119 relations: Alphabet, Ancient Greek, Andalusian Spanish, Archaic Greek alphabets, ASCII, Ṣ, ㅅ, ß, Ś, Śawt, Ŝ, Ş, Š, Ƨ, Bar (diacritic), Brazilian Portuguese, Carolingian minuscule, Cool S, Coptic alphabet, Cumae, Cyrillic script, Devanagari, Diacritic, Dollar sign, Doric Greek, Dot (diacritic), Elder Futhark, Enclosed Alphanumerics, English alphabet, English language, Es (Cyrillic), Etruscan civilization, Etruscan language, European Portuguese, First Grammatical Treatise, Fraktur, French language, Gemination, German language, German orthography, Gothic alphabet, Grammatical person, Greek alphabet, Gujarati alphabet, Hangul, Herodotus, Histories (Herodotus), History of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Hungarian language, Insular S, ..., Insular script, Integral symbol, International Phonetic Alphabet, Ionic Greek, Islam, ISO basic Latin alphabet, John Bell (publisher), Komi Sje, Late antiquity, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Latins, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, List of Latin-script trigraphs, Logogram, Long s, Martin Bormann, Noun, Old Italic script, Oxford English Dictionary, Palatal hook, Peninsular Spanish, Phoenician alphabet, Plural, Portuguese dialects, Portuguese language, Present tense, Proparoxytone, Proto-Sinaitic script, Roman cursive, Romance languages, Runes, S with swash tail, S-comma, Samekh, San (letter), Sütterlin, Schwabacher, Scribal abbreviation, Section sign, Service mark symbol, Sh (digraph), Sha (Cyrillic), Shcha, Shin (letter), Sigma, S̈, S̩, Sowilō, Spanish language, Spesmilo, Standard Zhuang, Summation, Sz (digraph), The (Cyrillic), The Times, Typographic ligature, Ugaritic alphabet, Uncial script, Unicode subscripts and superscripts, Verb, Visigothic script, Voiced alveolar fricative, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Xi (letter), Younger Futhark. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Andalusian varieties of Spanish (Spanish: andaluz; Andalusian: andalú) are spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla, and Gibraltar.
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Ṣ (minuscule: ṣ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from an S with the addition of a dot below the letter.
is one of the Korean hangul.
In German orthography, the grapheme ß, called Eszett or scharfes S, in English "sharp S", represents the phoneme in Standard German, specifically when following long vowels and diphthongs, while ss is used after short vowels.
Ś (minuscule: ś) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from S with the addition of an acute accent.
Śawt ሠ is a letter of the Ge'ez abugida, descended from Epigraphic South Arabian, in Ge'ez representing ś. It is reconstructed as descended from a Proto-Semitic voiceless lateral fricative.
Ŝ or ŝ (S circumflex) is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing the sound.
Ş, ş (S-cedilla) is a letter of the Azerbaijani, Gagauz, Neapolitan, Turkish and Turkmen alphabets.
The grapheme Š, š (S with caron) is used in various contexts representing the đ sound usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar fricative or similar voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/.
Ƨ (minuscule: ƨ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet; depending on the context the letter is used, it is based on the numeral 2 or the Latin letter S. Ƨ was used in the Zhuang alphabet from 1957 to 1986 to indicate the second, or falling, tone, due to its resemblance to the numeral 2, along with four other letters resembling numbers.
A bar or stroke is a modification consisting of a line drawn through a grapheme.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.
The "Cool S", also known as Superman S, Stüssy S, Super S, Pointy S and Graffiti S, as well as many other names, is a graffiti signature of popular culture that is typically doodled on children's notebooks or graffitied on walls.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
Cumae ((Kumē) or Κύμαι or Κύμα; Cuma) was an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The dollar sign ($ or) is a symbol primarily used to indicate the various units of currency around the world.
Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
The Elder Futhark (also called Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.
Enclosed Alphanumerics is a Unicode block of typographical symbols of an alphanumeric within a circle, a bracket or other not-closed enclosure, or ending in a full stop.
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Es (С с; italics: С с) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
The First Grammatical Treatise (Fyrsta málfræðiritgerðin digital reproduction at Old Norse etexts.) is a 12th-century work on the phonology of the Old Norse or Old Icelandic language.
Fraktur is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi) is an abugida, like all Nagari writing systems, and is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
The Encyclopædia Britannica has been published continuously since 1768, appearing in fifteen official editions.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The letter Ꞅ (minuscule: ꞅ) is an insular form of the letter S. The uppercase is encoded in Unicode at U+A784, and the lowercase is encoded at U+A785.
Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland that spread to Anglo-Saxon England and continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.
