiu is a county (judeţ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in Muntenia, with the capital city at Giurgiu.
The Golaniad (Golaniada, from the word golan meaning "hoodlum") was a protest in Romania in the University Square, Bucharest.
The Golden Bear (Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival.
In sport, a golden generation or golden team is an exceptionally gifted group of players of similar age, whose achievements reach or are expected to reach a level of success beyond that which their team had previously achieved.
Goliat is the first artificial satellite developed in Romania.
The Government of Romania (Guvernul României) forms one half of the executive branch of the government of Romania (the other half being the office of the President of Romania).
The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Great Union Day (Ziua Marii Uniri, also called Unification Day) occurring on December 1, is the national holiday of Romania.
The term Greater Romania (România Mare) usually refers to the borders of the Kingdom of Romania in the interwar period.
Greek cuisine (Ελληνική κουζίνα, Elliniki kouzina) is a Mediterranean cuisine.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Grigore Constantin Moisil (10 January 1906 – 21 May 1973) was a Romanian mathematician, computer pioneer, and member of the Romanian Academy.
The Guiana Space Centre or, more commonly, Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) is a French and European spaceport to the northwest of Kourou in French Guiana.
Gymnastics is a sport that requires balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Harghita (Hargita megye) is a county (județ) in the center of Romania, in eastern Transylvania, with the county seat at Miercurea Ciuc.
A headstone, tombstone, or gravestone is a stele or marker, usually stone, that is placed over a grave.
Henri Marie Coandă (7 June 1886 – 25 November 1972Flight 1973) was a Romanian inventor, aerodynamics pioneer, and builder of an experimental aircraft, the Coandă-1910 described by Coandă in the mid-1950s as the world's first jet, a controversial claim disputed by some and supported by others.
Bucharest Henri Coandă International Airport (Aeroportul Internațional Henri Coandă București) is Romania's busiest international airport, located in Otopeni, north of Bucharest's city centre.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Herta Müller (born 17 August 1953) is a Romanian-born German novelist, poet, essayist and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature.
The High Court of Cassation and Justice (Înalta Curte de Casație și Justiție) is Romania's supreme court, and the court of last resort.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
The Historic Centre of Sighișoara (Sighișoara Citadel) is the old historic center of the town of Sighișoara (Schäßburg, Segesvár), Romania, built in the 12th century by Saxon settlers.
Historische Zeitschrift, founded in 1859 by Heinrich von Sybel is considered to be the first and for a time the foremost historical journal.
The history of Iraq from 2003 to 2011 is characterized by a large United States military deployment on Iraqi territory, beginning with the U.S.-led invasion of the country in March 2003 which overthrew the Ba'ath Party government of Saddam Hussein and ending with the departure of US troops from the country in 2011 (though the Iraq War that commenced in 2003 continued and subsequently intensified during 2013).
This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the history of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below).
After the Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu was overthrown in the Romanian Revolution of December 1989, the National Salvation Front (FSN) took power, led by Ion Iliescu.
The history of the Jews in Romania concerns the Jews both of Romania and of Romanian origins, from their first mention on what is present-day Romanian territory.
HMS Coventry was a Type 22 frigate of the Royal Navy.
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was a small principality in southwestern Germany.
Holocaust Memorial Day or Holocaust Remembrance Day refers to various countries' designated annual day of commemoration honoring the victims, survivors and rescuers of the Holocaust during the Nazi regime As of 2004, twelve countries observed January 27, the day of the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp, including Germany, Britain, France, Italy and Scandinavian countries.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
The Horezu Monastery or Hurezi Monastery was founded in 1690 by Prince Constantin Brâncoveanu in the town of Horezu, Wallachia, Romania.
Horia Tecău (born January 19, 1985) is a Romanian tennis player currently ranked World No.
Hotnews.ro is a Romanian news site.
Saint Hubertus or Hubert (656 – 30 May 727) became Bishop of Liège in 708 AD.
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Hunedoara (Eisenmarkt; Vajdahunyad) is a city in Hunedoara County, Transylvania, Romania.
Hunedoara is a county (județ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with its capital city at Deva.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,227,623 people and making up 6.1% of the total population, according to the 2011 census.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hungarian-Romanian relations are foreign relations between Hungary and Romania.
Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the second-largest city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Iași County.
The Iași Metropolitan Area is a metropolitan association in Iași County, Romania, that includes the municipality of Iași and 13 nearby communes.
Ienăchiță Văcărescu (1740 – July 11, 1797) was a Wallachian Romanian poet, historian, philologist, and boyar belonging to the Văcărescu family.
The IHF World Player of the Year is a handball award given annually to the player who is considered to have performed the best in the previous season, both at club and international competitions.
Ilie Balaci (born 13 September 1956) is a retired Romanian football midfielder and current manager.
Ilie "Nasty" Năstase (born 19 July 1946) is a Romanian former world No. 1 professional tennis player, and one of the world's top players of the 1970s.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
Topics related to Romania (sorted alphabetically) include.
An individual sport is a sport in which participants compete as individuals.
Elena Alexandra Apostoleanu (born 16 October 1986), known professionally as Inna, is a Romanian singer and songwriter.
An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecution and the defense.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Ioan Slavici (January 18, 1848 – August 17, 1925) was a Transylvanian, later Romanian writer and journalist.
Ion Andreescu (15 February 1850 – 22 October 1882) was a Romanian painter.
Ion Antonescu (– June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships.
Ion Creangă (also known as Nică al lui Ștefan a Petrei, Ion Torcălău and Ioan Ștefănescu; March 1, 1837 – December 31, 1889) was a Moldavian, later Romanian writer, raconteur and schoolteacher.
