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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations. [1]

Abacus

The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system.

ACM SIGACT

ACM SIGACT or SIGACT is the Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computation Theory, whose purpose is support of research in theoretical computer science.

Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace (née Byron; 10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.

Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

Algebraic data type

In computer programming, especially functional programming and type theory, an algebraic data type is a kind of composite type, i.e., a type formed by combining other types.

Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

Algorithmic trading is a method of executing a large order (too large to fill all at once) using automated pre-programmed trading instructions accounting for variables such as time, price, and volume to send small slices of the order (child orders) out to the market over time.

Allen Tucker

Allen Tucker (1866–1939) was an American artist.

Alonzo Church

Alonzo Church (June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American mathematician and logician who made major contributions to mathematical logic and the foundations of theoretical computer science.

Analysis of algorithms

In computer science, the analysis of algorithms is the determination of the computational complexity of algorithms, that is the amount of time, storage and/or other resources necessary to execute them.

Analytical Engine

The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.

Applied mathematics

Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.

Applied science

Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.

Arithmometer

The Arithmometer or Arithmomètre was the first digital mechanical calculator strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment.

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

Association for Computing Machinery

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.

Association for Information Systems

The Association for Information Systems (AIS) is an international, not-for-profit, professional association with the stated mission to serve society through the advancement of knowledge and the promotion of excellence in the practice and study of information systems.

Automata theory

Automata theory is the study of abstract machines and automata, as well as the computational problems that can be solved using them.

Bernoulli number

In mathematics, the Bernoulli numbers are a sequence of rational numbers which occur frequently in number theory.

Bertrand Meyer

Bertrand Meyer (born 21 November 1950) is a French academic, author, and consultant in the field of computer languages.

Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.

Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.

Bottleneck (software)

In software engineering, a bottleneck occurs when the capacity of an application or a computer system is severely limited by a single component, like the neck of a bottle slowing down the overall water flow.

Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science

Diploma in Computer Science, originally known as the "Diploma in Numerical Analysis and Automatic Computing", was a conversion course in Computer Science offered by the University of Cambridge, England.

Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

Category theory

Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a labeled directed graph called a category, whose nodes are called objects, and whose labelled directed edges are called arrows (or morphisms).

Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.

Charles Xavier Thomas

Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar (May 5, 1785 – March 12, 1870) was a French inventor and entrepreneur best known for designing, patenting and manufacturing the first commercially successful mechanical calculator, the Arithmometer, and for founding the insurance companies Le Soleil and L'aigle which, under his leadership, became the number one insurance group in France at the beginning of the Second Empire.

CiteSeerX

x or CiteSeerX but DISPLAYTITLE only allows changing an initial letter to lower case --> CiteSeerx (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science.

Claude Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".

Code

In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium.

Code.org

Code.org is a non-profit organization and eponymous website led by Hadi Partovi that aims to encourage people, particularly school students in the United States, to learn computer science.

Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies

The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies (founded 1993) is one of the oldest (if not the oldest) bibliography collections freely accessible on the Internet.

Combinatorial optimization

In applied mathematics and theoretical computer science, combinatorial optimization is a topic that consists of finding an optimal object from a finite set of objects.

Communications of the ACM

Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).

Compiler

A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).

Complex system

A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.

Computability

Computability is the ability to solve a problem in an effective manner.

Computability theory

Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, of computer science, and of the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.

Computation

Computation is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and non-arithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model, for example an algorithm.

Computational chemistry

Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.

Computational complexity theory

Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.

Computational geometry

Computational geometry is a branch of computer science devoted to the study of algorithms which can be stated in terms of geometry.

Computational linguistics

Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.

Computational physics

Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists.

Computational problem

In theoretical computer science, a computational problem is a mathematical object representing a collection of questions that computers might be able to solve.

Computational science

Computational science (also scientific computing or scientific computation (SC)) is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems.

Computational statistics

Computational statistics, or statistical computing, is the interface between statistics and computer science.

Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

Computer accessibility

In human–computer interaction, computer accessibility (also known as accessible computing) refers to the accessibility of a computer system to all people, regardless of disability type or severity of impairment.

Computer engineering

Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of computer science and electronics engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.

Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.

Computer graphics (computer science)

Computer graphics is a sub-field of Computer Science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content.

Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge

The Computer Laboratory is the computer science department of the University of Cambridge.

