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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class. [1]

210 relations: Acanthocephala, Accordion, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Amoeba (genus), Amoebozoa, Anatomical terms of location, Animal, Annelid, Anthoceros, Anus, APG system, Aquificae, Archaeplastida, Armatimonadetes, Arthropod, Ascomycota, August W. Eichler, Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Basidiomycota, Bigyra, Bilateria, Biliphyta, Blastocladiomycota, Body plan, Borrelia burgdorferi, Botany, Brachiopod, Bryozoa, Bryum, Caldisericum, Catalogue of Life, Cavalier-Smith's system of classification, Cell (biology), Cercozoa, Chaetognatha, Chara (alga), Charophyta, Chitin, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi (phylum), Chlorophyta, Choanozoa, Chordate, Chromista, Chrysiogenaceae, Chytridiomycota, Ciliate, Cilium, ..., Clade, Cladistics, Class (biology), Clostridia, Cnidaria, Cnidocyte, Crenarchaeota, Crown group, Cryptista, Ctenophora, Cuticle, Cyanobacteria, Cycad, Cycas, Deferribacteraceae, Deinococcus–Thermus, Deuterostome, Dictyoglomus thermophilum, Dicyemida, Division (biology), Dorsal nerve cord, Ecdysozoa, Echinoderm, Eichler system, Elusimicrobia, Embryophyte, Endostyle, Entomophthoromycota, Entoprocta, Ernst Haeckel, Escherichia coli, Euglenozoa, Eukaryote, Euryarchaeota, Exoskeleton, Family (biology), Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Flatworm, Flowering plant, Foraminifera, Fungus, Fusobacteria, Gametophyte, Gastrotrich, Gemmatimonadetes, Georges Cuvier, Ginkgo, Ginkgoales, Glaucophyte, Glomeromycota, Gnathostomulid, Gnetophyta, Gnetum, Graham Budd, Green algae, Green sulfur bacteria, Gymnosperm, Haptophyte, Hemichordate, Hornwort, Incertae sedis, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, Keratin, Kickxellomycotina, Kingdom (biology), Kinorhyncha, Korarchaeota, Leaf, Lentisphaerae, Limnognathia, Linnaean taxonomy, List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, Lophophore, Loricifera, Loukozoa, Lycopodiophyta, Lycopodium, Magnolia, Mantle (mollusc), Marchantia, Marchantiophyta, Mesozoa, Metamonad, Microphyll, Microsporidia, Mollicutes, Mollusca, Moss, Mucoromycotina, Mycetozoa, Mycoplasma, Myzozoa, Nanoarchaeota, Nematode, Nematomorpha, Nemertea, Neocallimastigomycota, Nitrospira, Notochord, Ochrophyta, Onychophora, Oomycete, Order (biology), Orthonectida, Paraphyly, Percolozoa, Pharyngeal slit, Phenetics, Phoronid, Phylogenetics, Pine, Pinophyta, Placozoa, Planctomycetes, Plant, Plant taxonomy, Plural, Polyphyly, Priapulida, Priapus, Proboscis, Proteobacteria, Prothallium, Protist, Protostome, Protozoa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pteridophyte, Pteris, Radiolaria, Red algae, Rotation around a fixed axis, Rotifer, Salinella, Sarcomastigophora, Siboglinidae, Spirochaete, Sponge, Sporophyte, Stomochord, Symbion, Symmetry, Synergistetes, Systematics, Tail, Tardigrade, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (biology), Tenericutes, Tentacle, Thaumarchaeota, Thermodesulfobacteria, Thermotogae, Thorax, Verrucomicrobia, Viridiplantae, Xenacoelomorpha, Zoopagomycotina, Zygomycota. Expand index (160 more) »

Acanthocephala

Acanthocephala (Greek ἄκανθος, akanthos, thorn + κεφαλή, kephale, head) is a phylum of parasitic worms known as acanthocephalans, thorny-headed worms, or spiny-headed worms, characterized by the presence of an eversible proboscis, armed with spines, which it uses to pierce and hold the gut wall of its host.

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Accordion

Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.

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Acidobacteria

Acidobacteria is a phylum of bacteria.

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Actinobacteria

The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.

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Amoeba (genus)

Amoeba is a genus of single-celled amoeboids in the family Amoebidae.

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Amoebozoa

Amoebozoa is a major taxonomic group containing about 2,400 described species of amoeboid protists, often possessing blunt, fingerlike, lobose pseudopods and tubular mitochondrial cristae.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Animal

Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Annelid

The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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Anthoceros

Anthoceros is a genus of hornworts in the family Anthocerotaceae.

