240 relations: Abdul Qadeer Khan, Ablation, Acetonitrile, Aerogel, Aft, Alpha particle, Alsos Mission, Andrei Sakharov, Anthony Eden, Arms race, Atmospheric entry, Atomic Energy Act of 1946, Atomic Energy Act of 1954, Atomic Weapons Establishment, B28 nuclear bomb, B41 nuclear bomb, Ballistic missile submarine, Balochistan, Pakistan, Bar (unit), Beryllium, Black body, Black-body radiation, Boosted fission weapon, Born secret, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Bunker buster, Canopus (nuclear test), Carl E. Duckett, Castle Bravo, Castle Koon, Castle Romeo, Center of mass, Central Intelligence Agency, Chagai Hills, Chagai-I, Chagai-II, Chain reaction, Charles de Gaulle, Cheyenne Mountain Complex, Chuck Hansen, Classified information, COLEX process, Column, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Compression (physics), Critical mass, Cryogenics, Dassault Mirage 2000N/2000D, Dassault Rafale, ..., Data, Depleted uranium, Deuterium, Devil's advocate, Doomsday device, Double agent, Edward Teller, Electromagnetic radiation, Encyclopedia Americana, Enewetak Atoll, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Explosive lens, Explosive material, Fangataufa, Fast fission, Fat Man, Federal government of the United States, Fighter-bomber, Fissile material, Foam, FOGBANK, François Hollande, France, French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, French Polynesia, French submarine Le Terrible (S619), Gamma ray, Gerboise Bleue, Greenpeace, Heart arrhythmia, Heavy metals, History of the Teller–Ulam design, Hohlraum, Howard Morland, Hydrogen, Implosion (mechanical process), Inertial confinement fusion, Insensitive munition, Intercontinental ballistic missile, IRIS Consortium, Isotope, Isotopes of hydrogen, Israel, Ivy Mike, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Jerboa, Joe 4, John von Neumann, Khan Research Laboratories, Kharan Desert, Kiritimati, Klaus Fuchs, Layer cake, Lead, List of states with nuclear weapons, Lithium, Lithium hydride, Little Boy, Los Alamos National Laboratory, M45 (missile), M51 (missile), Manhattan Project, Ministry of National Defense (South Korea), Mirror, Momentum, Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle, Munir Ahmad Khan, Mushroom cloud, Natural uranium, Neutron, Neutron bomb, Neutron flux, Neutron reflector, Neutron temperature, NORSAR, North Korea, Nose cone, NPR, Nuclear bunker buster, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Nuclear weapon design, Nuclear weapon yield, Nuclear weapons testing, NUKEMAP, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Operation Castle, Operation Grapple, Operation Greenhouse, Operation Harborage, Operation Redwing, Optical depth, Orange Herald, Outer space, Oval, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Pascal (unit), Peta-, Peter Galison, Photon, Physics, Pit (nuclear weapon), Plasma (physics), Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Pokhran-II, Polystyrene, Prior restraint, Pure fusion weapon, Radiation implosion, Radiation pressure, Radioactive decay, RDS-37, Reggane, Reliable Replacement Warhead, Restricted Data, Reverse engineering, Richard Rhodes, Samar Mubarakmand, Sandia National Laboratories, Scientific American, Seismology, Short ton, Simon & Schuster, Sino-Soviet split, Smyth Report, Social engineering (security), Solvent, Soviet Union, Spark plug, Spheroid, Stanislaw Ulam, Submarine-launched ballistic missile, Synthetic-aperture radar, Talk of the Nation, Tel Aviv University, Tera-, The Mercury News, The New York Times, The Progressive, Thermal equilibrium, Thermonuclear weapon, TN 75, TN 80, TN 81, TNT equivalent, Tonne, Trident (missile), Triomphant-class submarine, Tritium, Tsar Bomba, UGM-27 Polaris, Underground nuclear weapons testing, United States Congress, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of Energy, United States Geological Survey, United States Intelligence Community, United States v. Progressive, Inc., Uranium, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Vela Incident, Vitaly Ginzburg, W47, W76, W80 (nuclear warhead), W87, W88, Watermelon, Wen Ho Lee, William Broad, William Penney, Baron Penney, World War II, X-ray, Y-12 National Security Complex, Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich, Yale University Press, Yulii Borisovich Khariton, 1958 US–UK Mutual Defence Agreement, 2017 North Korean nuclear test. Expand index (190 more) » « Shrink index
Abdul Qadeer Khan, NI, HI, FPAS (ڈاکٹر عبد القدیر خان; born 1935 or 1936), known as A. Q. Khan, is a Pakistani former nuclear physicist and a metallurgical engineer, who founded the uranium enrichment program for Pakistan's atomic bomb project.
