227 relations: A, Abbreviation, Africa, African reference alphabet, African studies, Alphabet, Americas, Ampersand, Ancient Rome, Arabic script, Arabs, Archaic Greek alphabets, Armenian alphabet, ASCII, Asia, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani language, Azerbaijanis, Æ, ß, Œ, B, Baltic languages, Bashkirs, Basque language, Brahmic scripts, Breton language, C, Calends, Capitalization, Catholic Church, Central Europe, Ch (digraph), Character encoding, Chữ Nôm, Cherokee syllabary, Chinese characters, Classical Latin, Claudian letters, Claudius, Collation, Common Turkic Alphabet, Coptic alphabet, Council of Florence, Cyrillic script, D, Dangme language, Diacritic, ..., Diaeresis (diacritic), Digraph (orthography), Dutch orthography, E, East Slavic languages, Eastern Europe, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Egypt, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Ejective consonant, Eng (letter), English alphabet, Eskimo–Aleut languages, Estonian language, Eth, Ethnic groups in Indonesia, Etruscan civilization, Etruscan language, F, Fall of Constantinople, Faroese orthography, Finnish language, Finno-Ugric languages, First World, French orthography, G, Ga language, Gamma, Georgian scripts, German language, German orthography, Germanic languages, Gh (digraph), Glyph, Greece, Greece in the Roman era, Greek alphabet, Greek language, H, Handwriting, Hausa language, Hindu–Arabic numeral system, History of colonialism, Homonym, Hungarian language, I, Icelandic orthography, IJ (digraph), Implosive consonant, Indonesian language, Insular Celtic languages, Insular G, International Organization for Standardization, International Phonetic Alphabet, Iranian languages, Iranian peoples, ISO basic Latin alphabet, ISO/IEC 646, Italian Peninsula, J, K, Kazakh language, Kazakhs, Kazakhstan, Kurdish languages, Kurdistan Regional Government, Kurds, Kyrgyz people, Kyrgyzstan, L, Languages of Africa, Languages of Europe, Languages of the Philippines, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin letters used in mathematics, Latin script in Unicode, Latin-script alphabet, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, Levant, Lingua franca, List of Latin-script digraphs, List of Latin-script trigraphs, List of writing systems, Long s, M, Malays (ethnic group), Malaysian language, Mediterranean Sea, Middle Ages, Middle English, Milanese dialect, Modern English, Moldova, Multilingualism, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, N, Near-open front unrounded vowel, Northern Europe, O, Oceania, Ogham, Old English, Old Italic script, Orthodoxy, Orthography, P, Phoenician alphabet, Phoneme, Polynesian languages, Portuguese orthography, Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩, Proto-Sinaitic script, Q, R, Roman Empire, Roman numerals, Romance languages, Romanian language, Romanians, Romanization, Romanization of Arabic, Romanization of Chinese, Romic alphabet, Runes, S, S-comma, Sequoyah, Serbian language, Sh (digraph), South Slavic languages, Southeast Europe, Southern Africa, Soviet Union, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Stop consonant, Swash (typography), Swedish alphabet, T, T-comma, Tajikistan, Tatars, Telecommunication, Thorn (letter), Transcription (linguistics), Transliteration, Transnistria, Trigraph (orthography), Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkic peoples, Turkish language, Turkmenistan, Typographic ligature, U, Unicode, Universal Coded Character Set, Uralic languages, Uzbekistan, V, Vietnamese language, Voice (phonetics), W, West Slavic languages, Western Christianity, Western Europe, Western Latin character sets (computing), Writing system, Wynn, X, Y, Yogh, Yugtun script, Z. Expand index (177 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
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African reference alphabet
An African reference alphabet was first proposed in 1978 by a UNESCO-organized conference held in Niamey, Niger, and the proposed alphabet was revised in 1982.
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African studies is the study of Africa, especially the continent's cultures and societies (as opposed to its geology, geography, zoology, etc.). The field includes the study of Africa's history (Pre-colonial, colonial, post-colonial), demography (ethnic groups), culture, politics, economy, languages, and religion (Islam, Christianity, traditional religions).