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Anus

The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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APG system

The APG system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy.

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Aquificae

The Aquificae phylum is a diverse collection of bacteria that live in harsh environmental settings.

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Archaeplastida

The Archaeplastida (or kingdom Plantae sensu lato) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae, and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes.

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Armatimonadetes

Armatimonadetes is a phylum of gram-negative bacteria.

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Arthropod

An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Ascomycota

Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.

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August W. Eichler

August Wilhelm Eichler, also known under his Latinized name, Augustus Guilielmus Eichler (22 April 1839 – 2 March 1887), was a German botanist who developed a new system of classification of plants to reflect the concept of evolution.

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Bacilli

Bacilli refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria.

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Bacteroidetes

The phylum Bacteroidetes is composed of three large classes of Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic or aerobic, and rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including in soil, sediments, and sea water, as well as in the guts and on the skin of animals.

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Basidiomycota

Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.

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Bigyra

Bigyra is a heterokont grouping.

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Bilateria

The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.

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Biliphyta

Biliphyta is a grouping of algae.

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Blastocladiomycota

Blastocladiomycota is one of the currently recognized phyla within the kingdom Fungi.

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Body plan

A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.

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Borrelia burgdorferi

Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia.

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Botany

Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.

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Brachiopod

Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.

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Bryozoa

Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.

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Bryum

Bryum is a genus of mosses in the family Bryaceae.

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Caldisericum

Caldisericum exile is a species of bacteria sufficiently distinct from other bacteria to be placed in its own family, order, class and phylum.

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Catalogue of Life

The Catalogue of Life is an online database that provides the world’s most comprehensive and authoritative index of known species of animals, plants, fungi and micro-organisms.

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Cavalier-Smith's system of classification

The classification system of life introduced by British zoologist Thomas Cavalier-Smith involves systematic arrangements of all life forms on earth.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cercozoa

The Cercozoa are a group of single-celled eukaryotes.

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Chaetognatha

Chaetognatha, meaning bristle-jaws, and commonly known as arrow worms, is a phylum of predatory marine worms which are a major component of plankton worldwide.

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Chara (alga)

Chara is a genus of charophyte green algae in the family Characeae.

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Charophyta

Charophyta is a division of freshwater green algae.

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Chitin

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Chlamydiae

The Chlamydiae are bacterial phylum and class whose members are a group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa.

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Chloroflexi (phylum)

The Chloroflexi or Chlorobacteria are a phylum of bacteria containing isolates with a diversity of phenotypes including members that are aerobic thermophiles, which use oxygen and grow well in high temperatures, anoxygenic phototrophs, which use light for photosynthesis (green non-sulfur bacteria), and anaerobic halorespirers, which uses halogenated organics (such as the toxic chlorinated ethenes and polychlorinated biphenyls) as electron acceptors.

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Chlorophyta

Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally called chlorophytes.

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Choanozoa

Choanozoa (Greek: χόανος (choanos) "funnel" and ζῶον (zōon) "animal") is the name of a phylum of eukaryotes that belongs to the line of opisthokonts.

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Chordate

A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Chromista

The Chromista is an eukaryotic kingdom, probably polyphyletic.

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Chrysiogenaceae

Chrysiogenaceae is a bacterial family.

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Chytridiomycota

Chytridiomycota is a division of zoosporic organisms in the kingdom Fungi, informally known as chytrids.

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Ciliate

The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.

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Cilium

A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Clade

A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladistics

Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Clostridia

The Clostridia are a highly polyphyletic class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera.

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Cnidaria

Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.

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Cnidocyte

A cnidocyte (also known as a cnidoblast or nematocyte) is an explosive cell containing one giant secretory organelle or cnida (plural cnidae) that defines the phylum Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydrae, jellyfish, etc.). Cnidae are used for prey capture and defense from predators.

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Crenarchaeota

The Crenarchaeota (Greek for "spring old quality" as specimens were originally isolated from geothermally heated sulfuric springs in Italy) (also known as Crenarchaea or eocytes) are archaea that have been classified as a phylum of the Archaea domain.

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Crown group

In phylogenetics, the crown group of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants.

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Cryptista

Cryptista is a clade of eukaryotes.

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Ctenophora

Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.

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Cuticle

A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.

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Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

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Cycad

Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.

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Cycas

Cycas is the type genus and the only genus recognised in the family Cycadaceae.

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Deferribacteraceae

The Deferribacteraceae are a family of gram-negative bacteria which make energy by anaerobic respiration.

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Deinococcus–Thermus

Deinococcus–Thermus is a phylum of bacteria that are highly resistant to environmental hazards, also known as extremophiles.

