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Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900December 2, 1990) was an American composer, composition teacher, writer, and later a conductor of his own and other American music.
Academic Festival Overture (Akademische Festouvertüre), Op. 80, by Johannes Brahms, was one of a pair of contrasting concert overtures — the other being the Tragic Overture, Op. 81.
Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.
An acoustic guitar is a guitar that produces sound acoustically by transmitting the vibration of the strings to the air—as opposed to relying on electronic amplification (see electric guitar).
Ad libitum is Latin for "at one's pleasure" or "as you desire"; it is often shortened to "ad lib" (as an adjective or adverb) or "ad-lib" (as a verb or noun).
Adele Terese Katz (26 August 1887 – May 1979) was a music teacher and music theorist, and author.
Adrian Willaert (– 7 December 1562) was a Netherlandish composer of the Renaissance and founder of the Venetian School.
Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer of the Second Viennese School.
Pietro Alessandro Gaspare Scarlatti (2 May 1660 – 22 October 1725) was an Italian Baroque composer, known especially for his operas and chamber cantatas.
Alex Ross (born 1968) is an American music critic.
Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Скря́бин; –) was a Russian composer and pianist.
The alphorn or alpenhorn or alpine horn is a labrophone, consisting of a straight several-meter-long wooden natural horn of conical bore, with a wooden cup-shaped mouthpiece.
American classical music is music written in the United States in the European classical music tradition.
Ancient music is music that developed in literate cultures, replacing prehistoric music.
Andalusian classical music (طرب أندَلُسي, trans. ṭarab andalusi, música andalusí) is a style of Arabic music found in different styles across the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, and to a lesser degree in Tunisia and Libya in the form of the Ma'luf style).
Josef Anton Bruckner was an Austrian composer, organist, and music theorist best known for his symphonies, masses, Te Deum and motets.
Anton Friedrich Wilhelm (von) Webern (3 December 188315 September 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor.
Antonín Leopold Dvořák (8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer.
Antonio Salieri (18 August 17507 May 1825) was an Italian classical composer, conductor, and teacher.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (4 March 1678 – 28 July 1741) was an Italian Baroque musical composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric.
Aram Il'yich Khachaturian (Ара́м Ильи́ч Хачатуря́н; Արամ Խաչատրյան, Aram Xačatryan;; 1 May 1978) was a Soviet Armenian composer and conductor.
Arcangelo Corelli (17 February 1653 – 8 January 1713) was an Italian violinist and composer of the Baroque era.
Arianna Huffington (née Stasinopoúlou; born Αριάδνη-Άννα Στασινοπούλου, July 15, 1950) is a Greek-American author, syndicated columnist, and businesswoman.
Aristoxenus of Tarentum (Ἀριστόξενος ὁ Ταραντῖνος; born c. 375, fl. 335 BCE) was a Greek Peripatetic philosopher, and a pupil of Aristotle.
Arnold Franz Walter Schoenberg or Schönberg (13 September 187413 July 1951) was an Austrian-American composer, music theorist, teacher, writer, and painter.
Ars antiqua, also called ars veterum or ars vetus, is a term used by modern scholars to refer to the Medieval music of Europe during the high Middle Ages, between approximately 1170 and 1310.
Ars nova (Latin for new art)Fallows, David.
Ars subtilior (more subtle art) is a musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity, centered on Paris, Avignon in southern France, also in northern Spain at the end of the fourteenth century.
Art music (alternately called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.
An art song is a vocal music composition, usually written for one voice with piano accompaniment, and usually in the classical art music tradition.
Arvo Pärt (born 11 September 1935) is an Estonian composer of classical and religious music.
Atonality in its broadest sense is music that lacks a tonal center, or key.
An aulos (αὐλός, plural αὐλοί, auloi) or tibia (Latin) was an ancient Greek wind instrument, depicted often in art and also attested by archaeology.
Bachelor of Music is an academic degree awarded by a college, university, or conservatory upon completion of a program of study in music.
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag.
The bandora or bandore is a large long-necked plucked string-instrument that can be regarded as a bass cittern though it does not have the re-entrant tuning typical of the cittern.
The banjo is a four-, five- or six-stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a frame or cavity as a resonator, called the head.
Barbara Russano Hanning (born 1940) is an American musicologist who specializes in 16th- and 17th-century Italian music.
The Baroque guitar (c. 1600–1750) is a string instrument with five courses of gut strings and moveable gut frets.
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
The baroque trumpet is a musical instrument in the brass family.
A Baroque violin is a violin set up in the manner of the baroque period of music.
Bass describes tones of low (also called "deep") frequency, pitch and range from 16-256 Hz (C0 to middle C4) and bass instruments that produce tones in the low-pitched range C2-C4.
The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family.
The basset clarinet is a clarinet similar to the usual soprano clarinet but longer and with additional keys to enable playing several additional lower notes.
The basset horn (sometimes written basset-horn) is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family.
A bassline (also known as a bass line or bass part) is the term used in many styles of music, such as jazz, blues, funk, dub and electronic, traditional music, or classical music for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played (in jazz and some forms of popular music) by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass, double bass, cello, tuba or keyboard (piano, Hammond organ, electric organ, or synthesizer).
The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble.
Béla Viktor János Bartók (25 March 1881 – 26 September 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and an ethnomusicologist.
Bedřich Smetana (2 March 1824 – 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer who pioneered the development of a musical style that became closely identified with his country's aspirations to independent statehood.
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument.
Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten of Aldeburgh (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976) was an English composer, conductor and pianist.
Berklee College of Music, located in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, is the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world.
The Berlin Philharmonic (Berliner Philharmoniker) is a German orchestra based in Berlin.
Beverly Sills (born Belle Miriam Silverman, May 25, 1929July 2, 2007) was an American operatic soprano whose peak career was between the 1950s and 1970s.
William Martin Joel (born May 9, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter, composer and pianist.