Ion Dumitru (born 2 January 1950 in Bucureşti), commonly known as Liță Dumitru, is a Romanian former professional footballer and manager who played as a midfielder.
Ion Iliescu (born 3 March 1930) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 1989 until 1996, and from 2000 until 2004.
Ion Luca Caragiale (commonly referred to as I. L. Caragiale; According to his birth certificate, published and discussed by Constantin Popescu-Cadem in Manuscriptum, Vol. VIII, Nr. 2, 1977, p.179-184 – 9 June 1912) was a Wallachian, later Romanian playwright, short story writer, poet, theater manager, political commentator and journalist.
The Iron Gates (Porțile de Fier, Đerdapska klisura, Железни врата, Eisernes Tor, Vaskapu) is a gorge on the river Danube.
The Iron Guard (Garda de fier) is the name most commonly given to a far-right movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Islam in Romania is followed by only 0.3 percent of population, but has 700 years of tradition in Northern Dobruja, a region on the Black Sea coast which was part of the Ottoman Empire for almost five centuries (ca. 1420-1878).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Istro-Romanian language (Istro-Romanian: Rumârește) is an Eastern Romance language, spoken in a few villages and hamlets in the peninsula of Istria in Croatia, as well as in diaspora, most notably in Italy, Sweden, Germany, Northern and Southern America, and Australia.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Hunyadi (Hunyadi János, Ioan de Hunedoara; 1406 – 11 August 1456) was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century.
Judicial reform is the complete or partial political reform of a country's judiciary.
The June 1990 Mineriad was the suppression of an anti-National Salvation Front (FSN) sit-in protests in Bucharest, Romania by the physical intervention of groups of industrial workers as well as coal miners from the Jiu Valley, brought to Bucharest by the government to counter the rising violence of the protesters.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
King Michael's Coup was a coup d'état led by King Michael I of Romania during World War II on 23 August 1944.
The King of the Romanians (Romanian: Regele Românilor) or King of Romania (Romanian: Regele României), was the title of the monarch of the Kingdom of Romania from 1881 until 1947, when Romania was proclaimed the Romanian People's Republic following Michael I's forced abdication.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
Klaus Werner Iohannis (also spelled Johannis; born 13 June 1959) is the current President of Romania.
Kofta is a family of meatball or meatloaf dishes found in South Asian, Middle Eastern, Balkan, and Central Asian cuisines.
The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").
Lazăr Edeleanu (1 September 1861, Bucharest – 7 April 1941) was a Romanian chemist of Jewish origin.
László Bölöni (also called Ladislau Bölöni; born 11 March 1953 in Târgu Mureș) is a Romanian-Hungarian football manager and former player who is currently in charge of Royal Antwerp.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leonard Dorin Doroftei (also known as Leonard Dorin; born 10 April 1970) is a Romanian former boxer, the WBA Lightweight World Champion from 5 January 2002 to 24 October 2003.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Lipovans or Lippovans (Липовáне, Lipoveni, Липовани, липованци) are Old Believers, mostly of Russian ethnic origin, who settled in the Moldavian Principality, and in the regions of Dobruja and Eastern Muntenia.
This is a list of airports in Romania, grouped by type and sorted by location.
The ATP Rankings are the Association of Tennis Professionals' (ATP) merit-based method for determining the rankings in men's tennis.
Castles are declared historic monuments by the Romanian Culture Ministry.
This is a list of cities and towns in Romania, ordered by population according to the 2002 and 2011 censuses.
Below is a list of the largest cities in the European Union according to the population within their city limits.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This list of countries by electric energy consumption is mostly based on The World Factbook.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This is a list of countries by plum production in 2009 mostly based on FAO accessed in June 2011.
This is a list of the largest cities in Europe ranked according to population within their city limits.
Below is a list of all countries in Europe, in order of geographical area.
List of European countries by population present the list of countries, territories and dependencies located in Europe.
This is a list of European Union member states by population, which is sorted by the 2017 population figure as provided by Eurostat.
This is an (incomplete) list of mountains in Romania.
This is a list of rulers of Wallachia, from the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube until the union with Moldavia in 1862, leading to the creation of Romania.
Various sour soups, characterized by their sour taste, are known in various East Asian, Southeast Asian, and Slavic cuisines.
UNESCO has so far inscribed on to the list of World Heritage Sites a total of eight sites in Romania, one of which is shared.
The list of WTA number 1 ranked players shows the professional women's tennis players who have been or currently are ranked world No.
Liviu Rebreanu (November 27, 1885 – September 1, 1944) was a Romanian novelist, playwright, short story writer, and journalist.
Luceafărul (originally spelled Luceafĕrul; variously rendered as "The Morning Star", "The Evening Star", "The Vesper", "The Daystar", or "Lucifer") is a narrative poem by Romanian author Mihai Eminescu.
Lucian Bute (born February 28, 1980) is a Romanian-Canadian professional boxer.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Mamaia is a resort on the Romanian Black Sea shore and a district of Constanța.
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
Maramureș (Maramureș; Мармарощина, Marmaroshchyna) is a geographical, historical and cultural region in northern Romania and western Ukraine.
Marcel Janco (common rendition of the Romanian name Marcel Hermann Iancu, last name also Ianco, Janko or Jancu; May 24, 1895 – April 21, 1984) was a Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist.
Marin Preda (5 August 1922 – 16 May 1980) was a Romanian novelist, one of the best-known post-World War II Romanian writers.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Matei Basarab (1588, Brâncoveni, Olt – 9 April 1654, Bucharest) was a Wallachian Voivode (Prince) between 1632 and 1654.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hunyadi Mátyás, Matija Korvin, Matia Corvin, Matej Korvín, Matyáš Korvín), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490.