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
Aerogel is a synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component for the gel has been replaced with a gas.
Aft, in naval terminology, is an adjective or adverb meaning, towards the stern (rear) of the ship, when the frame of reference is within the ship, headed at the fore.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
The Alsos Mission was an organized effort by a team of United States military, scientific, and intelligence personnel to discover enemy scientific developments during World War II.
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; 21 May 192114 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.
Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.
An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (McMahon Act) determined how the United States would control and manage the nuclear technology it had jointly developed with its World War II allies, the United Kingdom and Canada.
The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, 42 U.S.C. §§ 2011-2021, 2022-2286i, 2296a-2297h-13, is a United States federal law that is, according to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, "the fundamental U.S. law on both the civilian and the military uses of nuclear materials." It covers the laws for the development, regulation, and disposal of nuclear materials and facilities in the United States.
The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) is responsible for the design, manufacture and support of warheads for the United Kingdom's nuclear weapons.
The B28, originally Mark 28, was a thermonuclear bomb carried by U.S. tactical fighter bombers, attack aircraft and bomber aircraft.
The B-41 (also known as Mk-41) was a thermonuclear weapon deployed by the United States Strategic Air Command in the early 1960s.
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).
A boosted fission weapon usually refers to a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction.
"Born secret" and "born classified" are both terms which refer to a policy of information being classified from the moment of its inception, usually regardless of where it was being created, usually in reference to specific laws in the United States that are related to information that describes the operation of nuclear weapons.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
A bunker buster is a type of munition that is designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground, such as military bunkers.
Canopus (also Opération Canopus in French) was the code name for France's first two-stage thermonuclear test, conducted on August 24, 1968, at Fangataufa atoll.
Carl Ernest Duckett (22 March 1923 – 1 April 1992) was the founder of the Central Intelligence Agency's science and technology operations.
Castle Bravo was the first in a series of high-yield thermonuclear weapon design tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, as part of Operation Castle.
The Koon shot of Operation Castle was a test of a University of California Radiation Laboratory (UCRL), now Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) designed thermonuclear device.
Castle Romeo was the code name given to one of the tests in the Operation Castle series of American nuclear tests.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chagai Hills is a range of granite hills in the Chagai District in Pakistan's Balochistan province.
Chagai-I is the code name of five simultaneous underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15 hrs PST on 28 May 1998.
Chagai-II is the codename assigned to the second atomic test conducted by Pakistan, carried out on 30 May 1998 in the Kharan Desert in Balochistan Province of Pakistan.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
The Cheyenne Mountain Complex is a military installation and defensive bunker located in unincorporated El Paso County, Colorado, next to Colorado Springs, at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, which hosts the activities of several tenant units.
Chuck Hansen (May 13, 1947 - March 26, 2003) was the compiler, over a period of 30 years, of the world's largest private collection of unclassified documents on how America developed atomic and thermonuclear weapons.
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
The COLEX process (or COLEX separation) is a chemical method of isotopic separation of lithium-6 and lithium-7, based on the use of mercury.
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is an international organization that will be established upon the entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, a Convention that outlaws nuclear test explosions.
In mechanics, compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
The Dassault Mirage 2000N is a variant of the Mirage 2000 designed for nuclear strike.
The Dassault Rafale (literally meaning "gust of wind", and "burst of fire" in a more military sense) is a French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
The Advocatus Diaboli (Latin for Devil's Advocate) was formerly an official position within the Catholic Church: one who "argued against the canonization (sainthood) of a candidate in order to uncover any character flaws or misrepresentation of the evidence favoring canonization".
A doomsday device is a hypothetical construction — usually a weapon or weapons system — which could destroy all life on a planet, particularly Earth, or destroy the planet itself, bringing "doomsday", a term used for the end of planet Earth.
In the field of counterintelligence, a double agent (also double secret agent) is an employee of a secret intelligence service for one country, whose primary purpose is to spy on a target organization of another country, but who, in fact, has been discovered by the target organization and is now spying on their own country's organization for the target organization.
Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language.
Enewetak Atoll (also spelled Eniwetok Atoll or sometimes Eniewetok; Ānewetak,, or Āne-wātak) is a large coral atoll of 40 islands in the Pacific Ocean and with its 850 people forms a legislative district of the Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
An explosive lens—as used, for example, in nuclear weapons—is a highly specialized shaped charge.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Fangataufa (or Fangatafoa) is a small, low, narrow, coral atoll in the eastern side of the Tuamotu Archipelago.