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An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
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The ampersand is the logogram &, representing the conjunction "and".
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In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
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The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
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Archaic Greek alphabets
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
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The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
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The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
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The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
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Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
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Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
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Æ (minuscule: æ) is a grapheme named æsc or ash, formed from the letters a and e, originally a ligature representing the Latin diphthong ae.
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In German orthography, the grapheme ß, called Eszett or scharfes S, in English "sharp S", represents the phoneme in Standard German, specifically when following long vowels and diphthongs, while ss is used after short vowels.
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Œ (minuscule: œ) is a Latin alphabet grapheme, a ligature of o and e. In medieval and early modern Latin, it was used to represent the Greek diphthong οι and in a few non-Greek words, usages that continue in English and French.
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B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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The Bashkirs (Башҡорттар, Başqorttar,; Башкиры, Baškiry) are a Turkic ethnic group, indigenous to Bashkortostan and to the historical region of Badzhgard, extending on both sides of the Ural Mountains, in the area where Eastern Europe meets North Asia.
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Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
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The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
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Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
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C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
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The calends or kalends (kalendae) is the first day of every month in the Roman calendar.
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Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
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Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
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Ch is a digraph in the Latin script.
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Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
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Chữ Nôm (literally "Southern characters"), in earlier times also called quốc âm or chữ nam, is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language.
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The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s.
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Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
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Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
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The Claudian letters were developed by, and named after, the Roman Emperor Claudius (reigned 41–54).
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Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
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Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
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Common Turkic Alphabet
The terms Common Turkic Alphabet or Turkic concil Alphabet refer to two different systems using the Latin alphabet to write various Turkic languages.
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The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
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Council of Florence
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
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The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
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D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The Dangme language, also Dangme or Adaŋgbi, is a Kwa language spoken in south-eastern Ghana by the Dangme People (Dangmeli).
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A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
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The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
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A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
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Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
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E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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East Slavic languages
The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken throughout Eastern Europe, Northern Asia, and the Caucasus.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
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Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
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In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
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Eng or engma (capital: Ŋ, lowercase: ŋ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, used to represent a velar nasal (as in English sii) in the written form of some languages and in the International Phonetic Alphabet.
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The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia.
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Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
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Eth (uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian.
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Ethnic groups in Indonesia
There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia including Javanese, Sundanese, and Batak.
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The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
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The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
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F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Fall of Constantinople
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
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Faroese orthography is the method employed to write the Faroese language, using a 29-letter Latin alphabet.
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Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
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Finno-Ugric, Finno-Ugrian or Fenno-Ugric is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages.
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The concept of First World originated during the Cold War and included countries that were generally aligned with NATO and opposed to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
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French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
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G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Ga is a Kwa language spoken in Ghana, in and around the capital Accra.
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Gamma (uppercase, lowercase; gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet.
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The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
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German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
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Gh is a digraph found in many languages.
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In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
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Greece in the Roman era
Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when it was dominated by the Roman republic, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire (collectively, the Roman era).
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The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
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Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
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H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
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Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand.
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Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
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Hindu–Arabic numeral system
The Hindu–Arabic numeral systemDavid Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski,, 1911 (also called the Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system) is a positional decimal numeral system that is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world.
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History of colonialism
The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the globe and across time.
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In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which sound alike or are spelled alike, but have different meanings.
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Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
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I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelled and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
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IJ (lowercase ij) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itselfalthough in most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
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Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
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Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
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Insular Celtic languages
Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.
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Insular G (font:Ᵹ ᵹ; image) is a form of the letter g used in Insular fonts somewhat resembling a tailed z or lowercase delta, used in Great Britain and Ireland.
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International Organization for Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
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The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
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The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
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ISO basic Latin alphabet
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
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ISO/IEC 646 is the name of a set of ISO standards, described as Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange and developed in cooperation with ASCII at least since 1964.
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The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
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J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
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The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
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Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
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Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
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Kurdistan Regional Government
The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) (حکوومەتی هەرێمی کوردستان, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan; حكومة اقليم كردستان, Ḥukūmat ʾIqlīm Kurdistān) is the official ruling body of the predominantly Kurdish region of Northern Iraq referred to as Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan.