Mămăligă (Moldovan Cyrillic: Мэмэлигэ) is a porridge made out of yellow maize flour, traditional in Romania, Moldova, Chechnya, Ossetia and Georgia and some regions in Ukraine near the mountains.
Mănăstirea Humorului (Humora Kloster) is a commune located in Suceava County, Romania.
Mărțișor is a celebration at the beginning of spring, on March the 1st in Romania, Moldova, and all territories inhabited by Romanians and Moldovans.
Mediaș (Mediasch; Medgyes; Transylvanian Saxon: Medwesch) is the second largest city in Sibiu County, Transylvania, Romania.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Megleno-Romanian language (Megleno-Romanian: Vlăheshte), also known as Meglenitic or Moglenitic, is an Eastern Romance language.
There are 10 metropolitan areas in Romania that have been constituted as of 2013.
Michael I (Mihai I; 25 October 1921 – 5 December 2017) was the last King of Romania, reigning from 20 July 1927 to 8 June 1930 and again from 6 September 1940 until his abdication on 30 December 1947.
Michael Klein (10 October 1959 – 2 February 1993) was a Romanian footballer who played as a left back.
Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazu(l) or Mihai Bravu, Vitéz Mihály; 1558 – 9 August 1601) was the Prince of Wallachia (as Michael II, 1593–1601), Prince of Moldavia (1600) and de facto ruler of Transylvania (1599–1600).
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Mihai Eminescu (born Mihail Eminovici; 15 January 1850 – 15 June 1889) was a Romantic poet, novelist and journalist, generally regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet.
Mihai Leu also known as Michael Loewe (born 13 February 1969, in Hunedoara) is a Romanian former professional boxer who fought out of Hamburg, Germany.
Mihail Jora (2 August 1891, Roman, Romania - 10 May 1971, Bucharest, Romania) was a Romanian composer, pianist, and conductor.
Mihail Kogălniceanu (also known as Mihail Cogâlniceanu, Michel de Kogalnitchan; September 6, 1817 – July 1, 1891) was a Moldavian, later Romanian liberal statesman, lawyer, historian and publicist; he became Prime Minister of Romania on October 11, 1863, after the 1859 union of the Danubian Principalities under Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza, and later served as Foreign Minister under Carol I. He was several times Interior Minister under Cuza and Carol.
Mihail Kogălniceanu Airport is situated in southeastern Romania, in the commune of Mihail Kogălniceanu, north-northwest of Constanța.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-21; NATO reporting name: Fishbed) is a supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Ministry of National Defence (Ministerul Apărării Naționale) is one of the fifteen ministries of the Government of Romania.
About 10.5% of Romania's population is represented by minorities (the rest of 89.5% being Romanians).
Mircea Eliade (– April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago.
Mircea the Elder (Mircea cel Bătrân,, d. 31 January 1418) was Voivode of Wallachia from 1386 until his death.
Mititei or mici (both Romanian words meaning "small ones") is a traditional Romanian dish of grilled ground meat rolls made from a mixture of beef, lamb and pork with spices, such as garlic, black pepper, thyme, coriander, anise, savory, and sometimes a touch of paprika.
A Mocăniță is a narrow-gauge railway in Romania, most notably in Maramureș, Transylvania, and Bukovina.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Moesia (Latin: Moesia; Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
The Moldavian Plateau (Podișul Moldovei) or Pokutian-Bessarabian Upland is a geographic area spanning northeast Romania, most of Moldova (except the south), and most of the Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine.
The Moldavian Revolution of 1848 is the name used for an unsuccessful Romanian liberal and Romantic nationalist movement inspired by the Revolutions of 1848 in the principality of Moldavia.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Moldova and Romania have experienced an extremely complicated relationship since Moldova's independence in 1991.
Moldoveanu Peak (Vârful Moldoveanu), Moldovan Peak), at 2,544 metres, is the highest mountain peak in Romania., p. 11 It is located in Argeș County, in the Făgăraș Mountains of the Southern Carpathians. The most popular routes to reach Moldoveanu are over the Viștea Mare (2,527 m), by paths coming from Podragu, Sâmbăta, or by the Viștea Valley. The closest settlement on the North side is Victoria and on the south side, Câmpulung.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
A municipiu (from Latin municipium; English: municipality) is a level of administrative subdivision in Romania and Moldova, roughly equivalent to city in some English-speaking countries.
Romania is a European country with a multicultural music environment which includes active ethnic music scenes.
Nadia Elena Comăneci (born November 12, 1961) is a Romanian retired gymnast and a five-time Olympic gold medalist, all in individual events.
A narrow-gauge railway (narrow-gauge railroad in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the standard.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Institute of Statistics (Institutul Naţional de Statistică (INS)) is a Romanian government agency which is responsible for collecting national statistics, in fields such as geography, the economy, demographics and society.
The National Salvation Front (Frontul Salvării Naționale, FSN) is the name of a political organization that was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution in 1989.
This article presents the national team appearances in the Rugby World Cup.
The nationalization of the means of production was a measure taken by Romania's new Communist authorities in order to lay the foundation of socialism.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO missile defense system is a missile defense system being constructed by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in several member states and around the Mediterranean Sea.
A natural monument is a natural or natural/cultural feature of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative of aesthetic qualities or cultural significance.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The letter of Neacșu of Câmpulung (Romanian: Scrisoarea lui Neacșu de la Câmpulung; Romanian Cyrillic: Скрісѻрѣ льи дє ла Кымпȣлȣнг), written in 1521, is one of the oldest surviving documents available in Romanian that can be reliably dated.
Neagoe Basarab was the Voivode (Prince) of Wallachia between 1512 and 1521.
Neamț Citadel (Cetatea Neamț or Cetatea Neamțului) is a medieval fortress located in north-eastern part of Romania, near Târgu Neamț, Neamț County.