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Deuterostome

Deuterostomes (taxonomic term: Deuterostomia; meaning "second mouth" in Greek) are any members of a superphylum of animals.

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Dictyoglomus thermophilum

Dictyoglomus is a genus of bacterium, given its own phylum, called the Dictyoglomi.

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Dicyemida

Dicyemida, also known as Rhombozoa, is a phylum of tiny parasites that live in the renal appendages of cephalopods.

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Division (biology)

Division is a taxonomic rank in biological classification that is used differently in zoology and in botany.

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Dorsal nerve cord

The dorsal nerve cord is a unique feature to chordates, and it is mainly found in the Vertebrata chordate subphylum.

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Ecdysozoa

Ecdysozoa is a group of protostome animals, including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), Nematoda, and several smaller phyla.

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Echinoderm

Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.

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Eichler system

A system of plant taxonomy, the Eichler system was the first phylogenetic (phyletic) or evolutionary system.

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Elusimicrobia

The phylum Elusimicrobia, previously known as "Feluscia Gargantus", has been shown to be widespread in different ecosystems like marine environment, sewage sludge, contaminated sites and soils, and toxic wastes.

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Embryophyte

The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.

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Endostyle

The endostyle is an organ which assists lower-chordates (urochordates and cephalochordates, as well as the larvae of lampreys) in filter-feeding.

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Entomophthoromycota

Entomophthoromycota is a fungus division.

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Entoprocta

Entoprocta, whose name means "anus inside", is a phylum of mostly sessile aquatic animals, ranging from long.

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Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Euglenozoa

The euglenozoa are a large group of flagellate excavates.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Euryarchaeota

Euryarchaeota (Greek for "broad old quality") is a phylum of archaea.

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Exoskeleton

An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Fibrobacteres

Fibrobacteres is a small bacterial phylum which includes many of the major rumen bacteria, allowing for the degradation of plant-based cellulose in ruminant animals.

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Firmicutes

The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.

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Flatworm

The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Foraminifera

Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Fusobacteria

Fusobacteria are obligately anaerobic non-sporeforming Gram-negative bacilli.

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Gametophyte

A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.

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Gastrotrich

The gastrotrichs (phylum Gastrotricha), commonly referred to as hairybacks, are a group of microscopic (0.06-3.0 mm), worm-like, pseudocoelomate animals, and are widely distributed and abundant in freshwater and marine environments.

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Gemmatimonadetes

The Gemmatimonadetes are a phylum of bacteria created for the type species Gemmatimonas aurantiaca.

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Georges Cuvier

Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".

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Ginkgo

Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants.

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Ginkgoales

Ginkgoales or Ginkgophyte is a gymnosperm order containing only one extant species: Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree.

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Glaucophyte

The glaucophytes, also known as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a small group of rare freshwater microscopic algae.

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Glomeromycota

Glomeromycota (informally glomeromycetes) is one of eight currently recognized divisions within the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 230 described species.

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Gnathostomulid

Gnathostomulids, or jaw worms, are a small phylum of nearly microscopic marine animals.

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Gnetophyta

Gnetophyta is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperms (which also includes conifers, cycads, and ginkgos), that consists of some 70 species across the three relict genera: Gnetum (family Gnetaceae), Welwitschia (family Welwitschiaceae), and Ephedra (family Ephedraceae).

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Gnetum

Gnetum is a genus of gymnosperms, the sole genus in the family Gnetaceae and order Gnetales.

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Graham Budd

Graham Edward Budd (born 7 September 1968, Colchester) is a British palaeontologist, Professor of palaeobiology at Uppsala University.

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Green algae

The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.

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Green sulfur bacteria

The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria.

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Gymnosperm

The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.

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Haptophyte

The haptophytes, classified either as the Haptophyta, Haptophytina or Prymnesiophyta (named for Prymnesium), are a Division (botany) of algae.

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Hemichordate

Hemichordata is a phylum of marine deuterostome animals, generally considered the sister group of the echinoderms.

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Hornwort

Hornworts are a group of non-vascular plants constituting the division Anthocerotophyta.

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Incertae sedis

Incertae sedis (Latin for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.

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International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".

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Keratin

Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.

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Kickxellomycotina

Kickxellomycotina is a fungus grouping.

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Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.

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Kinorhyncha

Kinorhyncha (I move, ῥύγχος "snout") is a phylum of small (1 mm or less) marine invertebrates that are widespread in mud or sand at all depths as part of the meiobenthos.

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Korarchaeota

In taxonomy, the Korarchaeota are a phylum of the Archaea.