Fast fission is fission that occurs when a heavy atom absorbs a high-energy neutron, called a fast neutron, and splits.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
A fighter-bomber is a fighter aircraft that has been modified, or used primarily, as a light bomber or attack aircraft.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
Foam is a substance formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid.
FOGBANK is a code name given to a material used in nuclear weapons such as the W76, W78 and W80.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission or CEA (French: Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives), is a French public government-funded research organisation in the areas of energy, defense and security, information technologies and health technologies.
French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
Le Terrible is a strategic nuclear submarine of the French Navy.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gerboise Bleue ("blue jerboa") was the name of the first French nuclear test.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
This article chronicles the history and origins of the Teller–Ulam design, the technical concept behind modern thermonuclear weapons, also known as hydrogen bombs.
In radiation thermodynamics, a hohlraum (a non-specific German word for a "hollow space" or "cavity") is a cavity whose walls are in radiative equilibrium with the radiant energy within the cavity.
Howard Morland (born September 14, 1942) is an American journalist and activist against nuclear weapons who, in 1979, became famous for apparently discovering the "secret" of the hydrogen bomb (the Teller–Ulam design) and publishing it after a lengthy censorship attempt by the Department of Energy (United States v. The Progressive).
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Implosion is a process in which objects are destroyed by collapsing (or being squeezed in) on themselves.
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium.
Insensitive munitions are munitions that are designed to withstand stimuli representative of severe but credible accidents.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) is a university research consortium dedicated to exploring the Earth's interior through the collection and distribution of seismographic data.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Hydrogen (1H) has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first test of a full-scale thermonuclear device, in which part of the explosive yield comes from nuclear fusion.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
The jerboa (from جربوع) forms the bulk of the membership of the family Dipodidae.
Joe 4 (warhead name: RDS-6s (Reaktivnyi Dvigatel Specialnyi; Special Jet Engine)) was an American nickname for the first Soviet test of a thermonuclear weapon on August 12, 1953, that detonated with a force equivalent to 400 kilotons of TNT.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
The Khan Research Laboratories, previously known at various times as Project-706, Engineering Research Laboratories, and Kahuta Research Laboratories, is a Pakistan Government's multi-program national research institute, managed and operated under the scrutiny of Pakistan Armed Forces, located in Kahuta, Punjab Province.
The Kharan Desert (صحرائے خاران) is a sandy and mountainous desert situated in Balochistan province in south-western Pakistan.
Kiritimati, or Christmas Island, is a Pacific Ocean raised coral atoll in the northern Line Islands.
Emil Julius Klaus Fuchs (29 December 1911 – 28 January 1988) was a German theoretical physicist and atomic spy who, in 1950, was convicted of supplying information from the American, British, and Canadian Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union during and shortly after the Second World War.
A layer cake (US English) or sandwich cake (UK English), also called a sandwich in UK English, is a cake consisting of multiple stacked sheets of cake, held together by frosting or another type of filling, such as jam or other preserves.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lithium hydride is an inorganic compound with the formula LiH.
"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
The M45 SLBM is a French Navy submarine-launched ballistic missile (In French terminology, the MSBS - Mer-Sol-Ballistique-Stratégique (Sea-ground-Strategic ballistic missile).) Forty-eight M45 are in commission in the Force océanique stratégique, the submarine nuclear deterrent component of the French Navy.
The M51 SLBM is a submarine-launched ballistic missile, built by Airbus Defence & Space, and deployed with the French Navy.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The Ministry of National Defense (MND, 국방부) is a department within the government of South Korea (ROK) and responsible for the military branches of South Korea.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
A multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) is a ballistic missile payload containing several thermonuclear warheads, each capable of being aimed to hit a different target.
Munir Ahmad Khan (منير احمد خان; b. 20 May 1926 – 22 April 1999; ''NI'' ''HI''), was a Pakistani nuclear engineer and a nuclear physicist, who served as the chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) from 1972 to 1991.
A mushroom cloud is a distinctive pyrocumulus mushroom-shaped cloud of debris/smoke and usually condensed water vapor resulting from a large explosion.
Natural uranium (NU, Unat) refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature.
A neutron bomb, officially defined as a type of enhanced radiation weapon (ERW), is a low yield thermonuclear weapon designed to maximize lethal neutron radiation in the immediate vicinity of the blast while minimizing the physical power of the blast itself.
The neutron flux is a scalar quantity used in nuclear physics and nuclear reactor physics.