A blind audition is a method of evaluating the job skills being tested, while the candidate performs from behind a wall or screen.
Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century.
Boléro is a one-movement orchestral piece by the French composer Maurice Ravel (1875–1937).
Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired.
A braille e-book is a refreshable braille display using electroactive polymers or heated wax rather than mechanical pins to raise braille dots on a display.
A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips.
The buccin is a visually distinctive trombone popularized in military bands in France between 1810 and 1845 which subsequently faded into obscurity.
In music, a cadenza (from cadenza, meaning cadence; plural, cadenze) is, generically, an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists, usually in a "free" rhythmic style, and often allowing virtuosic display.
A calliope (see below for pronunciation) is a musical instrument that produces sound by sending a gas, originally steam or more recently compressed air, through large whistles—originally locomotive whistles.
Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (9 October 183516 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor and pianist of the Romantic era.
In Canada, classical music includes a range of musical styles rooted in the traditions of Western or European classical music that European settlers brought to the country from the 17th century and onwards.
A cantata (literally "sung", past participle feminine singular of the Italian verb cantare, "to sing") is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment, typically in several movements, often involving a choir.
The canzona (It. plural canzone) is an instrumental musical form of the 16th and 17th centuries that developed from the Netherlandish chanson.
Carl Czerny (21 February 17919 August 1857) was an Austrian composer, teacher, and pianist of Czech origin whose vast musical production amounted to over a thousand works.
Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18 or 19 November 1786 5 June 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, and was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.
Carl Heinrich Maria Orff (–) was a German composer, best known for his cantata Carmina Burana (1937).
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (8 March 1714 – 14 December 1788), also formerly spelled Karl Philipp Emmanuel Bach, was a German Classical period musician and composer, the fifth child and second (surviving) son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach.
Carlo Gesualdo da Venosa (8 March 1566 – 8 September 1613) was Prince of Venosa and Count of Conza.
Carmina Burana is a scenic cantata composed by Carl Orff in 1935 and 1936, based on 24 poems from the medieval collection Carmina Burana.
Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka.
Castanets are a percussion instrument (idiophone), used in Kalo, Moorish, Ottoman, ancient Roman, Italian, Spanish, Sephardic, Swiss, and Portuguese music.
Catya Maré (pronunciation: catya maree) is a multiple award-winning composer, music producer, classical crossover violinist, visual artist and writer from Germany, now located in California.
The celesta or celeste is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard.
The cello (plural cellos or celli) or violoncello is a string instrument.
The six Cello Suites, BWV 1007-1012, are suites for unaccompanied cello by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The chalumeau (plural chalumeaux) is a single-reed woodwind instrument of the late baroque and early classical eras.
Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room.
Charles-François Gounod (17 June 181817 or 18 October 1893) was a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust.
Cheironomy (or Chironomy) is a form of conduction where the use of hand gestures directs musical performance.
The Cherry Creek School District 5, also known as Cherry Creek Public Schools, is a school district based in western Arapahoe County, Colorado.
A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of two or more (usually three or more) notes (also called "pitches") that are heard as if sounding simultaneously.
Christoph Willibald (Ritter von) Gluck (born on 2 July, baptized 4 July 1714As there is only a documentary record with Gluck's date of baptism, 4 July. According to his widow, he was born on 3 July, but nobody in the 18th century paid attention to the birthdate until Napoleon introduced it. A birth date was only known if the parents kept a diary. The authenticity of the 1785 document (published in the Allgemeinen Wiener Musik-Zeitung vom 6. April 1844) is disputed, by Robl. (Robl 2015, pp. 141–147).--> – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.
Chromaticism is a compositional technique interspersing the primary diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the chromatic scale.
Cipriano de Rore (occasionally Cypriano) (1515 or 1516 – between 11 and 20 September 1565) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance, active in Italy.
The cittern or cithren (Fr. cistre, It. cetra, Ger. zitter, zither, Sp. cistro, cedra, cítola) is a stringed instrument dating from the Renaissance.
Clara Schumann (née Clara Josephine Wieck; 13 September 1819 – 20 May 1896) was a German musician and composer, considered one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era.
The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments.
The clarinette d'amour is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family.
The classical guitar (also known as concert guitar, classical acoustic, nylon-string guitar, or Spanish guitar) is the member of the guitar family used in classical music.
The earliest western musical influences in Australia can be traced to two distinct sources: in the first settlements, the large body of convicts, soldiers and sailors who brought the traditional folk music of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland; and the first free settlers, some of whom had been exposed to the European classical music tradition in their upbringing.
Classical music of the United Kingdom is taken in this article to mean classical music in the sense elsewhere defined, of formally composed and written music of chamber, concert and church type as distinct from popular, traditional, or folk music.
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
Achille-Claude Debussy (22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer.
Claude Victor Palisca (Nov 24, 1921, Fiume, Italy -– Jan 11, 2001) was an internationally recognized authority on early music, especially opera of the renaissance and baroque periods, and was Henry L. and Lucy G. Moses Professor Emeritus of Music at Yale University.
Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (15 May 1567 (baptized) – 29 November 1643) was an Italian composer, string player and choirmaster.
The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument that was used largely in the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras.
A cliché or cliche is an expression, idea, or element of an artistic work which has become overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, even to the point of being trite or irritating, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel.
In the history of European art music, the common practice period is the era between the formation and the decline of the tonal system.
A concert band, also called wind ensemble, symphonic band, wind symphony, wind orchestra, wind band, symphonic winds, symphony band, or symphonic wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of members of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families of instruments, along with the double bass or bass guitar.
The Concertmaster (from the German Konzertmeister) in the U.S. and Canada is the leader of the first violin section in an orchestra (or clarinet in a concert band) and the instrument-playing leader of the orchestra.
A concerto (plural concertos, or concerti from the Italian plural) is a musical composition usually composed in three movements, in which, usually, one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.
Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music.
Contrabass (from contrabbasso) refers to a musical instrument of very low pitch—generally one octave below bass register instruments.
The contrabassoon, also known as the double bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon, sounding an octave lower.
The cornet is a brass instrument similar to the trumpet but distinguished from it by its conical bore, more compact shape, and mellower tone quality.
The cornett, cornetto, or zink is an early wind instrument that dates from the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods, popular from 1500 to 1650.
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
Country music, also known as country and western or simply country, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s.
Crossover is a term applied to musical works or performers who appeal to different types of audience, for example (especially in the United States) by appearing on two or more of the record charts which track differing musical styles or genres.
The crumhorn is a musical instrument of the woodwind family, most commonly used during the Renaissance period.
The da capo aria is a musical form for arias that was prevalent in the Baroque era.
Dafne is the earliest known work that, by modern standards, could be considered an opera.
Music historians divide the European classical music repertory into various eras based on what style was most popular as taste changed.
Denis Midgley Arnold, CBE (Sheffield, 15 December 1926 – Budapest, 28 April 1986) was a British musicologist.
(The Ring of the Nibelung), WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner.
The Detroit Symphony Orchestra (DSO) is an American orchestra based in Detroit, Michigan.
In tonal music theory, a function (often called harmonic function, tonal function or diatonic function, or also chord area) is the relationship of a chord to a tonal center.
Die Walküre (The Valkyrie), WWV 86B, is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner with a German libretto by the composer.
("Day of Wrath") is a Latin hymn attributed to either Thomas of Celano of the Franciscans (1200 – c. 1265) or to Latino Malabranca Orsini (d. 1294), lector at the Dominican studium at Santa Sabina, the forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, ''Angelicum'' in Rome.
Dieterich Buxtehude (Diderich,; c. 1637/39 – 9 May 1707) was a Danish-German organist and composer of the Baroque period.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич|Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich,; 9 August 1975) was a Russian composer and pianist.
Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (Naples, 26 October 1685 Madrid, 23 July 1757) was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families.
The double bass, or simply the bass (and numerous other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra.
A double reed is a type of reed used to produce sound in various wind instruments.
Dream Theater is an American progressive metal band formed in 1985 under the name Majesty by John Petrucci, John Myung and Mike Portnoy while they attended Berklee College of Music in Boston, Massachusetts.
In music, a drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout most or all of a piece.
The dulcian is a Renaissance woodwind instrument, with a double reed and a folded conical bore.
In music, the dynamics of a piece is the variation in loudness between notes or phrases.
Ear training or aural skills is a skill by which musicians learn to identify, solely by hearing, pitches, intervals, melody, chords, rhythms, and other basic elements of music.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Early music generally comprises Medieval music (500–1400) and Renaissance music (1400–1600), but can also include Baroque music (1600–1760).
In music, eclecticism is the conscious use of styles alien to the composer's own nature, or from a bygone era.
Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 18434 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist.
Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire.
Ein Heldenleben (A Hero's Life), Op.
(Serenade No. 13 for strings in G major), K. 525, is a 1787 composition for a chamber ensemble by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals.
Sir Elton Hercules John (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight; 25 March 1947) is an English singer, pianist, and composer.
The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.
Enrique Granados Campiña (27 July 1867 – 24 March 1916) was a Spanish pianist and composer of classical music.
An equal temperament is a musical temperament, or a system of tuning, in which the frequency interval between every pair of adjacent notes has the same ratio.
The euphonium is a large, conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument that derives its name from the Ancient Greek word εὔφωνος euphōnos, meaning "well-sounding" or "sweet-voiced" (εὖ eu means "well" or "good" and φωνή phōnē means "sound", hence "of good sound").
Euridice (also Erudice or Eurydice) is an opera by Jacopo Peri, with additional music by Giulio Caccini.
Experimental music is a general label for any music that pushes existing boundaries and genre definitions.
Fantasia is a 1940 American animated film produced by Walt Disney and released by Walt Disney Productions.
The fantasia (also English: fantasy, fancy, fantazy, phantasy, Fantasie, Phantasie, fantaisie) is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation.
Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early romantic period.
A fermata ("from fermare, to stay, or stop"; also known as a hold, pause, colloquially a birdseye or cyclops eye, or as a grand pause when placed on a note or a rest) is a symbol of musical notation indicating that the note should be prolonged beyond the normal duration its note value would indicate.
A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.
Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano, harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below.
"Flight of the Bumblebee" is an orchestral interlude written by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov for his opera The Tale of Tsar Saltan, composed in 1899–1900.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
A fortepiano is an early piano.
France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.
Francesco degli Organi, Francesco il Cieco, or Francesco da Firenze, called by later generations Francesco Landini or Landino (c. 1325 or 1335 – September 2, 1397) was an Italian composer, organist, singer, poet and instrument maker.
Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (7 January 189930 January 1963) was a French composer and pianist.
Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.
Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.
Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.
Frederick Theodore Albert Delius, CH (29 January 186210 June 1934) was an English composer.
A freelancer or freelance worker is a term commonly used for a person who is self-employed and is not necessarily committed to a particular employer long-term.
French classical music began with the sacred music of the Roman Catholic Church, with written records predating the reign of Charlemagne.
In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course of the composition.
Gabriel Urbain Fauré (12 May 1845 – 4 November 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist and teacher.
Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer.
is a type of Japanese classical music that has been performed at the Imperial Court in Kyoto for several centuries and today by Board of Ceremonies at Tokyo Imperial Palace.
In music, galant refers to the style which was fashionable from the 1720s to the 1770s.
Georg Philipp Telemann (– 25 June 1767) was a German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
George Jacob Gershwin (September 26, 1898 July 11, 1937) was an American composer and pianist.
Georges Bizet (25 October 18383 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era.
Giacomo Carissimi (baptized 18 April 160512 January 1674) was an Italian composer and music teacher.
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian opera composer who has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi".
Gilles de Binche (called Binchois; also known as Gilles de Bins; ca. 1400 – 20 September 1460), was a Netherlandish composer, one of the earliest members of the Burgundian school and one of the three most famous composers of the early 15th century.
Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as some sacred music, songs, chamber music, and piano pieces.
Giovanni Battista Draghi (4 January 1710 – 16 or 17 March 1736), often referred to as Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, was an Italian composer, violinist and organist.
Giovanni Gabrieli (c. 1554/1557 – 12 August 1612) was an Italian composer and organist.
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.
Girolamo Alessandro Frescobaldi (also Gerolamo, Girolimo, and Geronimo Alissandro; September, 15831 March 1643) was a musician from Ferrara, one of the most important composers of keyboard music in the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods.
Giulio Cesare in Egitto (Italian for "Julius Caesar in Egypt", HWV 17), commonly known as Giulio Cesare, is a dramma per musica (opera seria) in three acts composed for the Royal Academy of Music by George Frideric Handel in 1724.
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.
The golden age of American animation was a period in the history of U.S. animation that began with the advent of sound cartoons in 1928 and continued until around 1972 when theatrical animated shorts began losing to the new medium of television animation.
Gramophone is a magazine published monthly in London devoted to classical music, particularly to reviews of recordings.
Grand opera is a genre of 19th-century opera generally in four or five acts, characterized by large-scale casts and orchestras, and (in their original productions) lavish and spectacular design and stage effects, normally with plots based on or around dramatic historic events.
Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
Guillaume de Machaut (sometimes spelled Machault; c. 1300 – April 1377) was a medieval French poet and composer.
Guillaume Du Fay (also Dufay, Du Fayt; 5 August, c. 1397; accessed June 23, 2015. – 27 November 1474) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the early Renaissance.
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings.
Gustav Theodore Holst (born Gustavus Theodore von Holst; 21 September 1874 – 25 May 1934) was an English composer, arranger and teacher.
Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.
György Sándor Ligeti (Ligeti György Sándor,; 28 May 1923 – 12 June 2006) was a Hungarian-Austrian composer of contemporary classical music.
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing.
Harold Charles Schonberg (November 29, 1915 – July 26, 2003) was an American music critic and journalist, most notably for The New York Times.
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
Louis-Hector Berlioz; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique, Harold en Italie, Roméo et Juliette, Grande messe des morts (Requiem), L'Enfance du Christ, Benvenuto Cellini, La Damnation de Faust, and Les Troyens. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 compositions for voice, accompanied by piano or orchestra. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler.
Heinrich Schütz (– 6 November 1672) was a German composer and organist, generally regarded as the most important German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach and often considered to be one of the most important composers of the 17th century.
Henry Purcell (or; c. 10 September 1659According to Holman and Thompson (Grove Music Online, see References) there is uncertainty regarding the year and day of birth. No record of baptism has been found. The year 1659 is based on Purcell's memorial tablet in Westminster Abbey and the frontispiece of his Sonnata's of III. Parts (London, 1683). The day 10 September is based on vague inscriptions in the manuscript GB-Cfm 88. It may also be relevant that he was appointed to his first salaried post on 10 September 1677, which would have been his eighteenth birthday. – 21 November 1695) was an English composer.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
High modernism (also known as "high modernity") is a form of modernity, characterized by an unfaltering confidence in science and technology as means to reorder the social and natural world.
Hildegard of Bingen (Hildegard von Bingen; Hildegardis Bingensis; 1098 – 17 September 1179), also known as Saint Hildegard and Sibyl of the Rhine, was a German Benedictine abbess, writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, visionary, and polymath.
Hindustani classical music is the traditional music of northern areas of the Indian subcontinent, including the modern states of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Historically informed performance (also referred to as period performance, authentic performance, or HIP) is an approach to the performance of classical music, which aims to be faithful to the approach, manner and style of the musical era in which a work was originally conceived.
Hooked on Classics is an album by Louis Clark and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, published in 1981 by K-tel and distributed by RCA Records, part of the Hooked on Classics series.
The hurdy-gurdy is a stringed instrument that produces sound by a hand crank-turned, rosined wheel rubbing against the strings.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.
Impressionism in music was a movement among various composers in Western classical music (mainly during the late 19th and early 20th centuries) whose music focuses on suggestion and atmosphere, "conveying the moods and emotions aroused by the subject rather than a detailed tone‐picture".
"In the Hall of the Mountain King" (italic) is a piece of orchestral music composed by Edvard Grieg in 1875 as incidental music for the sixth scene of act 2 in Henrik Ibsen's 1867 play Peer Gynt.
Indian classical music is a genre of South Asian music.
In music, instrumentation is the particular combination of musical instruments employed in a composition, and the properties of those instruments individually.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
The intermedio (also intromessa, introdutto, tramessa, tramezzo, intermezzo), in the Italian Renaissance, was a theatrical performance or spectacle with music and often dance which was performed between the acts of a play to celebrate special occasions in Italian courts.
The International Alliance for Women in Music (IAWM) is an international membership organization of women and men dedicated to fostering and encouraging the activities of women in music, particularly in the areas of musical activity, such as composing, performing, and research, in which gender discrimination is an historic and ongoing concern.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Plainsong is also called plainchant.
Jacob Obrecht (also Hobrecht; 1457/8 – late July 1505) was a Low Countries (greater Netherlands) composer.
Jacopo Peri (Zazzerino) (20 August 156112 August 1633) was an Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera.
Jacques Arcadelt (also Jacob Arcadelt; 14 October 1568) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance, active in both Italy and France, and principally known as a composer of secular vocal music.
Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880) was a German-born French composer, cellist and impresario of the romantic period.
James Ruben Oestreich (born 1943; pronounced AY-strike) is a classical music critic for The New York Times, where he has written about music since 1989.
Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (April or May, 1562 – 16 October 1621) was a Dutch composer, organist, and pedagogue whose work straddled the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the Baroque eras.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jean Sibelius, born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius (8 December 186520 September 1957), was a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern periods.
Jean-Baptiste Lully (born Giovanni Battista Lulli,; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France.
Jean-Philippe Rameau (–) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the 18th century.
The Jew's harp, also known as the jaw harp, mouth harp, Ozark harp or juice harp, is a lamellophone instrument, consisting of a flexible metal or bamboo tongue or reed attached to a frame.
Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh surviving child and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach.
Johann Mouse is the 75th one-reel animated Tom and Jerry short, created in 1953 directed by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera and produced by Fred Quimby with music by Scott Bradley and Jakob Gimpel (who plays the piano in this short) and narration by Hans Conried.
Johann Nepomuk Hummel (14 November 177817 October 1837) was an Austrian composer and virtuoso pianist.
Johann Pachelbel (baptised 1 September 1653 – buried 9 March 1706) was a German composer, organist, and teacher who brought the south German organ tradition to its peak.
Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.
Johann Strauss II (October 25, 1825 – June 3, 1899), also known as Johann Strauss Jr., the Younger, the Son (Sohn), Johann Baptist Strauss, son of Johann Strauss I, was an Austrian composer of light music, particularly dance music and operettas.
Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.
Johannes Ciconia (– between 10 June and 13 July 1412) was a composer and music theorist of the late Middle Ages.
Johannes Ockeghem (also Jean de, Jan; surname Okeghem, Ogkegum, Okchem, Hocquegam, Ockegham; other variant spellings are also encountered) (1410/1425 – February 6,Brown & Stein, p61. 1497) was the most famous composer of the Franco-Flemish School in the last half of the 15th century, and is often considered the most influential composer between Guillaume Dufay and Josquin des Prez.
John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer and music theorist.
John Dowland (1563 – buried 20 February 1626) was an English Renaissance composer, lutenist, and singer.
John Dunstaple (or Dunstable, c. 1390 – 24 December 1453) was an English composer of polyphonic music of the late medieval era and early Renaissance periods.
(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.
Josquin des Prez (– 27 August 1521), often referred to simply as Josquin, was a French composer of the Renaissance.
Karlheinz Stockhausen (22 August 1928 – 5 December 2007) was a German composer, widely acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but also controversial composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.
Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900April 3, 1950) was a German composer, active from the 1920s in his native country, and in his later years in the United States.
La mer, trois esquisses symphoniques pour orchestre (French for The sea, three symphonic sketches for orchestra), or simply La mer (i.e. The Sea), L. 109, is an orchestral composition by the French composer Claude Debussy.
Léonin (also Leoninus, Leonius, Leo) (fl. 1150s — d. ? 1201) was the first known significant composer of polyphonic organum.
Lead guitar is a musical part for a guitar in which the guitarist plays melody lines, instrumental fill passages, guitar solos, and occasionally, some riffs within a song structure.
Leoš Janáček (baptised Leo Eugen Janáček; 3 July 1854 – 12 August 1928) was a Czech composer, musical theorist, folklorist, publicist and teacher.
"Classical music" and "art music" are terms that have been used to refer to music of different cultural origins and traditions.
List of classical music pieces which inspired or are mentioned explicitly in literature.
The following is a list of female composers in the Western concert tradition, ordered by their year of birth.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
Ridolfo Luigi Boccherini (February 19, 1743 – May 28, 1805) was an Italian composer and cellist of the Classical era whose music retained a courtly and "galante" style even while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
A madrigal is a secular vocal music composition of the Renaissance and early Baroque eras.
Madrigal comedy is a term for a kind of entertainment music of the late 16th century in Italy, in which groups of related, generally a cappella madrigals were sung consecutively, generally telling a story, and sometimes having a loose dramatic plot.
In Western music, the adjectives major and minor can describe a musical composition, movement, section, scale, key, chord, or interval.
A mandolin (mandolino; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is usually plucked with a plectrum or "pick".
The Manhattan School of Music (MSM) is a music conservatory located on the Upper West Side of New York City.
Manuel de Falla y Matheu (23 November 187614 November 1946) was a Spanish composer.
Marcia Judith Citron (born 1945) is an American professor of musicology at Rice University in Houston, Texas.
Maria Callas, Commendatore OMRI (Μαρία Κάλλας; December 2, 1923 – September 16, 1977) was a New York-born Greek soprano, one of the most renowned and influential opera singers of the 20th century.
The Mass (italic), a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism) to music.
The Master of Music (M.M. or M.Mus.) is, as an academic title, the first graduate degree in Music awarded by universities and conservatories.
Joseph Maurice Ravel (7 March 1875 – 28 December 1937) was a French composer, pianist and conductor.
Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (6 January 1838–2 October 1920), also known as Max Karl August Bruch, was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including three violin concertos, the first of which has become a staple of the violin repertory.
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Meantone temperament is a musical temperament, that is a tuning system, obtained by slightly compromising the fifths in order to improve the thirds.
Medieval music consists of songs, instrumental pieces, and liturgical music from about 500 A.D. to 1400.
A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
In music, metre (Am. meter) refers to the regularly recurring patterns and accents such as bars and beats.
George Michael Sinclair Kennedy CBE (19 February 1926 – 31 December 2014) was an English biographer, journalist and writer on classical music.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Minimal music is a form of art music that employs limited or minimal musical materials.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In music, modernism is a philosophical and aesthetic stance underlying the period of change and development in musical language that occurred around the turn of the 20th century, a period of diverse reactions in challenging and reinterpreting older categories of music, innovations that led to new ways of organizing and approaching harmonic, melodic, sonic, and rhythmic aspects of music, and changes in aesthetic worldviews in close relation to the larger identifiable period of modernism in the arts of the time.
Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (mɐˈdɛst pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈmusərkskʲɪj; –) was a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five".