Computer programming

Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

Computer Science Teachers Association

The Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) is a professional association whose mission to “empower, engage and advocate for K-12 CS teachers worldwide.” It supports and encourages education in the field of computer science and related areas.

Computer scientist

A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application.

Computer security

Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

Computer vision

Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.

Computer-generated imagery

Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs, shorts, commercials, videos, and simulators.

Computing

Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.

Corrado Böhm (17 January 1923 – 23 October 2017) was a Professor Emeritus at the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and a computer scientist known especially for his contributions to the theory of structured programming, constructive mathematics, combinatory logic, lambda calculus, and the semantics and implementation of functional programming languages.

CreateSpace

On-Demand Publishing, LLC doing business as CreateSpace is a self-publishing service owned by Amazon.

Cryptanalysis of the Enigma

Cryptanalysis of the Enigma ciphering system enabled the western Allies in World War II to read substantial amounts of Morse-coded radio communications of the Axis powers that had been enciphered using Enigma machines.

Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

CSAB (professional organization)

CSAB, Inc., formerly called the Computing Sciences Accreditation Board, Inc., is a non-profit professional organization in the United States, focused on the quality of education in computing disciplines.

Cybernetics

Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.

Data compression

In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

Data mining

Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.

Data science

Data science is an interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from data in various forms, both structured and unstructured, similar to data mining.

Data structure

In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.

Data transmission

Data transmission (also data communication or digital communications) is the transfer of data (a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.

Database model

A database model is a type of data model that determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized and manipulated.

David Kahn (writer)

David Kahn (b. February 7, 1930*) is a US historian, journalist and writer.

David Parnas

David Lorge Parnas (born February 10, 1941) is a Canadian early pioneer of software engineering, who developed the concept of information hiding in modular programming, which is an important element of object-oriented programming today.

DBLP

DBLP is a computer science bibliography website.

Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.

Difference engine

A difference engine is an automatic mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions.

Digital camera

A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.

Digital image processing

In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.

Digital Revolution

The Digital Revolution, also known as the Third Industrial Revolution, is the shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day.

Direct manipulation interface

In computer science, direct manipulation is a human–computer interaction style which involves continuous representation of objects of interest and rapid, reversible, and incremental actions and feedback.

Distributed computing

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.

Domain theory

Domain theory is a branch of mathematics that studies special kinds of partially ordered sets (posets) commonly called domains.

Donald Knuth

Donald Ervin Knuth (born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University.

Economic efficiency

Economic efficiency is, roughly speaking, a situation in which nothing can be improved without something else being hurt.

Edsger W. Dijkstra

Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch systems scientist, programmer, software engineer, science essayist, and early pioneer in computing science.

Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

Engineering informatics

Engineering Informatics is an engineering discipline combining information technology (IT) – or informatics – with engineering concepts; It is an interdisciplinary scientific area focusing on the application of advanced computing, information and communication technologies to engineering; The study of use of information and the design of information structures that facilitate the practice of engineering and of designed artifacts that embody and embed information technology and science to achieve social, economic and environmental goals.

Epistemology

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

Error detection and correction

In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.

Evolutionary computation

In computer science, evolutionary computation is a family of algorithms for global optimization inspired by biological evolution, and the subfield of artificial intelligence and soft computing studying these algorithms.

Filmmaking

Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.

Fluid dynamics

In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.

Folding@home

Folding@home (FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing project for disease research that simulates protein folding, computational drug design, and other types of molecular dynamics.

Formal language

In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.

Formal specification

In computer science, formal specifications are mathematically based techniques whose purpose are to help with the implementation of systems and software.

Formal verification

In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.

George Boole

George Boole (2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland.

George Forsythe

George Elmer Forsythe (January 8, 1917 – April 9, 1972http://icme.stanford.edu/system/files/file-insertions/ForsytheG.pdf https://icme.stanford.edu/about/faculty-pioneers-0) was the founder and head of Stanford University's Computer Science Department.

Glossary of computer science

Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.

Goto

GoTo (goto, GOTO, GO TO or other case combinations, depending on the programming language) is a statement found in many computer programming languages.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

Guyana

Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution is a book by Steven Levy about hacker culture.

Halting problem

In computability theory, the halting problem is the problem of determining, from a description of an arbitrary computer program and an input, whether the program will finish running (i.e., halt) or continue to run forever.