A neutron reflector is any material that reflects neutrons.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
NORSAR or Norwegian Seismic Array was established in 1968 as part of the Norwegian-US agreement for the detection of earthquakes and nuclear explosions.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The term nose cone is used to refer to the forwardmost section of a rocket, guided missile or aircraft.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
A nuclear bunker buster, also known as an earth-penetrating weapon (EPW), is the nuclear equivalent of the conventional bunker buster.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization founded in 2001 by former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn and philanthropist Ted Turner in the United States, which works to prevent catastrophic attacks and accidents with weapons of mass destruction and disruption – nuclear, biological, radiological, chemical, and cyber.
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy released when that particular nuclear weapon is detonated, usually expressed as a TNT equivalent (the standardized equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene which, if detonated, would produce the same energy discharge), either in kilotons (kt—thousands of tons of TNT), in megatons (Mt—millions of tons of TNT), or sometimes in terajoules (TJ).
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
NUKEMAP is an interactive map using Google Maps API and unclassified nuclear weapons effects data, created by Alex Wellerstein, a historian of science at the Stevens Institute of Technology who studies the history of nuclear weapons.
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.
Operation Castle was a United States series of high-yield (high-energy) nuclear tests by Joint Task Force 7 (JTF-7) at Bikini Atoll beginning in March 1954.
Operation Grapple was the name of four series of British nuclear weapons tests of early atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs carried out in 1957 and 1958 at Malden Island and Christmas Island in the Pacific Ocean as part of the British hydrogen bomb programme.
Operation Greenhouse was the fifth American nuclear test series, the second conducted in 1951 and the first to test principles that would lead to developing thermonuclear weapons (hydrogen bombs).
Operation Harborage was an operation to capture German nuclear energy program scientists, materiel and facilities in southwestern Germany in the waning days of World War II.
Operation Redwing was a United States series of 17 nuclear test detonations from May to July 1956.
In physics, optical depth or optical thickness, is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral optical depth or spectral optical thickness is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
Orange Herald was a British nuclear weapon, tested on 31 May 1957.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
An oval (from Latin ovum, "egg") is a closed curve in a plane which "loosely" resembles the outline of an egg.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers, (Urdu: ﺁرمى انجنيرينگ كور; Army Engineering Corps), is an active military administrative staff corps, and a major science and technology command of the Pakistan Army.
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC; Urdu) is an independent governmental authority and a scientific research institution, concerned with research and development of nuclear power, promotion of nuclear science, energy conservation and the peaceful usage of nuclear technology.
The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Peta is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 1015.
Peter Louis Galison (born May 17, 1955, New York) is the Joseph Pellegrino University Professor in history of science and physics at Harvard University.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The pit, named after the hard core found in fruits such as peaches and apricots, is the core of an implosion nuclear weapon – the fissile material and any neutron reflector or tamper bonded to it.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Pokhran-II was the series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range in May 1998.
Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.
Prior restraint (also referred to as prior censorship or pre-publication censorship) is censorship imposed, usually by a government or institution, on expression, that prohibits particular instances of expression.
A pure fusion weapon is a hypothetical hydrogen bomb design that does not need a fission "primary" explosive to ignite the fusion of deuterium and tritium, two heavy isotopes of hydrogen (see thermonuclear weapon for more information about fission-fusion weapons).
Radiation implosion is the compression of a target by the use of high levels of electromagnetic radiation.
Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface due to the exchange of momentum between the object and the electromagnetic field.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
RDS-37 was the Soviet Union's first two-stage hydrogen bomb, first tested on November 22, 1955.
Reggane (from Berber "Argan"; رقان) is a town and commune, and the capital of Reggane District, in Adrar Province, central Algeria.
The Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) was a proposed new American nuclear warhead design and bomb family that was intended to be simple, reliable and to provide a long-lasting, low-maintenance future nuclear force for the United States.
Restricted Data (RD) is a category of proscribed information, per National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM).
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
Richard Lee Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American historian, journalist and author of both fiction and non-fiction (which he prefers to call "verity"), including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986), and most recently, Energy: A Human History (2018).
Samar Mubarakmand (Urdu: ثمر مبارک مند; b. 17 September 1942), is a Pakistani nuclear physicist known for his research in gamma spectroscopy and experimental development of the linear accelerator.
The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
The short ton is a unit of weight equal to.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
The Smyth Report is the common name of an administrative history written by American physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to develop atomic bombs during World War II.
Social engineering, in the context of information security, refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A spark plug (sometimes, in British English, a sparking plug, and, colloquially, a plug) is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine.