Neamț is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historic region of Moldavia, with the county seat at Piatra Neamț.
The net migration rate is the difference between the number of immigrants (people coming into an area) and the number of emigrants (people leaving an area) throughout the year.
Nicolae Bălcescu (29 June 1819 – 29 November 1852) was a Romanian Wallachian soldier, historian, journalist, and leader of the 1848 Wallachian Revolution.
Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.
During the Cold War, Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu presided over the most pervasive cult of personality within the Eastern Bloc.
Nicolae Dobrin (26 August 1947 – 26 October 2007) was a Romanian footballer who played as an attacking midfielder.
Nicolae Grigorescu (15 May 1838 – 21 July 1907) was one of the founders of modern Romanian painting.
Nicolae Constantin Paulescu (30 October 1869 (O.S.) – 17 July 1931) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine, and politician, most famous for discovering insulin, who worked on pancreine (a pancreatic extract containing insulin).
Nicolae Tonitza (April 13, 1886 – February 27, 1940) was a Romanian painter, engraver, lithographer, journalist and art critic.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS; French: Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries for statistical purposes.
Nord-Est (English: North East) is a development region in Romania.
Nord-Vest is a development region in Romania, created in 1998.
Northern Transylvania (Transilvania de Nord, Észak-Erdély) was the region of the Kingdom of Romania that during World War II, as a consequence of the territorial agreement known as the Second Vienna Award, became part of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
The Nuremberg Chronicle is an illustrated biblical paraphrase and world history that follows the story of human history related in the Bible; it includes the histories of a number of important Western cities.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Oină is a Romanian traditional sport, similar in many ways to baseball and lapta.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
Several well-supported theories address the issue of the origin of the Romanians.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Romania: Romania – unitary semi-presidential republic located in Central-Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine.
The Palace of the Parliament (Palatul Parlamentului) is the seat of the Parliament of Romania.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
Papanași is a Romanian traditional fried or boiled pastry resembling a small sphere, usually filled with a soft cheese such as urdă and any kind of sour jam.
The Paris Peace Treaties (Traité de Paris) was signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946.
The Parliament of Romania (Parlamentul României) is the national legislature of Romania, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților), and the Senate (Senat).
Paska (Ukrainian: Пáска "Easter", Georgian: პასკა "Easter", ultimately from פסחא "Passover") is a Ukrainian Easter bread eaten in Eastern European countries including Ukraine, south Russia, Armenia, Romania, Moldova, Slovakia, Georgia and parts of Bulgaria as well as the Assyrian–Chaldean–Syriac diaspora.
The Patriarch of All Romania (Patriarh al Întregii Românii) is the title of the head of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
Pálinka is a traditional fruit brandy in Central Europe with origins from the Hungarian Carpathian Basin, known under several names, and invented in the Middle Ages.
Peștera cu Oase (meaning "The Cave with Bones") is a system of 12 karstic galleries and chambers located near the city Anina, in the Caraș-Severin county, southwestern Romania, where some of the oldest European early modern human (EEMH) remains, between 37,000 42,000 years old, have been found.
Peleș Castle (Castelul Peleș) is a Neo-Renaissance castle in the Carpathian Mountains, near Sinaia, in Prahova County, Romania, on an existing medieval route linking Transylvania and Wallachia, built between 1873 and 1914.
Pelișor Castle (Romanian: Castelul Pelișor) is a castle in Sinaia, Romania, part of the same complex as the larger castle of Peleș.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
"People's Republic" is a title used by some sovereign states with republican constitutions.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
OMV Petrom S.A. is a Romanian integrated oil company, the largest corporation in Romania and the largest oil and gas producer in Southeast Europe.
Ploiești (older spelling: Ploești) is a city and county seat in Prahova County, Romania.
Ploieşti metropolitan area is a proposed metropolitan area project, launched in 2003.
Plugușorul is a Romanian New Year's tradition and carol.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
Poiana Brașov is a neighborhood of Brasov and a Romanian ski resort popular among visitors from many European states.
Polenta is a dish of boiled cornmeal that was historically made from other grains.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Politehnica University of Timișoara (Universitatea Politehnica Timișoara) is a public university founded on 11 November 1920.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prahova Valley (Romanian: Valea Prahovei) is the valley where the Prahova river makes its way between the Bucegi and the Baiu Mountains, in the Carpathian Mountains, Romania.
A prefect (prefect) in Romania represents the Government in each of the country's 41 counties, as well as the Municipality of Bucharest.
The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania.
The Presidential Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania (Comisia Prezidenţială pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România), also known as the Tismăneanu Commission (Comisia Tismăneanu), is a commission instituted in Romania by President Traian Băsescu to investigate the Communist regime and provide a comprehensive report allowing for the condemnation of Communism as experienced by Romania.
The Prime Minister of the Government of Romania (Prim-ministrul Guvernului României) is the head of the Government of Romania.
Prince Nicholas of Romania (Principele Nicolae al României; 5 August 1903, date given as 18 August Gregorian calendar, which converts to 5 August in the Julian calendar used in Romania at the time. – 9 June 1978), later known as Prince Nicholas of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was the fourth child and second son of King Ferdinand I of Romania and his wife Queen Marie.
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
The Principality of Transylvania (Fürstentum Siebenbürgen; Erdélyi Fejedelemség; Principatus Transsilvaniae; Principatul Transilvaniei or Principatul Ardealului; Erdel Prensliği or Transilvanya Prensliği) was a semi-independent state, ruled primarily by Hungarian princes.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Proto-Romanian (also known as "Common Romanian", româna comună or "Ancient Romanian", străromâna, Balkan Latin) is a hypothetical and unattested Romance language evolved from Vulgar Latin and considered to have been spoken by the ancestors of today's Romanians and related Balkan Latin peoples (Vlachs) before 900 (7th–11th century AD).