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Leaf

A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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Lentisphaerae

Lentisphaerae is a phylum of bacteria closely related to Chlamydiae and Verrucomicrobia.

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Limnognathia

Limnognathia maerski is a microscopic platyzoan animal, discovered living in homothermic springs on Disko Island, Greenland in 1994, that has variously been assigned as a class or subphylum in the phylum Gnathifera or as a phylum in a Gnathifera superphylum, named Micrognathozoa.

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Linnaean taxonomy

Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.

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List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature

List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) is an online database that maintains information on the naming and taxonomy of prokaryotes, following the taxonomy requirements and rulings of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria.

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Lophophore

The lophophore is a characteristic feeding organ possessed by four major groups of animals: the Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Hyolitha, and Phoronida, which collectively constitute the protostome group Lophophorata.

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Loricifera

Loricifera (from Latin, lorica, corselet (armour) + ferre, to bear) is a phylum of very small to microscopic marine cycloneuralian sediment-dwelling animals with 37 described species, in nine genera.

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Loukozoa

Loukozoa (From Greek loukos: groove) is a proposed taxon used in some classifications of excavate eukaryotes.

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Lycopodiophyta

The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.

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Lycopodium

Lycopodium (from Greek lukos, wolf and podion, diminutive of pous, foot) is a genus of clubmosses, also known as ground pines or creeping cedar, in the family Lycopodiaceae, a family of fern-allies (see Pteridophyta).

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Magnolia

Magnolia is a large genus of about 210The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up.

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Mantle (mollusc)

The mantle (also known by the Latin word pallium meaning mantle, robe or cloak, adjective pallial) is a significant part of the anatomy of molluscs: it is the dorsal body wall which covers the visceral mass and usually protrudes in the form of flaps well beyond the visceral mass itself.

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Marchantia

Marchantia is a genus in the family Marchantiaceae of the order Marchantiales, a group of liverworts.

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Marchantiophyta

The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.

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Mesozoa

The Mesozoa (singular: mesozoon) are minuscule, worm-like parasites of marine invertebrates.

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Metamonad

The metamonads are a large group of flagellate amitochondriate excavates.

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Microphyll

In plant anatomy and evolution a microphyll is a type of plant leaf with one single, unbranched leaf vein.

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Microsporidia

Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming unicellular parasites.

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Mollicutes

Mollicutes is a class of bacteria distinguished by the absence of a cell wall.

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Mollusca

Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Moss

Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

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Mucoromycotina

Mucoromycotina is a subdivision of Fungi of uncertain phylogenetic placement.

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Mycetozoa

Mycetozoa is a grouping of slime molds.

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Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.

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Myzozoa

Myzozoahttps://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.elsevier-5d35e684-a832-3187-bc57-5f3d2ba06a04 is a grouping of specific phyla within Alveolata, that either feed through myzocytosis, or were ancestrally capable of feeding through myzocytosis.

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Nanoarchaeota

Nanoarchaeota (Greek, "dwarf or tiny ancient one") are a phylum of the Archaea.

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Nematode

The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Nematomorpha

Nematomorpha (sometimes called Gordiacea, and commonly known as horsehair worms or Gordian worms) are a phylum of parasitoid animals superficially similar to nematode worms in morphology, hence the name.

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Nemertea

Nemertea is a phylum of invertebrate animals also known as "ribbon worms" or "proboscis worms".

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Neocallimastigomycota

Neocallimastigomycota is a phylum containing anaerobic fungi, which are symbionts found in the digestive tracts of larger herbivores.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nitrospira

Nitrospira (from Latin: nitro, meaning "nitrate" and Greek: spira, meaning "spiral") translate into “a nitrate spiral” is a genus of bacteria within the monophyletic clade of Nitrospirae phylum.

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Notochord

In anatomy, the notochord is a flexible rod made out of a material similar to cartilage.

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Ochrophyta

Ochrophyta is a group of mostly photosynthetic heterokonts.

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Onychophora

Onychophora (from Ancient Greek, onyches, "claws"; and pherein, "to carry"), commonly known as velvet worms (due to their velvety texture and somewhat wormlike appearance) or more ambiguously as peripatus (after the first described genus, Peripatus), is a phylum of elongate, soft-bodied, many-legged panarthropods.

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Oomycete

Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Orthonectida

Orthonectida is a small phylum of poorly known parasites of marine invertebrates that are among the simplest of multi-cellular organisms.

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Paraphyly

In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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Percolozoa

The Percolozoa are a group of colourless, non-photosynthetic excavates, including many that can transform between amoeboid, flagellate, and cyst stages.

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Pharyngeal slit

Pharyngeal slits are filter-feeding organs found in Invertebrate chordates (lancelets and tunicates) and hemichordates living in aquatic environments.

