178 relations: Academic tenure, Accompaniment, Acousmatic sound, African Americans, Aleatoric music, Altered chord, Ancient Greece, Antonín Dvořák, Antonio Vivaldi, Arnold Schoenberg, Arrangement, Art music, Art song, Aus den sieben Tagen, Author, Aydın, Bachelor of Music, Ballet, Baroque music, Bassline, Blues, Brass instrument, Catholic Church, Choir, Chord (music), Chromatic scale, Church music, Clara Schumann, Classical music, Classical period (music), Clavichord, Concerto, Consonance and dissonance, Contemporary classical music, Copyright, Counterpoint, Courtly love, Die Walküre, Divertimento, Doctor of Musical Arts, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctorate, Effects unit, Electroacoustic music, Electronic media, Electronic music, Ephesus, Ewe drumming, Experimental music, Extended chord, ..., Fermata, Folk music, Franz Schubert, Free jazz, Fugue, Georg Philipp Telemann, George Frideric Handel, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Graphic notation (music), Gregorian chant, Guillaume de Machaut, Guillaume Du Fay, Guitar solo, Gustav Mahler, Harpsichord, Hellenistic period, Higher education, Hildegard of Bingen, Historically informed performance, Homophony, Igor Stravinsky, Instrumental, Invention (musical composition), Ionia, Jazz, Jazz improvisation, Johann Sebastian Bach, John Cage, Joseph Haydn, Kapellmeister, Latin, Léonin, Leonard Bernstein, Lists of composers, Literature, Liturgy, Ludwig van Beethoven, Marcia Citron, Mass, Medieval music, Melody, Merriam-Webster, Monophony, Morton Feldman, Motif (music), Music, Music genre, Music of ancient Greece, Music school, Music theory, Musical composition, Musical ensemble, Musical improvisation, Musical notation, Musical phrasing, Musical theatre, Musician, Musicology, Musique concrète, Nationalism, Octave species, Opera, Oratorio, Orchestra, Orchestration, Organ (music), Orlande de Lassus, Ornament (music), Overture, Pérotin, Performing arts, Phonograph, Piano, Pipe organ, Plainsong, Popular music, Portamento, Printing press, Professor, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Radio, Record producer, Reel-to-reel audio tape recording, Religious music, Renaissance music, Richard Wagner, Romance (love), Romantic music, Secular music, Seikilos epitaph, Serenade, Sheet music, Singing, Sonata, Sonata form, Song, Songwriter, Sound design, Sound recording and reproduction, Stele, String quartet, String section, Symphonic poem, Symphony, Symphony No. 40 (Mozart), Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven), Syncretism, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Third stream, Thomas Morley, Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, Tomás Luis de Victoria, Tonality, Trio (music), Turkey, Urtext edition, Vibrato, Violin, Vocal music, Wagner tuba, Western canon, Wind chime, Witold Lutosławski, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Woodwind instrument, Word count, Youth orchestra, 20th-century music. Expand index (128 more) »
A tenured appointment is an indefinite academic appointment that can be terminated only for cause or under extraordinary circumstances, such as financial exigency or program discontinuation.
Accompaniment is the musical part which provides the rhythmic and/or harmonic support for the melody or main themes of a song or instrumental piece.
Acousmatic sound is sound that is heard without an originating cause being seen.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chance music; from the Latin word alea, meaning "dice") is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance, and/or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(s).
In music, an altered chord, an example of alteration, is a chord with one or more notes from the diatonic scale replaced by a neighboring pitch in the chromatic scale.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Antonín Leopold Dvořák (8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (4 March 1678 – 28 July 1741) was an Italian Baroque musical composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric.
Arnold Franz Walter Schoenberg or Schönberg (13 September 187413 July 1951) was an Austrian-American composer, music theorist, teacher, writer, and painter.
In music, an arrangement is a musical reconceptualization of a previously composed work.
Art music (alternately called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.
An art song is a vocal music composition, usually written for one voice with piano accompaniment, and usually in the classical art music tradition.
Aus den sieben Tagen (From the Seven Days) is a collection of 15 text compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen, composed in May 1968, in reaction to a personal crisis, and characterized as "Intuitive music"—music produced primarily from the intuition rather than the intellect of the performer(s).
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is thus also a writer.
Aydın (EYE-din;; formerly named Güzelhisar), ancient Greek Tralles, is a city in and the seat of Aydın Province in Turkey's Aegean Region.
Bachelor of Music is an academic degree awarded by a college, university, or conservatory upon completion of a program of study in music.
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the 15th century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia.
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
A bassline (also known as a bass line or bass part) is the term used in many styles of music, such as jazz, blues, funk, dub and electronic, traditional music, or classical music for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played (in jazz and some forms of popular music) by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass, double bass, cello, tuba or keyboard (piano, Hammond organ, electric organ, or synthesizer).
Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century.
A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.
A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of two or more (usually three or more) notes (also called "pitches") that are heard as if sounding simultaneously.
The chromatic scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below its adjacent pitches.
Church music is music written for performance in church, or any musical setting of ecclesiastical liturgy, or music set to words expressing propositions of a sacred nature, such as a hymn.
Clara Schumann (née Clara Josephine Wieck; 13 September 1819 – 20 May 1896) was a German musician and composer, considered one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument that was used largely in the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras.
A concerto (plural concertos, or concerti from the Italian plural) is a musical composition usually composed in three movements, in which, usually, one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.
In music, consonance and dissonance are categorizations of simultaneous or successive sounds.
Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
Courtly love (or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.
Die Walküre (The Valkyrie), WWV 86B, is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner with a German libretto by the composer.
Divertimento (from the Italian divertire "to amuse") is a musical genre, with most of its examples from the 18th century.
The Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) is a doctoral academic degree in music.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
An effects unit or effects pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters the sound of a musical instrument or other audio source.
Electroacoustic music originated in Western art music around the middle of the 20th century, following the incorporation of electric sound production into compositional practice.
Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical audience to access the content.
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology.
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
Ewe drumming refers to the drumming ensembles of the Ewe people of Ghana, Togo, and Benin.
Experimental music is a general label for any music that pushes existing boundaries and genre definitions.
In music, extended chords are tertian chords (built from thirds) or triads with notes extended, or added, beyond the seventh.
A fermata ("from fermare, to stay, or stop"; also known as a hold, pause, colloquially a birdseye or cyclops eye, or as a grand pause when placed on a note or a rest) is a symbol of musical notation indicating that the note should be prolonged beyond the normal duration its note value would indicate.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.
Free jazz is an approach to jazz music that was first developed in the 1950s and 60s as musicians attempted to alter, extend, or break down jazz convention, often by discarding fixed chord changes or tempos.
In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course of the composition.
Georg Philipp Telemann (– 25 June 1767) was a German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.
Graphic notation (or graphic score) is the representation of music through the use of visual symbols outside the realm of traditional music notation.
Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church.
Guillaume de Machaut (sometimes spelled Machault; c. 1300 – April 1377) was a medieval French poet and composer.
Guillaume Du Fay (also Dufay, Du Fayt; 5 August, c. 1397; accessed June 23, 2015. – 27 November 1474) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the early Renaissance.
A guitar solo is a melodic passage, instrumental section, or entire piece of music written for a classical guitar, electric guitar or an acoustic guitar.
Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Hildegard of Bingen (Hildegard von Bingen; Hildegardis Bingensis; 1098 – 17 September 1179), also known as Saint Hildegard and Sibyl of the Rhine, was a German Benedictine abbess, writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, visionary, and polymath.
Historically informed performance (also referred to as period performance, authentic performance, or HIP) is an approach to the performance of classical music, which aims to be faithful to the approach, manner and style of the musical era in which a work was originally conceived.
In music, homophony (Greek: ὁμόφωνος, homóphōnos, from ὁμός, homós, "same" and φωνή, phōnē, "sound, tone") is a texture in which a primary part is supported by one or more additional strands that flesh out the harmony and often provide rhythmic contrast.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.
An instrumental is a musical composition or recording without lyrics, or singing, although it might include some inarticulate vocals, such as shouted backup vocals in a Big Band setting.
In music, an invention is a short composition (usually for a keyboard instrument) with two-part counterpoint.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jazz improvisation, which is the making up of new melodic solo lines or accompaniment parts, is a key aspect of jazz.
Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.
John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer and music theorist.
(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.
Kapellmeister is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Léonin (also Leoninus, Leonius, Leo) (fl. 1150s — d. ? 1201) was the first known significant composer of polyphonic organum.
Leonard Bernstein (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist.
This is a list of lists of composers grouped by various criteria.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
Marcia Judith Citron (born 1945) is an American professor of musicology at Rice University in Houston, Texas.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Medieval music consists of songs, instrumental pieces, and liturgical music from about 500 A.D. to 1400.
A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
In music, monophony is the simplest of musical textures, consisting of a melody (or "tune"), typically sung by a single singer or played by a single instrument player (e.g., a flute player) without accompanying harmony or chords.
Morton Feldman (January 12, 1926 – September 3, 1987) was an American composer.
In music, a motif (also motive) is a short musical idea, a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition: "The motive is the smallest structural unit possessing thematic identity".
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.
The music of ancient Greece was almost universally present in ancient Greek society, from marriages, funerals, and religious ceremonies to theatre, folk music, and the ballad-like reciting of epic poetry.