A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS).
Rakia or Rakija is the collective term for fruit brandy popular in the Balkans.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
Râșnov (Rosenau; Barcarozsnyó; Transylvanian Saxon dialect: Ruusenåå; Latin: Rosnovia) is a town in Brașov County, Romania with a population of 15,466.
RCS & RDS (formerly Romanian Cable System & Romanian Data System) is one of the biggest telecommunication operators in Central and Eastern Europe and the largest cable and satellite television company in Romania.
Realitatea TV (meaning "The Reality TV") is a Romanian news television network.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Romania is a secular state, and it has no state religion.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Roșia Montană ("Roșia of the Mountains"; Alburnus Maior; Verespatak,; Goldbach, Rotseifen) is a commune of Alba County in the Apuseni Mountains of western Transylvania, Romania.
Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana "Trajan Dacia" or Dacia Felix "Fertile/Happy Dacia") was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romani people (Roma in Romani; Țigani in Romanian) in Romania, Gypsy, constitute one of the country's largest minorities.
The Kingdom of Romania was neutral for the first two years of World War I, entering on the side of the Allied powers from 27 August 1916 until Central Power occupation led to the Treaty of Bucharest in May 1918, before reentering the war on 10 November 1918. It had the only oil fields in Europe, and Germany eagerly bought its petroleum, as well as food exports. King Carol favored Germany but after his death in 1914, King Ferdinand and the nation's political elite favored the Entente. For Romania, the highest priority was taking Transylvania from Hungary, with its 3,000,000 Romanians. The Allies wanted Romania to join its side in order to cut the rail communications between Germany and Turkey, and to cut off Germany's oil supplies. Britain made loans, France sent a military training mission, and Russia promised modern munitions. The Allies promised at least 200,000 soldiers to defend Romania against Bulgaria to the south, and help it invade Austria. The Romanian campaign was part of the Balkan theatre of World War I, with Romania and Russia allied with Britain and France against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria, and Turkey. Fighting took place from August 1916 to December 1917 across most of present-day Romania, including Transylvania, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time, as well as in southern Dobruja, which is currently part of Bulgaria. Despite initial successes, the Romanian forces (aided by Russia) suffered massive setbacks, and by the end of 1916 only Moldavia remained. After several defensive victories in 1917, with Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolution, Romania, almost completely surrounded by the Central Powers, was also forced to drop out of the war; it signed the Treaty of Bucharest with the Central Powers in May 1918. On 10 November 1918, just one day before the German armistice and after all the other Central Powers had already capitulated, Romania re-entered the war after the successful Allied advances on the Macedonian Front.
The Romania men's national handball team is governed by the Romanian Handball Federation (Romanian Federaţia Română de Handbal) and takes part in international team handball competitions.
The Romania national football team (Echipa națională de fotbal a României) represents Romania in international football and is controlled by the Romanian Football Federation.
The Romania national rugby union team (Echipa națională de rugby a României), nicknamed The Oaks (Stejarii), is long considered one of the stronger European teams outside the Six Nations.
Romanian women's national team is the handball team, supervised by the Romanian Handball Federation and that represents Romania in the international matches.
Romania–Russia relations are the foreign relations between Romania and Russia.
Romania – United States relations are bilateral relations between Romania and the United States.
The Romanian Air Force (Forțele Aeriene Române) is the air force branch of the Romanian Armed Forces.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
The Romanian anti-communist resistance movement was active from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s, with isolated individual fighters remaining at large until the early 1960s.
The Romanian Black Sea resorts stretch along the Black Sea coast from the Danube Delta at the northern end down to the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast in the south, along 275 kilometers of coastline.
The Romanian Communist Party (Romanian: Partidul Comunist Român, PCR) was a communist party in Romania.
The Romanian diaspora is the ethnically Romanian population outside Romania and Moldova.
Romanian dress refers to the traditional clothing worn by Romanians, who live primarily in Romania and Moldova, with smaller communities in Ukraine and Serbia.
The Romanian Football Federation (Federația Română de Fotbal) is Romania's football governing body.
General elections were held in Romania on 19 November 1946, in the aftermath of World War II.
General elections were held in Romania on 20 May 1990.
General election were held in Romania on 28 November 2004, with a second round of the presidential election on 12 December between Prime Minister Adrian Năstase of the ruling Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSD) and Bucharest Mayor Traian Băsescu of the opposition Justice and Truth Alliance.
The Romanian Greek Catholic Church or Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is a sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church, in full union with the Roman Catholic Church.
The Romanian Land Forces (Forțele Terestre Române) is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanian leu (plural lei; ISO 4217 code RON; numeric code 946) is the currency of Romania.
The Romanian Navy (Forțele Navale Române) is the navy branch of the Romanian Armed Forces; it operates in the Black Sea and on the Danube.
The Romanian New Wave (Noul val românesc) is a genre of realist and often minimalist films made in Romania since the mid-aughts, starting with Trafic, which won the Short Film Palme d'Or at the 2004 Cannes Film Festival.
The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches and ranked seventh in order of precedence.
The first round of 2009 Romanian presidential elections was held in Romania on 22 November and a run-off round between Traian Băsescu and Mircea Geoană was held on 6 December 2009.
The Romanian presidential impeachment referendum of 2007 was conducted in order to determine whether the president of Romania Traian Băsescu should be forced to step down.
A referendum on impeaching President Traian Băsescu was held in Romania on 29 July 2012.
The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Central-Eastern Europe, ruled by a royal family that was a branch of the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen dynasty.