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Phenetics

In biology, phenetics (phainein - to appear), also known as taximetrics, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation.

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Phoronid

Phoronids (scientific name Phoronida, sometimes called horseshoe worms) are a small phylum of marine animals that filter-feed with a lophophore (a "crown" of tentacles), and build upright tubes of chitin to support and protect their soft bodies.

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Phylogenetics

In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Pine

A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.

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Pinophyta

The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

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Placozoa

The Placozoa are a basal form of free-living (non-parasitic) multicellular organism.

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Planctomycetes

Planctomycetes are a phylum of aquatic bacteria and are found in samples of brackish, and marine and fresh water.

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Plant

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plant taxonomy

Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants.

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Polyphyly

A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.

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Priapulida

Priapulida (priapulid worms, from Gr. πριάπος, priāpos 'Priapus' + Lat. -ul-, diminutive), sometimes referred to as penis worms, is a phylum of unsegmented marine worms.

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Priapus

In Greek mythology, Priapus (Πρίαπος, Priapos) was a minor rustic fertility god, protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia.

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Proboscis

A proboscis is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal, either a vertebrate or an invertebrate.

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Proteobacteria

Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives". Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the genus Proteus. Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order is the Caulobacterales, comprising stalk-forming bacteria such as Caulobacter. The Betaproteobacteria are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs. The type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens. The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate thermophiles and include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales. The Gammaproteobacteria are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur, iron and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus spp. The Epsilonproteobacteria are often slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales, which contains the genus Oligoflexus.

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Prothallium

A prothallium, or prothallus (from Latin pro.

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Protist

A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Protostome

Protostomia (from Greek πρωτο- proto- "first" and στόμα stoma "mouth") is a clade of animals.

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Protozoa

Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.

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Pteridophyte

A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).

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Pteris

Pteris (brake) is a genus of about 300 species of ferns in the Pteridoideae subfamily of the Pteridaceae.

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Radiolaria

The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.

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Red algae

The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.

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Rotation around a fixed axis

Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion.

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Rotifer

The rotifers (Rotifera, commonly called wheel animals) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals.

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Salinella

Salinella salve is a dubious species of very simple animal that may not exist, but which some have named as the sole member of the phylum Monoblastozoa.

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Sarcomastigophora

The phylum Sarcomastigophora belongs to the Protista or protoctista kingdom and it includes many unicellular or colonial, autotrophic, or heterotrophic organisms.

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Siboglinidae

Siboglinidae, also known as the beard worms, is a family of polychaete annelid worms whose members made up the former phyla Pogonophora (the giant tube worms) and Vestimentifera.

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Spirochaete

A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.

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Sponge

Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

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Sporophyte

A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.

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Stomochord

The stomochord is a flexible, hollow tube found in hemichordates.

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Symbion

Symbion is the name of a genus of aquatic animals, less than 0.5 mm wide, found living attached to the bodies of cold-water lobsters.

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Symmetry

Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

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Synergistetes

The Synergistetes is a recently recognized phylum of anaerobic bacteria that show Gram-negative staining and have rod/vibrioid cell shape.

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Systematics

Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.

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Tail

The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso.

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Tardigrade

Tardigrades (also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets) are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals.

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Taxonomic rank

In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Tenericutes

Tenericutes (tener cutis: soft skin) is a phylum of bacteria that contains the class Mollicutes.

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Tentacle

In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.

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Thaumarchaeota

The Thaumarchaeota or Thaumarchaea (from the miracle) are a phylum of the Archaea proposed in 2008 after the genome of Cenarchaeum symbiosum was sequenced and found to differ significantly from other members of the hyperthermophilic phylum Crenarchaeota.

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Thermodesulfobacteria

The Thermodesulfobacteria are a phylum of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria.

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Thermotogae

The Thermotogae are a phylum of the domain Bacteria.

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Thorax

The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.

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Verrucomicrobia

Verrucomicrobia is a phylum of bacteria.

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Viridiplantae

Viridiplantae (literally "green plants") are a clade of eukaryotic organisms made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them.

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Xenacoelomorpha

Xenacoelomorpha is a basal bilaterian phylum of small and very simple animals, grouping the xenoturbellids with the acoelomorphs.

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Zoopagomycotina

The Zoopagomycotina are a subdivision (incertae sedis) of the fungal division Zygomycota sensu lato.

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Zygomycota

Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Division (botany), Division (mycology), List of animal phyla, List of phyla, Philum, Phylum (biology), Phylum (disambiguation), Superphyla, Superphylum.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylum

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