242 relations: A language is a dialect with an army and navy, Affix, Agent (grammar), Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Ambiguity, Anthropological linguistics, Anthropology, Anthroponymy, Aphasiology, Applied linguistics, Articulatory phonology, Articulatory synthesis, Asemic writing, Axiom of categoricity, Émile Benveniste, Benjamin Lee Whorf, Biodiversity loss, Biolinguistics, Biosemiotics, Bound and unbound morphemes, Censorship, Charles F. Hockett, Cognitive grammar, Cognitive linguistics, Cognitive science, Communication disorder, Comparative linguistics, Comparative method, Computational linguistics, Computer-assisted translation, Computer-mediated communication, Concept mining, Conceptual metaphor, Consonant, Constructed language, Context (language use), Conversation, Cooperation, Corpus linguistics, Cratylus (dialogue), Critical discourse analysis, Cryptanalysis, Cultural evolution, Culture, Decipherment, Deconstructivism, Developmental linguistics, Dialect, Dictionary, ..., Dionysius Thrax, Discourse, Discourse analysis, Disjoint sets, Dongba, Ecolinguistics, Edward Sapir, Embodied cognition, Emergentism, Encyclopedia, Endangered language, English language, English language teaching, Etymology, Evolution, Evolutionary linguistics, Ferdinand de Saussure, First language, Focus (linguistics), Foreign language, Forensic linguistics, Forensic science, Formal grammar, Frame semantics (linguistics), Franz Boas, French language, Functional theories of grammar, Generative grammar, Genre, George Lakoff, Global language system, Google Translate, Grammar, Grammarian (Greco-Roman world), Graphemics, Greek language, Harry Hoijer, Historical linguistics, Homophone, Human brain, Human evolution, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, India, Indo-European languages, Integrational linguistics, Integrationism, Intercultural competence, Interdisciplinarity, International Congress of Linguists, International Linguistics Olympiad, Interview, Irony, Jacob Grimm, Jacques Derrida, John Amos Comenius, Language, Language acquisition, Language attrition, Language death, Language documentation, Language education, Language geography, Language interpretation, Language module, Language planning, Langue and parole, Leo Weisgerber, Leonard Bloomfield, Lexical semantics, Lexicography, Lexicon, Lingua franca, Linguistic anthropology, Linguistic competence, Linguistic description, Linguistic imperialism, Linguistic performance, Linguistic prescription, Linguistic relativity, Linguistic typology, List of departments of linguistics, List of languages by writing system, List of summer schools of linguistics, Literary criticism, Louis Hjelmslev, Machine translation, Max Weinreich, Meaning (linguistics), Meta-communication, Michel Foucault, Microlinguistics, Middle Ages, Middle East, Mikhail Bakhtin, MIT Press, Mixed language, Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Musaeum, Narrative, Nationality, Natural language processing, Naxi language, Neologism, Neuroimaging, Neurolinguistics, Noam Chomsky, Object (grammar), Of Grammatology, Onomastics, Palaeography, Paradigm, Paradigmatic analysis, Pāṇini, Philology, Philosophy of language, Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonological rule, Phonology, Phraseology, Pictogram, Plato, Post-creole continuum, Pragmatics, Prague linguistic circle, Predicate (grammar), Psycholinguistics, Reading (process), Register (sociolinguistics), Rhetoric, Roger Ascham, Roman Jakobson, Ronald Langacker, Sanskrit, Satire, Semantics, Semiotics, Sentence (linguistics), Sibawayh, Sign (linguistics), Sign language, SIL International, Sociolinguistics, Sound change, Speaker recognition, Speech, Speech act, Speech community, Speech error, Speech processing, Speech recognition, Speech synthesis, Speech-language pathology, Spoken language, Standard language, Stratificational linguistics, Structural linguistics, Stylistics, Subject (grammar), Synchrony and diachrony, Syntagmatic analysis, Syntax, Terminal and nonterminal symbols, Text, Text (literary theory), Text linguistics, The Art of Grammar, Theoretical linguistics, Theta role, Topic and comment, Transcription (linguistics), Translation, Truth condition, Universal grammar, Utterance, Variety (linguistics), Vocabulary, Vowel, Walter de Gruyter, Wiki, Wilhelm von Humboldt, William Jones (philologist), Wolfgang Ratke, Word, World view, Writing, Writing and Difference, Writing system, Written language, Zellig Harris, Zoology. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
"A language is a dialect with an army and navy" is a quipVictor H. Mair, The Columbia History of Chinese Literature, p. 24: "It has often been facetiously remarked...