The Romanian War of Independence is the name used in Romanian historiography to refer to the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), following which Romania, fighting on the Russian side, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire. On, Romania and the Russian Empire signed a treaty at Bucharest under which Russian troops were allowed to pass through Romanian territory, with the condition that Russia respected the integrity of Romania. The mobilization began, and about 120,000 soldiers were massed in the south of the country to defend against an eventual attack of the Ottoman forces from south of the Danube. On, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire and its troops entered Romania through the newly built Eiffel Bridge.
Romania is one of the world's largest wine producers and sixth largest among European wine-producing countries.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Societatea Națională de Gaze Naturale Romgaz SA Mediaș (SNGN Romgaz SA) or simply Romgaz is the largest natural gas producer in Romania and one of the largest in Eastern Europe.
Rompetrol is the main brand of KMG International of Romanian origin, initially as a company representative of the Romanian oil and gas industry on international level, becoming later an international oil group with operations in 12 countries, known as The Rompetrol Group N.V. In 2014, the Rompetrol Group N.V. was renamed into KMG International N.V. as part of a strategy to promote the brand KazMunayGas.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Sarma (from Turkish word "sarmak", meaning "to roll") is a dish of grape, cabbage, monk's rhubarb or chard leaves rolled around a filling usually based on minced meat, or a sweet dish of filo dough wrapped around a filling often of various kinds of chopped nuts.
Sarmizegetusa Regia, also Sarmisegetusa, Sarmisegethusa, Sarmisegethuza, Ζαρμιζεγεθούσα (Zarmizegethoúsa) or Ζερμιζεγεθούση (Zermizegethoúsē), was the capital and the most important military, religious and political centre of the Dacians prior to the wars with the Roman Empire.
Sauerkraut is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
On May 14, 1981 Romania became the 11th country in the world to have an astronaut in space.
The Sculptural Ensemble of Constantin Brâncuși at Târgu Jiu is an homage to the Romanian heroes of the First World War.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913.
The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.
The Municipality of Bucharest (the capital of Romania) is divided into six administrative units, named sectors (sectoare in Romanian), each of which has their own mayor and council, and has responsibility over local affairs, such as secondary streets, parks, schools and the cleaning services.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
The Securitate (Romanian for Security) was the popular term for the Departamentul Securității Statului (Department of State Security), the secret police agency of the Socialist Republic of Romania.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house in the bicameral Parliament of Romania.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbian cuisine (српска кухиња / srpska kuhinja) is the traditional cuisine of Serbia, sharing characteristics with the rest of the Balkan nations (especially former Yugoslavia).
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
The Serbs of Romania (Sârbii din România, Срби у Румунији/Srbi u Rumuniji) are a recognized ethnic minority numbering 18,076 people (0.1%) according to the 2011 census.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.
Sibiu (antiquated Sibiiu; Hermannstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Härmeschtat, Nagyszeben) is a city in Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 147,245.
Sibiu County is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region Transylvania, with the capital city Sibiu.
Sibiu International Airport or Aeroportul Internațional Sibiu serves the city of Sibiu.
Sighișoara (Schäßburg,; Segesvár,; Castrum Sex) is a city on the Târnava Mare River in Mureș County, Romania.
Simona Halep (born 27 September 1991) is a Romanian professional tennis player.
Sinaia is a town and a mountain resort in Prahova County, Romania.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The Social Democratic Party (Partidul Social Democrat, PSD) is the major social-democratic political party in Romania.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
Sorcova is a Romanian popular custom, practiced on January 1.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
Southern Dobruja (Bulgarian: Южна Добруджа, Yuzhna Dobrudzha or simply Добруджа, Dobrudzha) is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation, by the Soviet Red Army, during June 28 – July 4, 1940, of the Romanian regions of Northern Bukovina and Hertza, and of Bessarabia, a region under Romanian administration since Russian Civil War times.
The Soviet occupation of Romania refers to the period from 1944 to August 1958, during which the Soviet Union maintained a significant military presence in Romania.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The SovRoms (plural of SovRom) were economic enterprises established in Romania following the Communist takeover at the end of World War II, in place until 1954–1956 (when they were dissolved by the Romanian authorities).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Sphinx (Sfinxul) is a natural rock formation in the Bucegi Natural Park which is in the Bucegi Mountains of Romania.
Spiru C. Haret (15 February 1851 – 17 December 1912) was a Romanian-Armenian mathematician, astronomer and politician.
Sponge cake is a cake based on flour (usually wheat flour), sugar, butter and eggs, and is sometimes leavened with baking powder.
Sports in Romania are an important part of the country's culture.
The Starčevo culture, sometimes included within a larger grouping known as the Starčevo–Körös–Criş culture, is an archaeological culture of Southeastern Europe, dating to the Neolithic period between c. 6200 and 4500 BCE.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Stephen III of Moldavia, known as Stephen the Great (Ștefan cel Mare;; died on 2 July 1504) was voivode (or prince) of Moldavia from 1457 to 1504.
Stollen is a fruit bread of nuts, spices, and dried or candied fruit, coated with powdered sugar or icing sugar.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Stulpicani is a commune located in Suceava County, Romania.
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.
Suceava is the largest city and the seat of Suceava County, situated in the historical region of Bukovina from Central EuropeKlaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 and north-eastern Romania respectively.
Suceava is a county (județ) of Romania.
Sud - Muntenia (South - Muntenia) is a development region in Romania.
Sud-Est (english South East) is a development region in Romania.
Sud-Vest Oltenia (english South-West Oltenia) is a development region in Romania.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
Supplex Libellus Valachorum Transsilvaniae (Latin for Petition of the Romanians of Transylvania) is the name of two petitions sent by the leaders of the ethnic Romanians of Transylvania to the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, demanding equal political rights with the other ethnicities of Transylvania and a share of the Transylvanian Diet proportional to their population.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Tatars (Tătari), a Turkic-speaking ethnic group, have been present on the territory of today's Romania since the 13th century.