The integral symbol: is used to denote integrals and antiderivatives in mathematics.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Ionic Greek was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
John Bell (1745–1831) was an English publisher.
Komi Sje (Ԍ ԍ; italics: Ԍ ԍ) is a letter of the Molodtsov alphabet, a version of the Cyrillic alphabet that was used to write the Komi language in the 1920s.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
A number of trigraphs are found in the Latin script, most of these used especially in Irish orthography.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").
Martin Bormann (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945) was a prominent official in Nazi Germany as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The palatal hook is a type of hook diacritic formerly used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent palatalized consonants.
Peninsular Spanish (español peninsular), also known as Spanish of Spain (español de España) European Spanish (español europeo) and Iberian Spanish (español ibérico), sometimes inaccurately referred to as Castilian Spanish (español castellano) refers to the varieties of the Spanish language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, as opposed to the Spanish spoken in the Americas and in the Canary Islands.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Portuguese dialects are mutually intelligible variations of the Portuguese language over Portuguese-speaking countries and other areas holding some degree of cultural bound with the language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
Proparoxytone (προπαροξύτονος) is a linguistic term for a word with stress on the antepenultimate (third last) syllable such as the English words "cinema" and "operational".
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Roman cursive (or Latin cursive) is a form of handwriting (or a script) used in ancient Rome and to some extent into the Middle Ages.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Ȿ (lowercase: ȿ) is a Latin letter s with a "swash tail" (encoded by Unicode, at codepoints U+2C7E for uppercase and U+023F for lowercase) that was used as a phonetic symbol by linguists studying African languages to represent the sound.
S-comma (majuscule: Ș, minuscule: ș) is a letter which is part of the Romanian alphabet, used to represent the sound, the voiceless postalveolar fricative (like sh in shoe).
Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Samek, Hebrew ˈSamekh, Aramaic Semkath, Syriac Semkaṯ ܣ, representing.
San (Ϻ) was an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet.
Sütterlinschrift ("Sütterlin script") is the last widely used form of Kurrent, the historical form of German handwriting that evolved alongside German blackletter (most notably Fraktur) typefaces.
The German word Schwabacher (pronounced) refers to a specific blackletter typeface which evolved from Gothic Textualis (Textura) under the influence of Humanist type design in Italy during the 15th century.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
The section sign (§) is a typographical character for referencing individual numbered sections of a document, frequently used when referring to legal code.
The service mark symbol (℠), the letters SM in superscript style) is a symbol used in the United States to provide notice that the preceding mark is a service mark. This symbol has some legal force and is typically used for service marks not yet registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office; registered service marks are instead marked with the same symbol used for registered trademarks, the registered trademark symbol ®. The proper manner to display the symbol is immediately following the mark in superscript style. The character is mapped in Unicode as. Unlike the similar trademark symbol, there is no simple way to type the service mark symbol on Microsoft Windows, but the built-in charmap application can help. In Microsoft Outlook or Word type and. On Macintosh systems, the symbol can be inserted by using the Character Palette. On Linux systems, it can be inserted by pressing, then and finally.
Sh is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, a combination of S and H.
Sha (Ш ш; italics: Ш ш) is a letter of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script.
Shcha (Щ щ; italics: Щ щ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Shin (also spelled Šin or Sheen) is the name of the twenty-first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Shin, Hebrew Shin, Aramaic Shin, Syriac Shin ܫ, and Arabic Shin (in abjadi order, 13th in modern order).
Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.
S̈, s̈ in lower case, also s with diaeresis, is a letter in the Chechen language, where it represents the voiceless postalveolar fricative.
S̩ (minuscule: s̩) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from S with the addition of a vertical line below it.
*Sowilō or *sæwelō is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic language name of the s-rune, meaning "sun".
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The spesmilo (pronounced, plural spesmiloj) is an obsolete decimal international currency, proposed in 1907 by René de Saussure and used before the First World War by a few British and Swiss banks, primarily the Ĉekbanko Esperantista.
Standard Zhuang (autonym) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages.
In mathematics, summation (capital Greek sigma symbol: ∑) is the addition of a sequence of numbers; the result is their sum or total.
Sz is a digraph of the Latin script, used in Hungarian, Polish, Kashubian and German, and in the Wade–Giles system of Romanization of Chinese.
The (Ҫ ҫ; italics: Ҫ ҫ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
The Ugaritic script is a cuneiform abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria, in 1928.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
Unicode has subscripted and superscripted versions of a number of characters including a full set of Arabic numerals.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
Visigothic script was a type of medieval script that originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, modern Spain and Portugal).
The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
Xi (uppercase Ξ, lowercase ξ; ξι) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet and a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, with only 16 characters, in use from about the 9th century, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.