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the thematic relation of the cause or initiator to an event.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Ambiguity is a type of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible.
Anthropological linguistics is the subfield of linguistics and anthropology, which deals with the place of language in its wider social and cultural context, and its role in making and maintaining cultural practices and societal structures.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Anthroponomastics (or anthroponymy) is the study of the names of human beings.
Aphasiology is the study of language impairment usually resulting from brain damage, due to neurovascular accident—hemorrhage, stroke—or associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including different types of dementia.
Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of linguistics which identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems.
Articulatory phonology is a linguistic theory originally proposed in 1986 by Catherine Browman of Haskins Laboratories and Louis M. Goldstein of Yale University and Haskins.
Articulatory synthesis refers to computational techniques for synthesizing speech based on models of the human vocal tract and the articulation processes occurring there.
Asemic writing is a wordless open semantic form of writing.
The axiom of categoricity is a term coined by J. K. Chambers in 1995 to refer to the once-widespread tenet of linguistic theory that in order to properly study language, linguistic data should be removed or abstracted from all real-world context so as to be free of any inconsistencies or variability.
Émile Benveniste (27 March 1902 – 3 October 1976) was a French structural linguist and semiotician.
Benjamin Lee Whorf (April 24, 1897 – July 26, 1941) was an American linguist and fire prevention engineer.
Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.
Biolinguistics is the study of the biology and evolution of language.
Biosemiotics (from the Greek βίος bios, "life" and σημειωτικός sēmeiōtikos, "observant of signs) is a field of semiotics and biology that studies the prelinguistic meaning-making, or production and interpretation of signs and codes in the biological realm.
In morphology, a bound morpheme is a morpheme (the most basic unit of meaning) that can appear only as part of a larger word; a free morpheme or unbound morpheme is one that can stand alone or can appear with other morphemes in a lexeme.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Charles Francis Hockett (January 17, 1916 – November 3, 2000) was an American linguist who developed many influential ideas in American structuralist linguistics.
Cognitive grammar is a cognitive approach to language developed by Ronald Langacker, which considers the basic units of language to be symbols or conventional pairings of a semantic structure with a phonological label.
Cognitive linguistics (CL) is an interdisciplinary branch of linguistics, combining knowledge and research from both psychology and linguistics.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
A communication disorder is any disorder that affects an individual's ability to comprehend, detect, or apply language and speech to engage in discourse effectively with others.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.
Computer-assisted translation,computer-aided translation or CAT is a form of language translation in which a human translator uses computer hardware to support and facilitate the translation process.
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any human communication that occurs through the use of two or more electronic devices.
Concept mining is an activity that results in the extraction of concepts from artifacts.
In cognitive linguistics, conceptual metaphor, or cognitive metaphor, refers to the understanding of one idea, or conceptual domain, in terms of another.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.
In semiotics, linguistics, sociology and anthropology, context refers to those objects or entities which surround a focal event, in these disciplines typically a communicative event, of some kind.
Conversation is interactive communication between two or more people.
Cooperation (sometimes written as co-operation) is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.
Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in corpora (bodies) of "real world" text.
Cratylus (Κρατύλος, Kratylos) is the name of a dialogue by Plato.
Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse that views language as a form of social practice.
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
Cultural evolution is an evolutionary theory of social change.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
In philology, decipherment is the discovery of the meaning of texts written in ancient or obscure languages or scripts.
Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture which appeared in the 1980s, which gives the impression of the fragmentation of the constructed building.
Developmental linguistics is the study of the development of linguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
Dionysius Thrax (Διονύσιος ὁ Θρᾷξ,, Contemporary Koine:; 170–90 BC) was a Hellenistic grammarian and a pupil of Aristarchus of Samothrace.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.
In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint sets if they have no element in common.
The term dongba (Nakhi: ²dto¹mba) refers to priests of the Nakhi people of Southwest China, who are masters of traditional culture, literature and Dongba symbols.
Ecolinguistics, or ecological linguistics, emerged in the 1990s as a new frame of study of linguistic research, widening sociolinguistics to take into account not only the social context in which language is embedded, but also the ecological context.
Edward Sapir (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics.
Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of the entire body of the organism.
In philosophy, emergentism is the belief in emergence, particularly as it involves consciousness and the philosophy of mind, and as it contrasts (or not) with reductionism.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English Language Teaching is based on the idea that the goal of language acquisition is communicative competence. It adopts concepts, techniques and methods in classroom for recognizing and managing the communicative needs of the language learners.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary linguistics is a subfield of psycholinguistics that studies the psychosocial and cultural factors involved in the origin of language and the development of linguistic universals.
Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.
A foreign language is a language originally from another country.
Forensic linguistics, legal linguistics, or language and the law, is the application of linguistic knowledge, methods and insights to the forensic context of law, language, crime investigation, trial, and judicial procedure.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
In formal language theory, a grammar (when the context is not given, often called a formal grammar for clarity) is a set of production rules for strings in a formal language.
Frame semantics is a theory of linguistic meaning developed by Charles J. Fillmore that extends his earlier case grammar.
Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858December 21, 1942) was a German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Functional theories of grammar are those approaches to the study of language that see functionality of language and its elements to be the key to understanding linguistic processes and structures.
Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
George P. Lakoff (born May 24, 1941) is an American cognitive linguist and philosopher, best known for his thesis that lives of individuals are significantly influenced by the central metaphors they use to explain complex phenomena.
The global language system is the "ingenious pattern of connections between language groups".
Google Translate is a free multilingual machine translation service developed by Google, to translate text.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
In the Greco-Roman world, the grammarian (or grammaticus) was responsible for the second stage in the traditional education system, after a boy had learned his basic Greek and Latin.
Graphemics or graphematics is the linguistic study of writing systems and their basic components, i.e. graphemes.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Harry Hoijer (September 6, 1904 – March 11, 1976) was a linguist and anthropologist who worked on primarily Athabaskan languages and culture.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the IEEE Information Theory Society.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Integrational Linguistics (IL) is a general approach to linguistics that has been developed by the German linguist Hans-Heinrich Lieb and others since the late 1960s.
Integrationism (also known as integrational linguistics) is an approach in the theory of communication that emphasizes innovative participation by communicators within contexts and rejects rule-based models of language.
U.S. Military Academy Center for Languages, Cultures, and Regional Studies.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
The International Congress of Linguists (ICL) takes place every five years, under the governance of the Permanent International Committee of Linguists (PICL) / Comité International Permanent des Linguistes.
The International Linguistics Olympiad (IOL) is the fourth newest of a group of twelve International Science Olympiads.
An interview is a conversation where questions are asked and answers are given.
Irony, in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case.
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
John Amos Comenius (Jan Amos Komenský; Johann Amos Comenius; Latinized: Ioannes Amos Comenius; 28 March 1592 – 15 November 1670) was a Czech philosopher, pedagogue and theologian from the Margraviate of Moravia"Clamores Eliae" he dedicated "To my lovely mother, Moravia, one of her faithful son...". Clamores Eliae, p.69, Kastellaun/Hunsrück: A. Henn, 1977.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
Language attrition is the process of losing a native, or first, language.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
Language documentation (also: documentary linguistics) is a subfield of linguistics which aims to describe the grammar and use of human languages.
Language education refers to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language.
Language geography is the branch of human geography that studies the geographic distribution of language(s) or its constituent elements.
Interpretation or interpreting is a translational activity in which one produces a first and final translation on the basis of a one-time exposure to an utterance in a source language.
The language module, also known as the "language faculty", is a hypothetical structure in the human brain or cognitive system that some psycholinguists such as Steven Pinker claim contains innate capacities for language.
Language planning is a deliberate effort to influence the function, structure, or acquisition of languages or language variety within a speech community.
Langue (French, meaning "language") and parole (meaning "speaking") are linguistic terms distinguished by Ferdinand de Saussure in his Course in General Linguistics.
Johann Leo Weisgerber (25 February 1899, Metz – 8 August 1985, Bonn) was a Lorraine-born German linguist who also specialized in Celtic linguistics.
Leonard Bloomfield (April 1, 1887 – April 18, 1949) was an American linguist who led the development of structural linguistics in the United States during the 1930s and the 1940s.
Lexical semantics (also known as lexicosemantics), is a subfield of linguistic semantics.
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life.
Linguistic competence is the system of linguistic knowledge possessed by native speakers of a language.
In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.
Linguistic imperialism, or language imperialism, is defined as "the transfer of a dominant language to other people".
The term linguistic performance was used by Noam Chomsky in 1960 to describe "the actual use of language in concrete situations".
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
The hypothesis of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers' world view or cognition.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
Below is a list of languages sorted by writing system (by alphabetical order).
This is a list of summer schools of linguistics.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
Louis Trolle Hjelmslev (3 October 1899, Copenhagen – 30 May 1965, Copenhagen) was a Danish linguist whose ideas formed the basis of the Copenhagen School of linguistics.
Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT (not to be confused with computer-aided translation, machine-aided human translation (MAHT) or interactive translation) is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of software to translate text or speech from one language to another.
Max Weinreich (22 April 1894 in Kuldīga, Russian Empire, now Latvia – 29 January 1969 in New York City, United States) was a Russian Jewish linguist, specializing in sociolinguistics and Yiddish, and the father of the linguist Uriel Weinreich, who edited the Modern Yiddish-English English-Yiddish Dictionary.
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.
Meta-communication - (Etymology: Gk, meta + L, communicare, to inform), or metacommunication, is a secondary communication (including indirect cues) about how a piece of information is meant to be interpreted.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Microlinguistics is a branch of linguistics that concerns itself with the study of language systems in the abstract, without regard to the meaning or notional content of linguistic expressions.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Бахти́н,; – 7 March 1975) was a Russian philosopher, literary critic, semiotician and scholar who worked on literary theory, ethics, and the philosophy of language.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
The Musaeum or Mouseion at Alexandria (Μουσεῖον τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας), which included the famous Library of Alexandria, was an institution founded by Ptolemy I Soter or, perhaps more likely, by his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus.
A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.
Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state.
Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
Naxi (autonym), also known as Nakhi, Nasi, Lomi, Moso, Mo-su, is a Sino-Tibetan language or group of languages spoken by some 310,000 people most of whom live in or around Lijiang City Yulong Naxi Autonomous County (Yùlóng Nàxīzú Zìzhìxiàn 玉龍納西族自治縣) of the province of Yunnan, China.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
Of Grammatology (De la grammatologie) is a 1967 book by French philosopher Jacques Derrida that has been called a foundational text for deconstructive criticism.
Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the origin, history, and use of proper names.
Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
Paradigmatic analysis is the analysis of paradigms embedded in the text rather than of the surface structure (syntax) of the text which is termed syntagmatic analysis.
(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
A phonological rule is a formal way of expressing a systematic phonological or morphophonological process or diachronic sound change in language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
In linguistics, phraseology is the study of set or fixed expressions, such as idioms, phrasal verbs, and other types of multi-word lexical units (often collectively referred to as phrasemes), in which the component parts of the expression take on a meaning more specific than or otherwise not predictable from the sum of their meanings when used independently.
A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
A post-creole continuum or simply creole continuum is a dialect continuum of varieties of a creole language between those most and least similar to the superstrate language (that is, a closely related language whose speakers assert dominance of some sort).
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
The Prague school or Prague linguistic circle was an influential group of linguists, philologists and literary critics in Prague.
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.
Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.
Reading is a complex "cognitive process" of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension).
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Roger Ascham (c. 151530 December 1568)"Ascham, Roger" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
Roman Osipovich Jakobson (Рома́н О́сипович Якобсо́н; October 11, 1896Kucera, Henry. 1983. "Roman Jakobson." Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America 59(4): 871–883. – July 18,, compiled by Stephen Rudy 1982) was a Russian–American linguist and literary theorist.
Ronald Wayne Langacker (born December 27, 1942) is an American linguist and professor emeritus at the University of California, San Diego.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
Abū Bishr ʻAmr ibn ʻUthmān ibn Qanbar Al-Baṣrī (c. 760–796, أبو بشر عمرو بن عثمان بن قنبر البصري), commonly known as Sībawayh or Sībawayhi (سيبويه, an Arabized form of Middle Persian name Sēbōē, modern Persian pronunciation Sēbōya/Sībūye) was a Persian linguist and grammarian of Arabic language.
A linguistic sign is a part of language used to indicate a being.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Speaker recognition is the identification of a person from characteristics of voices (voice biometrics).
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.
A speech community is a group of people who share a set of linguistic norms and expectations regarding the use of language.
A speech error, commonly referred to as a slip of the tongue (Latin: lapsus linguae, or occasionally self-demonstratingly, lipsus languae) or misspeaking, is a deviation (conscious or unconscious) from the apparently intended form of an utterance.
Speech processing is the study of speech signals and the processing methods of these signals.
Speech recognition is the inter-disciplinary sub-field of computational linguistics that develops methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers.
Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech.
Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Stratificational linguistics is a view of linguistics advocated by Sydney Lamb.
Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism.
Stylistics, a branch of applied linguistics, is the study and interpretation of texts in regard to their linguistic and tonal style.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
Synchrony and diachrony are two different and complementary viewpoints in linguistic analysis.
In semiotics, syntagmatic analysis is analysis of syntax or surface structure (syntagmatic structure) as opposed to paradigms (paradigmatic analysis).
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
In computer science, terminal and nonterminal symbols are the lexical elements used in specifying the production rules constituting a formal grammar.
A text (literary theory) is any object that can be read, including.
In literary theory, a text is any object that can be "read", whether this object is a work of literature, a street sign, an arrangement of buildings on a city block, or styles of clothing.
Text linguistics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as communication systems.
The Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική or (romanized) Téchnē Grammatikḗ) is a treatise on Greek grammar, attributed to Dionysius Thrax, who wrote in the 2nd century BC.
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In generative grammar, a theta role or θ-role is the formal device for representing syntactic argument structure—the number and type of noun phrases—required syntactically by a particular verb.
In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
In semantics and pragmatics, a truth condition is the condition under which a sentence is true.
Universal grammar (UG) in linguistics, is the theory of the genetic component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky.
In spoken language analysis, an utterance is the smallest unit of speech.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser.
Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt, a naturalist).
Sir William Jones FRS FRSE (28 September 1746 – 27 April 1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist, a puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, and a scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among European and Indian languages, which would later be known as Indo-European languages.
Wolfgang Ratke (also Wolfgangus Ratichius or Wolfgang Ratich) (18 October 1571 – 27 April 1635) was a German educational reformer.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
Writing and Difference (L'écriture et la différence) is a book by French philosopher Jacques Derrida, collecting some of the early lectures and essays that established his international fame.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system.
Zellig Sabbettai Harris (October 23, 1909 – May 22, 1992) was a very influential American linguist, mathematical syntactician, and methodologist of science.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
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