Târgu Neamț (Niamtz, Németvásár, נאמץ טרגו, Ante Castrum Nempch) is a town in Neamț County, Romania, on the Neamț River.
A team sport includes any sport which involves two or more players working together towards a shared objective.
Teleorman is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in the historical region Muntenia, with its capital city at Alexandria.
The dialling plan for mobile networks (numbers starting with 07) and new landline operators (numbers starting with 03) is closed; all subscriber numbers must be dialled in full.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The tennis tournament at the 2016 Summer Olympics was held at the Olympic Tennis Centre, from 6 to 14 August.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theodor Aman (20 March 1831 – 19 August 1891) was a Romanian painter, engraver and art professor of Macedo-Romanian ancestry.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Timișoara (Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Temesvár,; טעמשוואר; Темишвар / Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Temeşvar; Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.
The Metropolitan Zone of Timișoara is an undergoing project for the creation of an administrative unit to integrate Timișoara with the nearby communes: Becicherecu Mic, Bucovăț, Biled, Chevereșu Mare, Dudeștii Noi, Dudeștii Vechi, Dumbrăvița, Ghiroda, Giarmata, Giroc, Jebel, Liebling, Moșnița Nouă, Mașloc, Orțișoara, Parța, Pădureni, Pișchia, Peciu Nou, Remetea Mare, Sacoșu Turcesc, Șag, Săcălaz, Sânandrei, Sânmihaiu Român și Satchinez.
Timișoara Traian Vuia International Airport (IATA: TSR, ICAO: LRTR) is an international airport serving Timișoara, Romania.
Tobă, or especially in Transylvania, "caş de cap de porc" (which means "pig head cheese"), is a kind of a traditional Romanian delicatessen which looks like a wide sausage, 4 inch diameter using usually pig's stomach, stuffed with pork jelly, liver, and skin suspended in aspic.
Tochitură is a traditional Romanian dish like a stew made from beef and pork in tomato sauce, traditionally served with over-easy eggs and mămăligă.
Tomato sauce (also known as Neapolitan sauce, and Salsa di pomodoro in Italian) can refer to a large number of different sauces made primarily from tomatoes, usually to be served as part of a dish, rather than as a condiment.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Traian Băsescu (born 4 November 1951) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 2004 to 2014.
Traian Vuia or Trajan Vuia (August 17, 1872 – September 3, 1950) was a Romanian inventor and aviation pioneer who designed, built and tested the first tractor monoplane.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
The Transnistria Governorate (Guvernământul Transnistriei) was a Romanian-administered territory between Dniester and Southern Bug (Buh), conquered by the Axis Powers from the Soviet Union during Operation Barbarossa and occupied from 19 August 1941 to 29 January 1944.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Transylvanian Plateau (Podişul Transilvaniei, Erdélyi-medence) is a plateau in central Romania.
The Transylvanian Saxons (Siebenbürger Sachsen; Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjer Såksen; Sași ardeleni, sași transilvăneni; Erdélyi szászok) are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania (Siebenbürgen) from the mid 12th century until the late Modern Age (specifically mid 19th century).
The Transylvanian School (Școala Ardeleană in Romanian) was a cultural movement which was founded after part of the Romanian Orthodox Church in Habsburg-ruled Transylvania accepted the leadership of the Pope and became the Greek-Catholic Church (ca.1700).
The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878.
The Treaty of Bucharest of 1916 was signed between Romania and the Entente Powers on 4 (Old Style)/17 (New Style) August 1916 in Bucharest.
The Treaty of Bucharest was a peace treaty between Romania on one side and the Central Powers on the other, following the stalemate reached after the campaign of 1916–17 and Romania's isolation after Russia's unilateral exit from World War I (see Treaty of Brest-Litovsk).
The 1920 Treaty of Paris was an act signed by Romania and the principal Allied Powers of the time (France, United Kingdom, Italy and Japan) whose purpose was the recognition of Romanian sovereignty over Bessarabia.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.
The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano (Russian: Сан-Стефанский мир; Peace of San-Stefano, Сан-Стефанский мирный договор; Peace treaty of San-Stefano, Turkish: Ayastefanos Muahedesi or Ayastefanos Antlaşması) was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 that formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.
A tricolour or tricolor is a type of flag or banner design with a triband design which originated in the 16th century as a symbol of republicanism, liberty or indeed revolution.
Tripe soup is a common dish in Balkan, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Greek, Turkish, and Eastern European cuisine.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Tristan Tzara (born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; – 25 December 1963) was a Romanian and French avant-garde poet, essayist and performance artist.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tudor Vladimirescu (c. 1780 –) was a Romanian revolutionary hero, the leader of the Wallachian uprising of 1821 and of the Pandur militia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Turks of Romania, also known as Romanian Turks, (Romanya Türkleri, Turcii din România) are ethnic Turks who form an ethnic minority in Romania.
The Type 22 Broadsword class was a class of frigate built for the British Royal Navy.
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
The UEFA Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and contested by top-division European clubs.