In music, monophony is the simplest of musical textures, consisting of a melody (or "tune"), typically sung by a single singer or played by a single instrument player (e.g., a flute player) without accompanying harmony or chords.
In western music, a motet is a mainly vocal musical composition, of highly diverse form and style, from the late medieval era to the present.
A movement is a self-contained part of a musical composition or musical form.
The Mozart effect can refer to.
Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.
Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music.
In classical music, musical development is a process by which a musical idea is communicated in the course of a composition.
A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name.
The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music; it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.
Musical improvisation (also known as musical extemporization) is the creative activity of immediate ("in the moment") musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.
A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument.
Musical nationalism refers to the use of musical ideas or motifs that are identified with a specific country, region, or ethnicity, such as folk tunes and melodies, rhythms, and harmonies inspired by them.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
Musical phrasing refers to the way a musician shapes a sequence of notes in a passage of music to express an emotion or impression.
In musical tuning, a temperament is a tuning system that slightly compromises the pure intervals of just intonation to meet other requirements.
Muzio Filippo Vincenzo Francesco Saverio Clementi (23 January 1752 – 10 March 1832) was an Italian-born English composer, pianist, pedagogue, conductor, music publisher, editor, and piano manufacturer.
The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an American feminist organization founded in 1966.
The National Symphony Orchestra (NSO), founded in 1931, is an American symphony orchestra based in Washington, D.C..
The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the interwar period, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint.
Neoromanticism in music is a return (at any of several points in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries) to the emotional expression associated with nineteenth-century Romanticism.
The New York Philharmonic, officially the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, Inc., globally known as New York Philharmonic Orchestra (NYPO) or New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City in the United States.
Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (27 October 178227 May 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer.
Night on Bald Mountain (Ночь на лысой горе, Noch′ na lysoy gore), also known as Night on the Bare Mountain, is a series of compositions by Modest Mussorgsky (1839–1881).
Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (a; Russia was using old style dates in the 19th century, and information sources used in the article sometimes report dates as old style rather than new style. Dates in the article are taken verbatim from the source and are in the same style as the source from which they come.) was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five.
A nocturne (from the French which meant nocturnal, from Latin nocturnus) is usually a musical composition that is inspired by, or evocative of, the night.
"O Fortuna" is a medieval Latin Goliardic poem written early in the 13th century, part of the collection known as the Carmina Burana.
Oboes are a family of double reed woodwind instruments.
Olivier Eugène Prosper Charles Messiaen (December 10, 1908 – April 27, 1992) was a French composer, organist, and ornithologist, one of the major composers of the 20th century.
Opéra comique (plural: opéras comiques) is a genre of French opera that contains spoken dialogue and arias.
The Open Goldberg Variations is a non-profit project that created a high quality studio recording and typeset score of Johann Sebastian Bach's Goldberg Variations, and placed them directly into the public domain.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
Opera buffa ("comic opera", plural: opere buffe) is a genre of opera.
Opera seria (plural: opere serie; usually called dramma per musica or melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious" style of Italian opera that predominated in Europe from the 1710s to about 1770.
The ophicleide is a keyed brass instrument similar to the tuba.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.
Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble, such as a concert band) or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra.
In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals.
Orlande de Lassus (also Roland de Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Orlandus Lassus, Orlande de Lattre or Roland de Lattre; 1532, possibly 1530 – 14 June 1594) was a Netherlandish or Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance.
In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony), but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line (or harmony), provide added interest and variety, and give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece.
The orpharion or opherion is a plucked stringed instrument from the Renaissance, a member of the cittern family.
Ottó Károlyi (born in Paris), having studied in Budapest, Vienna, and London, was a musicologist and the Senior Lecturer of Music at the University of Stirling, Scotland, where he founded the Music department and remained employed even after the department's closure.
Classical Turkish music (Türk sanat müziği, "Turkish art music"; or Klasik Türk müziği, "Classical Turkish music"), sometimes known as Ottoman classical music, developed in Istanbul and other major Ottoman cities and towns through the palaces and Sufi lodges of the Ottoman Empire.
Ottorino Respighi (9 July 187918 April 1936) was an Italian violinist, composer and musicologist, best known for his three orchestral tone poems Fountains of Rome (1916), Pines of Rome (1924), and Roman Festivals (1928).
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The pan flutes (also known as panpipes or syrinx) are a group of musical instruments based on the principle of the closed tube, consisting of multiple pipes of gradually increasing length (and occasionally girth).
Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries.
Pérotin (fl. c. 1200, died 1205 or 1225), also called Perotin the Great, was a European composer, believed to be French, who lived around the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century.
The pedal harp (also known as the concert harp) is a large and technically modern harp, designed primarily for art music and may be played either solo, as part of a chamber ensemble, or in an orchestra.
Peer Gynt, Op.
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.
Percy Alfred Scholes M.A., Hon.D.Mus.
In music, period refers to certain types of recurrence in small-scale formal structure.
Persian traditional music or Iranian traditional music, also known as Persian classical music or Iranian classical music, refers to the classical music of Iran (also known as Persia).
Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is an American composer.
Philippe de Vitry (31 October 1291 – 9 June 1361) was a French composer, music theorist and poet.
In music theory, a phrase (φράση) is a unit of musical meter that has a complete musical sense of its own, built from figures, motifs, and cells, and combining to form melodies, periods and larger sections.
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.
A piano concerto is a type of concerto, a solo composition in the Classical music genre which is composed for a piano player, which is typically accompanied by an orchestra or other large ensemble.
The piccolo (Italian for "small", but named ottavino in Italy) is a half-size flute, and a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments.
Pictures at an Exhibition (Картинки с выставки – Воспоминание о Викторе Гартмане, Kartínki s výstavki – Vospominániye o Víktore Gártmane, "Pictures from an Exhibition – A Remembrance of Viktor Hartmann"; Tableaux d'une exposition) is a suite of ten pieces (plus a recurring, varied Promenade) composed for the piano by Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky in 1874.