Harvard Mark I

The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called Mark I by Harvard University’s staff, was a general purpose electromechanical computer that was used in the war effort during the last part of World War II.

Herman Hollerith

Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an American inventor who developed an electromechanical punched card tabulator to assist in summarizing information and, later, accounting.

History of artificial intelligence

The history of Artificial Intelligence (AI) began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela McCorduck writes, AI began with "an ancient wish to forge the gods." The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols.

Howard H. Aiken

Howard Hathaway Aiken (March 8, 1900 – March 14, 1973) was an American physicist and a pioneer in computing, being the original conceptual designer behind IBM's Harvard Mark I computer.

Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.

Human–computer interaction

Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.

Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

IEEE Computer Society

IEEE Computer Society (sometimes abbreviated Computer Society or CS) is a professional society of IEEE.

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

Informatics

Informatics is a branch of information engineering.

Information Age

The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a 21st century period in human history characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.

Information revolution

The term information revolution describes current economic, social and technological trends beyond the Industrial Revolution.

Information system

An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.

Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

Jacquard loom

The Jacquard machine is a device fitted to a power loom that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with such complex patterns as brocade, damask and matelassé.

Knowledge representation and reasoning

Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR, KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.

Kurt Gödel

Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.

The Legged Squad Support System (LS3) was a DARPA project for a legged robot which could function autonomously as a packhorse for a squad of soldiers or marines.

Linear network coding

Network coding is a field of research founded in a series of papers from the late 1990s to the early 2000s.

Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

List of academic computer science departments

Please use the discussion tab to see the methodology used to compile this list and what additions should and should not be made to it.

List of computer scientists

This is a list of computer scientists, people who do work in computer science, in particular researchers and authors.

List of important publications in computer science

This is a list of important publications in computer science, organized by field.

List of pioneers in computer science

This article presents a list of individuals who made transformative breakthroughs in the creation, development and imagining of what computers and electronics could do.

Logic

Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

Logic in computer science

Logic in computer science covers the overlap between the field of logic and that of computer science.

Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

Malaysia

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

Management science

Management science (MS), is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, economics, business, engineering, management consulting, and other sciences.

Market liquidity

In business, economics or investment, market liquidity is a market's feature whereby an individual or firm can quickly purchase or sell an asset without causing a drastic change in the asset's price.

Mathematical logic

Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.

Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

Mechanical calculator

A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform automatically the basic operations of arithmetic.

Microarchitecture

In computer engineering, microarchitecture, also called computer organization and sometimes abbreviated as µarch or uarch, is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA), is implemented in a particular processor.

Millennium Prize Problems

The Millennium Prize Problems are seven problems in mathematics that were stated by the Clay Mathematics Institute in 2000.

Minds and Machines

Minds and Machines is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering artificial intelligence, philosophy, and cognitive science.

Model of computation

In computer science, and more specifically in computability theory and computational complexity theory, a model of computation is a model which describes how a set of outputs are computed given a set of inputs.

Multiprocessing

Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.

Natural language processing

Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.

Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.

Neurophysiology

Neurophysiology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge") is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.

Norman E. Gibbs

Norman E. Gibbs (November 27, 1941 – April 25, 2002) was an American software engineer, scholar and educational leader.

Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

Omnipresence

Omnipresence or ubiquity is the property of being present everywhere.

Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

Outline of software engineering

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to software engineering: Software engineering &ndash; application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software; that is the application of engineering to software.

P versus NP problem

The P versus NP problem is a major unsolved problem in computer science.

Parallel random-access machine

In computer science, a parallel random-access machine (PRAM) is a shared-memory abstract machine.

Pattern recognition

Pattern recognition is a branch of machine learning that focuses on the recognition of patterns and regularities in data, although it is in some cases considered to be nearly synonymous with machine learning.

Peter J. Denning

Peter James Denning (born January 6, 1942) is an American computer scientist and writer.

Peter Naur

Peter Naur (25 October 1928 – 3 January 2016) was a Danish computer science pioneer and Turing award winner.

Peter Wegner

Peter A. Wegner (August 20, 1932 – July 27, 2017) was a computer scientist who made significant contributions to both the theory of object-oriented programming during the 1980s and to the relevance of the Church–Turing thesis for empirical aspects of computer science during the 1990s and present.