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
Stanisław Marcin Ulam (13 April 1909 – 13 May 1984) was a Polish-American scientist in the fields of mathematics and nuclear physics.
A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar that is used to create two- or three-dimensional images of objects, such as landscapes.
Talk of the Nation (TOTN) was an American talk radio program based in Washington D.C., produced by National Public Radio (NPR) and was broadcast nationally from 2 to 4 p.m. Eastern Time.
Tel Aviv University (TAU) (אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל-אָבִיב Universitat Tel Aviv) is a public research university in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv in Tel Aviv, Israel.
Tera is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 1012 or (one trillion short scale; one billion long scale).
The Mercury News (formerly San Jose Mercury News, often locally known as The Merc) is a morning daily newspaper published in San Jose, California, United States.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Progressive is an American monthly magazine of politics, culture and progressivism with a pronounced liberal perspective.
Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The TN 75 is a French-built thermonuclear warhead used on France's M45 SLBM submarine-launched ballistic missiles, carried by the last of the ''Redoutable'' class submarines, S616 Inflexible, and by the ''Triomphant'' class submarines.
TN 80 was deployed between 1985 and 1991 as the warhead of the ASMP air-to-surface missile carried by the Dassault Mirage IVP bomber.
The French airborne nuclear warheads (TN81) is a thermonuclear warhead carried by the Air-Sol Moyenne Portée (ASMP) medium-range air-to-surface missile, a component of the Force de frappe French nuclear deterrent.
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The Trident missile is a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) equipped with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRV).
The Triomphant class of ballistic missile submarines of the French Navy is the active lead boat class of four boats that entered service in 1997, 1999, 2004, and 2010.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Tsar Bomba was the Western nickname for the Soviet RDS-220 hydrogen bomb (code name Ivan or Vanya), the most powerful nuclear weapon ever created.
The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile.
Underground nuclear testing is the test detonation of nuclear weapons that is performed underground.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States.
United States of America v. Progressive, Inc., Erwin Knoll, Samuel Day, Jr., and Howard Morland, 467 F. Supp. 990 (W.D. Wis. 1979), was a lawsuit brought against The Progressive magazine by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
The Vela Incident, also known as the South Atlantic Flash, was an unidentified double flash of light detected by an American Vela Hotel satellite on 22 September 1979 near the Prince Edward Islands off Antarctica.
Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg, ForMemRS (Вита́лий Ла́заревич Ги́нзбург; 4 October 1916 – 8 November 2009) was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist, astrophysicist, Nobel laureate, a member of the Soviet and Russian Academies of Sciences and one of the fathers of the Soviet hydrogen bomb.
The W47 was an American thermonuclear warhead used on the Polaris A-1 sub-launched ballistic missile system.
The W76 is a United States thermonuclear warhead.
The W80 is a relatively small thermonuclear warhead (fission-fusion or, more descriptively, a multi-staged device, in this case the most common two-stage configuration; the Teller-Ulam Design, or a Primary and Secondary Physics-Package detonated weapon) deployed by the U.S. enduring stockpile with a variable yield of of TNT.
The W87 is an American thermonuclear missile warhead.
The W88 is a United States thermonuclear warhead, with an estimated yield of 475 kilotons (kt), and is small enough to fit on MIRVed missiles.
Citrullus lanatus is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from Africa.
Wen Ho Lee (born December 21, 1939) is a Taiwanese-American scientist who worked for the University of California at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
William J. Broad (born March 7, 1951) is an American science journalist, author and a Senior Writer at The New York Times.
William George Penney, Baron Penney (24 June 1909 – 3 March 1991), was an English mathematician and professor of mathematical physics at the Imperial College London and later the rector of Imperial College.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The Y-12 National Security Complex is a United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Yakov Borisovich Zel’dovich (Я́каў Бары́савіч Зяльдо́віч, Я́ков Бори́сович Зельдо́вич; 8 March 1914 – 2 December 1987), also known as YaB, was a Soviet physicist of Belarusian Jewish ethnicity, who is known for his prolific contributions in cosmology and the physics of thermonuclear and hydrodynamical phenomena.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yulii Borisovich Khariton (27 February 1904 – 19 December 1996) was a Russian physicist credited as a leading scientist in the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons program.
The 1958 US–UK Mutual Defense Agreement, or UK–US Mutual Defence Agreement, is a bilateral treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom on nuclear weapons cooperation.
North Korea conducted its sixth nuclear test on 3 September 2017, stating it had tested a thermonuclear weapon (hydrogen bomb).
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