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.
Plainsong (also plainchant; cantus planus) is a body of chants used in the liturgies of the Western Church.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
Post-romanticism or Postromanticism refers to a range of cultural endeavors and attitudes emerging in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, after the period of Romanticism.
Postminimalism is an art term coined (as post-minimalism) by Robert Pincus-Witten in 1971Chilvers, Ian and Glaves-Smith, John, A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art, second edition (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 569.
Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath.
Postmodern music is either simply music of the postmodern era, or music that follows aesthetical and philosophical trends of postmodernism.
A prelude (Präludium or Vorspiel; praeludium; prélude; preludio) is a short piece of music, the form of which may vary from piece to piece.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Psaltery 1700 – Venitian school A psaltery (or sawtry) is a stringed instrument of the zither family.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
Pulcinella is a one-act neoclassical ballet by Igor Stravinsky based on an 18th-century play Quartre Polichinelles semblables ("Four identical Pulcinellas").
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
Rabbit of Seville is a Warner Bros. Looney Tunes theatrical cartoon short released in 1950.
The rackett, cervelas, or Sausage Bassoon is a Renaissance-era double reed wind instrument, introduced late in the sixteenth century and already superseded by bassoons at the end of the seventeenth century.
Ralph Vaughan Williams (12 October 1872– 26 August 1958) was an English composer.
Randall William Rhoads (December 6, 1956 – March 19, 1982) was an American heavy metal guitarist who played with Quiet Riot and Ozzy Osbourne.
The rebec (sometimes rebecha, rebeckha, and other spellings, pronounced or) is a bowed stringed instrument of the Medieval era and the early Renaissance era.
The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument in the group known as internal duct flutes—flutes with a whistle mouthpiece.
A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to produce a sound on a musical instrument.
A reed pipe (also referred to as a lingual pipe) is an organ pipe that is sounded by a vibrating brass strip known as a reed.
Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era.
The Messa da Requiem is a musical setting of the Catholic funeral mass (Requiem) for four soloists, double choir and orchestra by Giuseppe Verdi.
Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".
Richard Middleton FBA is Emeritus Professor of Music at Newcastle University in Newcastle upon Tyne.
Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.
Richard Taruskin (born 1945, New York) is an American musicologist, music historian, and critic who has written about the theory of performance, Russian music, 15th-century music, 20th-century music, nationalism, the theory of modernism, and analysis.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
The "Ride of the Valkyries" (or Ritt der Walküren|) refers to the beginning of act 3 of Die Walküre, the second of the four operas constituting Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen.
Richard Hugh Blackmore (born 14 April 1945) is an English guitarist and songwriter.
Robert Donington (4 May 1907 – 20 January 1990) was a British musicologist and instrumentalist influential in the early music movement and in Wagner studies.
Robert Schumann (8 June 181029 July 1856) was a German composer and an influential music critic.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
Rodeo is a ballet scored by Aaron Copland and choreographed by Agnes de Mille, which premiered in 1942.
Roger Kamien (born 1934) is a retired professor emeritus of musicology in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
A rotary valve is a type of valve in which the rotation of a passage or passages in a transverse plug regulates the flow of liquid or gas through the attached pipes.
The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (RPO), based in London, was formed by Sir Thomas Beecham in 1946.
Russian classical music is a genre of classical music related to Russia's culture, people, or character.
A sackbut is a type of trombone from the Renaissance and Baroque eras, characterised by a telescopic slide that is used to vary the length of the tube to change pitch.
The saxophone (also referred to as the sax) is a family of woodwind instruments.
In music, a section is a complete, but not independent, musical idea.
Secular music (non-religious) and sacred music were the two main genres of Western music during the Middle Ages and Renaissance era.
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 27 April 1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.
Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff (28 March 1943) was a Russian pianist, composer, and conductor of the late Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular in the Romantic repertoire.
In music, serialism is a method of composition using series of pitches, rhythms, dynamics, timbres or other musical elements.
The serpent is a bass wind instrument, descended from the cornett, and a distant ancestor of the tuba, with a mouthpiece like a brass instrument but side holes like a woodwind.
The shawm (/ʃɔːm/) is a conical bore, double-reed woodwind instrument made in Europe from the 12th century to the present day.
Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece.
Sight-reading, also called a prima vista (Italian meaning "at first sight"), is the reading and performing of a piece of music or song in music notation that the performer has not seen before.
A single-reed instrument is a woodwind instrument that uses only one reed to produce sound.
A sistrum (plural: sistrums or Latin sistra; from the Greek σεῖστρον seistron of the same meaning; literally "that which is being shaken", from σείειν seiein, "to shake") is a musical instrument of the percussion family, chiefly associated with ancient Iraq and Egypt.
The slide trumpet is a type of trumpet that is fitted with a slide much like a trombone.
A snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin.
Sol Babitz (October 11, 1911, Brooklyn, New York - 1982, Los Angeles) was an American violinist, teacher, writer and pioneer of historically informed performance.
Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.
Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a musical structure consisting of three main sections: an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation.
A sound effect (or audio effect) is an artificially created or enhanced sound, or sound process used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media.
In Western musical notation, the staff (US) or stave (UK) (plural for either: '''staves''') is a set of five horizontal lines and four spaces that each represent a different musical pitch or, in the case of a percussion staff, different percussion instruments.
Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957) is an English comedian, actor, writer, presenter, and activist.
Stephen Fry's Incomplete and Utter History of Classical Music is a book ghostwritten by Tim Lihoreau for author, actor, comedian and director Stephen Fry.
Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer who, along with La Monte Young, Terry Riley, and Philip Glass, pioneered minimal music in the mid to late 1960s.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.
A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group.
The string section is composed of bowed instruments belonging to the violin family.