Petri net

A Petri net, also known as a place/transition (PT) net, is one of several mathematical modeling languages for the description of distributed systems.

Philosophy of mind

Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.

Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

Proceedings

In academia and librarianship, proceedings are the acts and happenings of an academic field, a learned society, or an academic conference.

Process calculus

In computer science, the process calculi (or process algebras) are a diverse family of related approaches for formally modelling concurrent systems.

Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

Programming language theory

Programming language theory (PLT) is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features.

Protein folding

Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.

Punched card

A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.

Purdue University

Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.

Quantum computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.

Query language

Query languages or data query languages (DQLs) are computer languages used to make queries in databases and information systems.

Rózsa Péter

Rózsa Péter, born Politzer, (17 February 1905 &ndash; 16 February 1977) was a Hungarian mathematician and logician.

Response time (technology)

In technology, response time is the time a system or functional unit takes to react to a given input.

Robotic vacuum cleaner

A robotic vacuum cleaner, often called a robovac, is an autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner which has intelligent programming and a limited vacuum cleaning system.

Robotics

Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.

Safety-critical system

A safety-critical system or life-critical system is a system whose failure or malfunction may result in one (or more) of the following outcomes.

Samuel Morse

Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter and inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy.

Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

Scientific modelling

Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.

Semantics (computer science)

In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.

Semiotics

Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.

Signal processing

Signal processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound, images, and biological measurements.

Simulation

Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.

Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.

Social intelligence

Social intelligence, the capacity to know oneself and to know others, is as inalienable a part of the human condition as is the capacity to know objects or sounds, and it deserves to be investigated no less than these other "less charged" forms.

Software development

Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications, frameworks, or other software components.

Stepped reckoner

The step reckoner (or stepped reckoner) was a digital mechanical calculator invented by the German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz around 1672 and completed in 1694.

Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs

Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs (SICP) is a textbook aiming to teach the principles of computer programming, such as abstraction in programming, metalinguistic abstraction, recursion, interpreters, and modular programming.

Structured programming

Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.

Subroutine

In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.

Systems architecture

A system architecture or systems architecture is the conceptual model that defines the structure, behavior, and more views of a system.

Tabulating machine

The tabulating machine was an electromechanical machine designed to assist in summarizing information stored on punched cards.

Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

Technology transfer in computer science

Technology transfer in computer science refers to the transfer of technology developed in computer science or applied computing research, from universities and governments to the private sector.

The Codebreakers

The Codebreakers – The Story of Secret Writing is a book by David Kahn, published in 1967 comprehensively chronicling the history of cryptography from ancient Egypt to the time of its writing.

Theoretical computer science

Theoretical computer science, or TCS, is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more mathematical topics of computing and includes the theory of computation.

Throughput

In general terms, throughput is the maximum rate of production or the maximum rate at which something can be processed.

Touchscreen

A touchscreen is an input and output device normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information processing system.

Turing Award

The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".

Turing test

The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.

Type system

In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.

Type theory

In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is any of a class of formal systems, some of which can serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation for all mathematics.

Ubiquitous computing

Ubiquitous computing (or "ubicomp") is a concept in software engineering and computer science where computing is made to appear anytime and everywhere.

Undecidable problem

In computability theory and computational complexity theory, an undecidable problem is a decision problem for which it is known to be impossible to construct a single algorithm that always leads to a correct yes-or-no answer.

University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

Video editing

Video editing is the manipulation and arrangement of video shots.

Video game

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.

Video post-processing

The term post-processing (or postproc for short) is used in the video/film business for quality-improvement image processing (specifically digital image processing) methods used in video playback devices, (such as stand-alone DVD-Video players), and video players software and transcoding software.

Virtual reality

Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.

Volatility (finance)

In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns.

Wilhelm Schickard

Wilhelm Schickard (22 April 1592 &ndash; 24 October 1635) was a German professor of Hebrew and Astronomy who became famous in the second part of the 20th century after Dr.

William J. Rapaport

William J. Rapaport is an associate professor at the University at Buffalo.

Zentralblatt MATH

zbMATH, formerly Zentralblatt MATH, is a major international reviewing service providing reviews and abstracts for articles in pure and applied mathematics, produced by the Berlin office of FIZ Karlsruhe – Leibniz Institute for Information Infrastructure GmbH.

References

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