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The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
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The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
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The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
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L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
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Languages of Africa
The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.
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Languages of Europe
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
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Languages of the Philippines
There are some 120 to 187 languages and dialects in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
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Latin letters used in mathematics
Many letters of the Latin alphabet, both capital and small, are used in mathematics, science and engineering to denote by convention specific or abstracted constants, variables of a certain type, units, multipliers, physical entities.
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Latin script in Unicode
Many Unicode characters belonging to the Latin script are encoded in the Unicode Standard.
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A Latin-script alphabet (Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet) is an alphabet that uses letters of the Latin script.
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A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
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Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
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A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
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List of Latin-script digraphs
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
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List of Latin-script trigraphs
A number of trigraphs are found in the Latin script, most of these used especially in Irish orthography.
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List of writing systems
This is a list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features.
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The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").
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M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Malays (ethnic group)
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
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The Malaysian language (bahasa Malaysia), or Malaysian Malay (bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
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Milanese (endonym in traditional orthography Milanes, Meneghin) is the central dialect of the Western variety of the Lombard language spoken in Milan, the rest of its metropolitan city, and the northernmost part of the province of Pavia.
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Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.
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Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
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Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
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N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Near-open front unrounded vowel
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Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
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O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
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Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).
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Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
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Old Italic script
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
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Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
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P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
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The Polynesian languages are a language family spoken in geographical Polynesia and on a patchwork of outliers from south central Micronesia to small islands off the northeast of the larger islands of the southeast Solomon Islands and sprinkled through Vanuatu.
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Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
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Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩
In English, the digraph th represents in most cases one of two different phonemes: the voiced dental fricative (as in this) and the voiceless dental fricative (thing).
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Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
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Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
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The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
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Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
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The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
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Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
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Romanization of Arabic
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.
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Romanization of Chinese
The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese.
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The Romic Alphabet, sometimes known as the Romic Reform, is a phonetic alphabet proposed by Henry Sweet.
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Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
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S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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S-comma (majuscule: Ș, minuscule: ș) is a letter which is part of the Romanian alphabet, used to represent the sound, the voiceless postalveolar fricative (like sh in shoe).
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Sequoyah (ᏍᏏᏉᏯ Ssiquoya, as he signed his name, or ᏎᏉᏯ Se-quo-ya, as is often spelled in Cherokee; named in English George Gist or George Guess) (17701843), was a Cherokee silversmith.
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Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
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Sh is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, a combination of S and H.
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South Slavic languages
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
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Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
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Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
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The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
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Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
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Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
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In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
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A swash is a typographical flourish, such as an exaggerated serif, terminal, tail, entry stroke, etc., on a glyph.
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The Swedish alphabet is the writing system used for the Swedish language.
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T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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T-comma (majuscule: Ț, minuscule: ț) is a letter which is part of the Romanian alphabet, used to represent the Romanian language sound, the voiceless alveolar affricate (like ts in bolts).
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Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
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The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
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Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.
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Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.
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Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
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Transnistria, the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR; Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria (the area between the Dniester river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank.
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A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
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The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
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The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
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Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
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Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
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In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
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U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
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Universal Coded Character Set
The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is a standard set of characters defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (plus amendments to that standard), which is the basis of many character encodings.
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The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
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Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
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V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
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Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
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W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
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West Slavic languages
The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group.
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Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
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Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
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Western Latin character sets (computing)
Several binary representations of character sets for common Western European languages are compared in this article.
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A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
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Ƿynn (Ƿ ƿ) (also spelled wen, ƿynn, or ƿen) is a letter of the Old English alphabet, where it is used to represent the sound.
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X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The letter yogh (ȝogh) (Ȝ ȝ; Middle English: ȝogh) was used in Middle English and Older Scots, representing y and various velar phonemes.
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The Yugtun or Alaska script is a syllabary invented around the year 1900 by Uyaquq to write the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language.
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Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Latalpha, Latin (script), Latin alphabet letters, Latin character, Latin characters, Latin letter, Latin letters, Latin-script, Latn, Latn (script), Romalpha, Roman Script, Roman character, Roman letter, Roman letters, Roman orthography, Roman script.