Strophic form, also called verse-repeating or chorus form, is the term applied to songs in which all verses or stanzas of the text are sung to the same music.
Swan Lake (Лебединое озеро Lebedinoye ozero), Op. 20, is a ballet composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in 1875–76.
The Symphonic Dances, Op.
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.
The Symphony No.
Anton Bruckner's Symphony No.
The Symphony No.
Tablature (or tabulature, or tab for short) is a form of musical notation indicating instrument fingering rather than musical pitches.
The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame, often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zils".
The tangent piano is a very rare keyboard instrument that resembles a harpsichord and early pianos in design.
In musical terminology, tempo ("time" in Italian; plural: tempi) is the speed or pace of a given piece.
Tempo rubato ("free in the presentation", Italian for "stolen time") is a musical term referring to expressive and rhythmic freedom by a slight speeding up and then slowing down of the tempo of a piece at the discretion of the soloist or the conductor.
Ternary form, sometimes called song form, is a three-part musical form where the first section (A) is repeated after the second section (B) ends.
In music, texture is how the tempo, melodic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition, thus determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece.
The Four Seasons (Le quattro stagioni) is a group of four violin concerti by Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi, each of which gives musical expression to a season of the year.
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Oxford Companion to Music is a music reference book in the series of Oxford Companions produced by the Oxford University Press.
The Planets, Op.
The Threepenny Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper) is a "play with music" by Bertolt Brecht, adapted from a translation by Elisabeth Hauptmann of John Gay's 18th-century English ballad opera, The Beggar's Opera, with music by Kurt Weill and insertion ballads by François Villon and Rudyard Kipling.
The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893, is a collection of two sets of preludes and fugues in all 24 major and minor keys, composed for solo keyboard by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The theorbo is a plucked string instrument of the lute family, with an extended neck and a second pegbox.
Thomas Tallis (1505 – 23 November 1585) was an English composer who occupies a primary place in anthologies of English choral music, and is considered one of England's greatest composers.
Timpani or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion family.
The tin whistle, also called the penny whistle, English flageolet, Scottish penny whistle, tin flageolet, Irish whistle, Belfast Hornpipe, feadóg stáin (or simply feadóg) and Clarke London FlageoletThe Clarke Tin Whistle By Bill Ochs is a simple, six-holed woodwind instrument.
Tom and Jerry is an American animated series of short films created in 1940 by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera.
Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni (8 June 1671 – 17 January 1751) was an Italian Baroque composer.
Tomás Luis de Victoria (sometimes Italianised as da Vittoria; c. 1548 – 27 August 1611) was the most famous composer in 16th-century Spain, and was one of the most important composers of the Counter-Reformation, along with Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Orlando di Lasso.
Tonality is the arrangement of pitches and/or chords of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities, attractions and directionality.
A transverse flute or side-blown flute is a flute which is held horizontally when is played.
The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family.
Triple metre (or Am. triple meter, also known as triple time) is a musical metre characterized by a primary division of 3 beats to the bar, usually indicated by 3 (simple) or 9 (compound) in the upper figure of the time signature, with,, and being the most common examples.
The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family.
A trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles.
The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family.
The University of Colorado system is a system of public universities in Colorado consisting of four campuses: University of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, University of Colorado Denver in downtown Denver and at the Anschutz Medical Campus in Aurora.
Van Halen is an American hard rock band formed in Pasadena, California, in 1972.
Vanessa-Mae (陈美 Chén Měi) (born 27 October 1978) also called Vanessa-Mae Vanakorn Nicholson, is a British violinist with album sales reaching several million, having made her the wealthiest entertainer under 30 in the United Kingdom in 2006.
In music, variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form.
The vielle is a European bowed stringed instrument used in the Medieval period, similar to a modern violin but with a somewhat longer and deeper body, three to five gut strings, and a leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal tuning pegs, sometimes with a figure-8 shaped body.
The Vienna Philharmonic (VPO; Wiener Philharmoniker), founded in 1842, is an orchestra considered to be one of the finest in the world.
The vihuela is a guitar-shaped string instrument from 15th and 16th century Spain, Portugal and Italy, usually with five or six doubled strings.
Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer,Lippmann and McGuire 1998, in Sadie, p. 389 who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania".
The viol, viola da gamba, or (informally) gamba, is any one of a family of bowed, fretted and stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and pegboxes where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings.
The viola is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques.
The viola d'amore (Italian for "love viol") is a 7- or 6-stringed musical instrument with sympathetic strings used chiefly in the baroque period.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
The virginals or virginal is a keyboard instrument of the harpsichord family.
The Wagner tuba is an infrequently-used brass instrument that combines tonal elements of both the French horn and the trombone.
Walter Elias Disney (December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer.
Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln (WDR, West German Broadcasting Cologne) is a German public-broadcasting institution based in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office in Cologne.
The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".
The Western concert flute is a transverse (side-blown) woodwind instrument made of metal or wood.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
What's Opera, Doc? is a 1957 American animated cartoon comedy musical short in the Merrie Melodies series, directed by Chuck Jones for Warner Bros. Cartoons.
William Byrd (birth date variously given as c.1539/40 or 1543 – 4 July 1623), was an English composer of the Renaissance.
The William Tell Overture is the overture to the opera William Tell (original French title Guillaume Tell), whose music was composed by Gioachino Rossini.
The wind machine (also called aeoliphone) is a friction idiophone, which is a class of instrument which produces sound through vibrations within the instrument itself.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
Women in music describes the role of women as composers, songwriters, instrumental performers, singers, conductors, music scholars, music educators, music critics/music journalists and other musical professions.
Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments.
The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλον—xylon, "wood" + φωνή—phōnē, "sound, voice", meaning "wooden sound") is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets.
2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 epic science fiction film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick.
20th-century classical music describes art music that was written nominally from 1901 to 2000.
21st-century classical music is art music, in the contemporary classical tradition, that has been produced since the year 2000.
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