The UEFA Cup Winners' Cup (abbreviated as CWC) was a football club competition contested annually by the most recent winners of all European domestic cup competitions.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainians (Українці, Ucraineni) are the third-largest ethnic minority in Romania.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The unification of Romania and Moldova (Unirea Republicii Moldova cu România) is a popular concept in the two countries beginning with the late 1980s, during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Union of Transylvania with Romania was declared on by the assembly of the delegates of ethnic Romanians held in Alba Iulia.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia was the official name of the personal union which later became Romania, adopted in 1859 when Alexandru Ioan Cuza was elected as the Domnitor (Ruling Prince) of both territories, which were still vassals of the Ottoman Empire.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The University of Bucharest (Universitatea din București), commonly known after its abbreviation UB in Romania, is a public university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Saint Sava Academy into the current University of Bucharest, making it the second oldest modern university in Romania.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Vasile Alecsandri (July 21, 1821August 22, 1890) was a Moldavian poet, playwright, politician, and diplomat.
Lupu Coci, known as Vasile Lupu (1595–1661) was the Voivode of Moldavia between 1634 and 1653.
Vânători-Neamț is a commune in Neamț County, Romania.
The Vânători-Neamț Natural Park (Parcul Natural Vânători Neamţ) is situated in north-east Romania, in Neamţ County.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vest (english West) is a development region in Romania created in 1998.
Victor Babeș (28 July 1854 in Vienna – 19 October 1926 in Bucharest) was a Romanian physician, bacteriologist, academician and professor.
Victor Viorel Ponta (born 20 September 1972) is a Romanian jurist and politician, who served as Prime Minister of Romania between his appointment by President Traian Băsescu in May 2012 and his resignation in November 2015.
Vișinată is a Romanian alcoholic beverage produced from sour cherries (vișine in Romanian), sugar and alcohol.
The south-eastern Transylvania region in Romania currently has one of the highest numbers of existing fortified churches from the 13th to 16th centuries.
Vasilica Viorica Dăncilă (born 16 December 1963) is a Romanian politician, a leader of the Social Democratic Party, and the Prime Minister of Romania since 29 January 2018.
Virginia Ruzici (born 31 January 1955) is a former professional tennis player from Romania.
Vlad III, known as Vlad the Impaler (Vlad Țepeș) or Vlad Dracula (1428/311476/77), was voivode (or prince) of Wallachia three times between 1448 and his death.
Vlax Romani is a dialect group of the Romani language.
The Voice of Russia (r), commonly abbreviated VOR, was the Russian government's international radio broadcasting service from 1993 until 2014, when it was reorganised as Radio Sputnik.
A voivodeship is the area administered by a voivode (Governor) in several countries of central and eastern Europe.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
The Romanian Plain (Câmpia Română) is located in southern Romania and the easternmost tip of Serbia, where it is known as the Wallachian Plain (Vlaška nizija/Влашка низија).
The Wallachian Revolution of 1848 was a Romanian liberal and nationalist uprising in the Principality of Wallachia.
The uprising of 1821 was a social and political rebellion in Wallachia, which was at the time a tributary state of the Ottoman Empire.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The West University of Timișoara (Universitatea de Vest din Timișoara; abbreviated UVT) is a university located in Timișoara, Romania.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
A wide-body aircraft is a jet airliner with a fuselage wide enough to accommodate two passenger aisles, also known as twin-aisle aircraft, with seven or more seats abreast.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
The Women's Tennis Association (WTA), founded in 1973 by Billie Jean King, is the principal organising body of women's professional tennis.
The Wooden churches of Maramureș in the Maramureș region of northern Transylvania are a group of almost one hundred Orthodox churches, and occasionally Greek-Catholic ones, of different architectural solutions from different periods and areas.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) is a forum for the travel and tourism industry.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Ziarul Financiar is a daily financial newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania.
.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
.ro is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Romania.
The 1965 Constitution of Romania was drafted by a committee of the Great National Assembly (MAN) and approved by a plenary session of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party on June 28, 1965.
The 1968 Winter Olympics, officially known as the X Olympic Winter Games (Les Xes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1968 in Grenoble, France, and opened on 6 February.
The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad (French: Les XXIes olympiques d'été), was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, and the first Olympic Games held in Canada.
The 1980s austerity policy in Romania was imposed by Romania's dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu in order to pay out the external debt incurred by the state in the 1970s.
The 1983–84 season of the European Cup football club tournament was won for a fourth time by Liverpool in a penalty shootout in the final against Roma.
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles (LA), California, United States.
The boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles followed four years after the U.S.-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.
The 1985–86 European Cup was the 31st season of UEFA's premier club football tournament, the European Cup.
The 1988–89 European Cup was the 34th season of the European Cup football club tournament.
The 1989–90 season of the European Cup Winners' Cup was won for the only time by Sampdoria in the final against Anderlecht, 2–0 at Nya Ullevi in Gothenburg, on 9 May 1990.
The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States from 17 June to 17 July 1994.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.
The 2007 enlargement of the European Union saw Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007.
The 2008 Bucharest Summit or the 20th NATO Summit was a NATO summit organized in the Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest, Romania on 2 – 4 April 2008.
On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.
The 2012 Romanian constitutional crisis was a major political and constitutional conflict between President Traian Băsescu and Prime Minister Victor Ponta of Romania.
The 2015 Romanian protests began on 3 November, when more than 15,000 people protested in front of Victoria Palace—the headquarters of the Romanian government—blocking traffic in Victory Square.
The meridian 20° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic and Indian oceans, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 30° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days (4 luni, 3 săptămâni și 2 zile) is a 2007 Romanian art film with drama and thriller elements, written and directed by Cristian Mungiu and starring Anamaria Marinca, Laura Vasiliu and Vlad Ivanov.
The 43rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 43 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49° north of Earth's equator.
Austro-Hungarian Empire (Romania), Carpathian Danubian space, Country ROM, Danubian-Carpathian Area, ISO 3166-1:RO, North Danubian region, RO (country), ROMANIA, Republic of Romania, Romainia, Romanian State, Romanian state, România, Romînia, Roumania, Roumanie, Rromania, Rumania, Rumunia, Rumänien.