A music school is an educational institution specialized in the study, training, and research of music.
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.
Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music.
A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name.
Musical improvisation (also known as musical extemporization) is the creative activity of immediate ("in the moment") musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
Musical phrasing refers to the way a musician shapes a sequence of notes in a passage of music to express an emotion or impression.
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented.
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.
Musique concrète (meaning "concrete music")" problem for any translator of an academic work in French is that the language is relatively abstract and theoretical compared to English; one might even say that the mode of thinking itself tends to be more schematic, with a readiness to see material for study in terms of highly abstract dualisms and correlations, which on occasion does not sit easily with the perhaps more pragmatic English language.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
In early Greek music theory, an octave species (εἶδος τοῦ διὰ πασῶν, or σχῆμα τοῦ διὰ πασῶν) is a sequence of incomposite intervals (ditones, minor thirds, whole tones, semitones of various sizes, or quarter tones) making up a complete octave.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.
Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble, such as a concert band) or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra.
In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals.
Orlande de Lassus (also Roland de Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Orlandus Lassus, Orlande de Lattre or Roland de Lattre; 1532, possibly 1530 – 14 June 1594) was a Netherlandish or Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance.
In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony), but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line (or harmony), provide added interest and variety, and give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece.
Overture (from French ouverture, "opening") in music is the term originally applied to the instrumental introduction to an opera.
Pérotin (fl. c. 1200, died 1205 or 1225), also called Perotin the Great, was a European composer, believed to be French, who lived around the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century.
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices or bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression.
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard.
Plainsong (also plainchant; cantus planus) is a body of chants used in the liturgies of the Western Church.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
In music, portamento (plural: portamenti, from portamento, meaning "carriage" or "carrying") is a pitch sliding from one note to another.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
A record producer or track producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album.
Reel-to/open-reel audio tape recording is the form of magnetic tape audio recording in which the recording medium is held on a reel, rather than being securely contained within a cassette.
Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence.
Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Romance is the expressive and generally pleasurable feeling from an emotional attraction towards another person.
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
Secular music (non-religious) and sacred music were the two main genres of Western music during the Middle Ages and Renaissance era.
The Seikilos epitaph is the oldest surviving complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world.
In music, a serenade (also sometimes called serenata, from the Italian) is a musical composition and/or performance delivered in honor.
Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.
Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a musical structure consisting of three main sections: an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation.
A song, most broadly, is a single (and often standalone) work of music that is typically intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that often include the repetition of sections.
A songwriter is a professional who is paid to write lyrics for singers and melodies for songs, typically for a popular music genre such as rock or country music.
Sound design is the art and practice of creating sound tracks for a variety of needs.
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group.
The string section is composed of bowed instruments belonging to the violin family.
A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, usually in a single continuous movement, which illustrates or evokes the content of a poem, short story, novel, painting, landscape, or other (non-musical) source.
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.
Symphony No. 40 in G minor, KV.
The Symphony No.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians.
Third Stream is a term coined in 1957 by composer Gunther Schuller, in a lecture at Brandeis University, to describe a musical synthesis of jazz and classical music.
Thomas Morley (1557 or 1558 – early October 1602) was an English composer, theorist, singer and organist of the Renaissance.
The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, is a piece of organ music written, according to its oldest extant sources, by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Tomás Luis de Victoria (sometimes Italianised as da Vittoria; c. 1548 – 27 August 1611) was the most famous composer in 16th-century Spain, and was one of the most important composers of the Counter-Reformation, along with Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Orlando di Lasso.
Tonality is the arrangement of pitches and/or chords of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities, attractions and directionality.
In music, a trio (an Italian word) is a method of instrumentation or vocalization by three different sounds or voices to make a melodious music or song.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
An urtext edition of a work of classical music is a printed version intended to reproduce the original intention of the composer as exactly as possible, without any added or changed material.
Vibrato (Italian, from past participle of "vibrare", to vibrate) is a musical effect consisting of a regular, pulsating change of pitch.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
Vocal music is a type of music performed by one or more singers, either with instrumental accompaniment, or without instrumental accompaniment (a cappella), in which singing provides the main focus of the piece.
The Wagner tuba is an infrequently-used brass instrument that combines tonal elements of both the French horn and the trombone.
The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".
Wind chimes are a type of percussion instrument constructed from suspended tubes, rods, bells or other objects that are often made of metal or wood.
Witold Roman Lutosławski (25 January 1913 – 7 February 1994) was a Polish composer and orchestral conductor.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments.
The word count is the number of words in a document or passage of text.
A youth orchestra is an orchestra made of young musicians, typically ranging from pre-teens or teenagers to those in their mid-20s.
During the 20th century there was a vast increase in the variety of music that people had access to.