104 relations: Acetyl group, Acetylation, Adaptive immune system, Albert Hofmann, Allergy, Allotransplantation, Amine, Arthropod, Bandage, Beetle, Biodegradation, Biomimetics, Biopesticide, Biosynthesis, Calcium carbonate, Cambrian, Carbon, Caterpillar, Cell wall, Cellulose, Cephalopod beak, CHI3L1, Chitinase, Chitobiose, Chitosan, CLEC7A, Commensalism, Composite material, Crab, Crustacean, Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, Cyphochilus (beetle), Elytron, Eosinophil, Exoskeleton, Fertilizer, Fibrinogen c domain containing 1, Fish, Food processing, French language, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, Glucose, Greek language, Gyroid, House dust mite, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydroxy group, Immune receptor, ..., Immune response, Immune system, Immunologic adjuvant, Innate immune system, Insect, Iridescence, Jasmonate, Keratin, Keratinocyte, KLRB1, Lissamphibia, Lobster, Lorica (biology), Macrophage, Mannose receptor, Micrometre, Mollusca, Monomer, Mycosphaerella graminicola, N-Acetylglucosamine, Nanofiber, Nanometre, Nematode, Nitrogen, Oligocene, Oxygen, Paper, Pathogen, Pathogen-associated molecular pattern, Phenotype, Photonics, Plant defense against herbivory, Plant pathology, Polymer, Polysaccharide, Protein, Protopolybia chartergoides, Protozoa, Radula, Receptor (biochemistry), REG3G, Scale (anatomy), Sclerotin, Shrimp, Sizing, Sporopollenin, Surgical suture, T helper cell, Tectin (secretion), Tissue engineering, TLR2, Trilobite, Wheat, Wound healing. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.
Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Albert Hofmann (11 January 1906 – 29 April 2008) was a Swiss scientist known best for being the first person to synthesize, ingest, and learn of the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Allotransplant (allo- meaning "other" in Greek) is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to or to restrict the movement of a part of the body.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.
Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
All extant cephalopods have a two-part beak, or rostrum, situated in the buccal mass and surrounded by the muscular head appendages.
Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1), also known as YKL-40, is a secreted glycoprotein that is approximately 40kDa in size that in humans is encoded by the CHI3L1 gene.
Chitinases (chitodextrinase, 1,4-beta-poly-N-acetylglucosaminidase, poly-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-1,4-poly-N-acetyl glucosamidinase, poly glycanohydrolase, (1->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan glycanohydrolase) are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin.
Chitobiose is a dimer of β-1,4-linked glucosamine units.
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1→4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and ''N''-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit).
C-type lectin domain family 7 member A or Dectin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC7A gene.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal publishing review articles pertaining to allergy and asthma.
Cyphochilus is a genus of beetles with unusually bright white scales that cover the whole exoskeleton.
An elytron (from Greek ἔλυτρον "sheath, cover"; plural: elytra) is a modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles (Coleoptera) and a few of the true bugs (Hemiptera); in most true bugs, the forewings are instead called hemelytra (sometimes misspelled as "hemielytra"), as only the basal half is thickened while the apex is membranous.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Fibrinogen C domain containing 1 (FIBCD1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FIBCD1 gene localized on chromosome 9q34.1 in close proximity to the genes encoding L- and M-ficolin.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A gyroid is an infinitely connected triply periodic minimal surface discovered by Alan Schoen in 1970.
House dust mites (HDM, or simply dust mites) are a large number of mites found in association with dust in dwellings.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
An immune receptor (or immunologic receptor) is a receptor, usually on a cell membrane, which binds to a substance (for example, a cytokine) and causes a response in the immune system.
The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to gradually change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.
Jasmonate (JA) and its derivatives are lipid-based plant hormones that regulate a wide range of processes in plants, ranging from growth and photosynthesis to reproductive development.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
Killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily B, member 1, also known as NK1.1,KLRB1, NKR-P1A or CD161 (cluster of differentiation 161), is a human gene.
The Lissamphibia are a group of tetrapods that includes all modern amphibians.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
In biology, a lorica is a shell-like protective outer covering, often reinforced with sand grains and other particles that some protozoans and loriciferan animals secrete.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The mannose receptor (Cluster of Differentiation 206, CD206) is a C-type lectin primarily present on the surface of macrophages and immature dendritic cells, but is also expressed on the surface of skin cells such as human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
N-Acetylglucosamine (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, or GlcNAc, or NAG) is a monosaccharide and a derivative of glucose.
Nanofibers are fibers with diameters in the nanometer range.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs, are molecules associated with groups of pathogens, that are recognized by cells of the innate immune system.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Photonics is the physical science of light (photon) generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and detection/sensing.
Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.
Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protopolybia chartergoides, also known as Pseudochartergus chartergoides, is a species of wasp within the genus Protopolybia.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
The radula (plural radulae or radulas) is an anatomical structure that is used by mollusks for feeding, sometimes compared to a tongue.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (also Regenerating islet-derived protein III-gamma) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the REG3G gene.
In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek λεπίς lepis, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animal's skin to provide protection.
Sclerotin is a component of the cuticles of various Arthropoda, most familiarly insects.
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
Sizing or size is any one of numerous substances that is applied to, or incorporated into, other materials — especially papers and textiles — to act as a protective filler or glaze.
SEM image of pollen grains Sporopollenin is one of the most chemically inert biological polymers.
Surgical suture is a medical device used to hold body tissues together after an injury or surgery.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
Tectin is an organic substance secreted by certain ciliates.
Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.
Toll-like receptor 2 also known as TLR2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR2 gene.
Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury.