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The ABC islands are the three western-most islands of the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea that lie north of Falcón State, Venezuela.
Academia Brasileira de Letras (ABL) (English: Brazilian Academy of Letters) is a Brazilian literary non-profit society established at the end of the 19th century by a group of 40 writers and poets inspired by the Académie Française.
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
Afonso IOr also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The agreste ("countryside") is a narrow zone of Brazil in the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia between the coastal forest zona da mata and the semiarid sertão.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Alagoas is one of the 27 states of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region.
Aldii were semifree in Germanic law.
Alentejan Portuguese is a dialect of Portuguese spoken in the Portuguese region of Alentejo.
The Alentejo is a geographical, historical and cultural region of south-central and southern Portugal.
Alexandre de Rhodes, S.J. (15 March 1591 – 5 November 1660) was a French Jesuit missionary and lexicographer who had a lasting impact on Christianity in Vietnam.
The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing survey by the U.S. Census Bureau.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Angolan literature has its origins in the mid-19th century.
Angolan Portuguese (Português de Angola) is a group of dialects and accents of the Portuguese language used mostly in Angola, where it is an official language.
Annobón is a small province of Equatorial Guinea consisting of the island of Annobón and its associated islets in the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean's Cameroon line.
The Annobonese is a Portuguese creole known to its speakers as Fa d'Ambu or Fá d'Ambô (Fala de Ano-Bom).
Antônio Houaiss (or; October 15, 1915 – March 7, 1999) was a Brazilian lexicographer, writer and translator.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
(ال), also transliterated as el- as pronounced in varieties of Arabic, is the definite article in the Arabic language: a particle (ḥarf) whose function is to render the noun on which it is prefixed definite.
In linguistics, assibilation is a sound change resulting in a sibilant consonant.
Astur-Leonese is a group of closely related Romance languages of the West Iberian branch, including.
Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Aurélio Buarque de Holanda Ferreira (May 3, 1910 – February 28, 1989) was a Brazilian lexicographer, philologist, translator, and writer, best known for editing the Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa, a major dictionary of the Portuguese language.
The Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa is a comprehensive dictionary of the Portuguese language, published in Brazil, first compiled by Aurélio Buarque de Holanda Ferreira.
The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal (Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores) and Madeira (Região Autónoma da Madeira).
Aveiro is a city and a municipality in Portugal.
The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.
Bahia (locally) is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast.
The Bandeirantes were 17th-century Portuguese settlers in Brazil and fortune hunters.
Barranquenho (Barranquenhu; English: Barranquian) is a Romance linguistic variety spoken in the Portuguese town of Barrancos, near the Spanish border.
Batticaloa (மட்டக்களப்பு, Maṭṭakkaḷappu; මඩකලපුව, Madakalapuwa) is a major city in the Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, and its former capital.
Belém (Portuguese for Bethlehem), is a Brazilian city, the capital and largest city of the state of Pará in the country's north.
Belo Horizonte ("Beautiful Horizon") is the sixth-largest city in Brazil, the thirteenth-largest in South America and the eighteenth-largest in the Americas.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Bioko (also spelled Bioco, in Europe traditionally called Fernando Poo or Fernando Po from the period of Portuguese colonization) is an island 32 km off the west coast of Africa, and the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea.
Braga (Bracara) is a city and a municipality in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga, in the historical and cultural Minho Province.
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
Brasiguaio (Portuguese) or brasiguayo (Spanish) is a term referring to Brazilian migrants in Paraguay and their descendants.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brazilian literature is the literature written in the Portuguese language by Brazilians or in Brazil, including works written prior to the country’s independence in 1822.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
Caipira ((Old Tupi ka'apir or kaa-pira, which means "bush cutter") is a Brazilian Portuguese dialect spoken in the State of São Paulo and adjacent parts of neighbouring Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Paraná.
Caló is a language spoken by the Spanish and Portuguese Romani.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.
Cantabrian (cántabru, in Cantabrian) is a group of dialects belonging to Astur-Leonese.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
Cape Verdean Creole (also known as Kabuverdianu) is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken on the islands of Cape Verde.
Cape Verdean Portuguese (Português cabo-verdiano) is the variety of Portuguese spoken in Cape Verde.
Carioca is a demonym used to refer to anything related to the City of Rio de Janeiro as well as its eponymous State of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Ceará (locally in Ceará or in Northeast Region of Brazil the pronunciation is) is one of the 27 states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Atlantic coast.
A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.
Cedillo (Casalinho in Portuguese) is a town and municipality in Spain, located in the province of Cáceres, community of Extremadura.
The Celtiberians were a group of Celts or Celticized peoples inhabiting the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celtici (in Portuguese, Spanish, and Galician languages, Célticos) were a Celtic tribe or group of tribes of the Iberian peninsula, inhabiting three definite areas: in what today are the regions of Alentejo and the Algarve in Portugal; in the Province of Badajoz and north of Province of Huelva in Spain, in the ancient Baeturia; and along the coastal areas of Galicia.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Central-West Region of Brazil (Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil) is composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; along with Distrito Federal (Federal District), where Brazil's national capital, Brasília, is situated.
Centro-Sul (South-Central) is the Southeastern, Southern and Central-West regions of Brazil (see Brazil Regional Division), excluding the north of Minas Gerais and most of Mato Grosso and along with some of Tocantins.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
Class discrimination, also known as classism, is prejudice or discrimination on the basis of social class.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
Coimbra (Corumbriga)) is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of. The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal (after Lisbon, Porto, Braga), it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra, the Centro region and the Baixo Mondego subregion. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area. Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus. Similarly, buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal (from 1131 to 1255) still remain. During the Late Middle Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre. This was in large part helped by the establishment the University of Coimbra in 1290, the oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking world. Apart from attracting many European and international students, the university is visited by many tourists for its monuments and history. Its historical buildings were classified as a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 2013: "Coimbra offers an outstanding example of an integrated university city with a specific urban typology as well as its own ceremonial and cultural traditions that have been kept alive through the ages.".
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa; abbreviated as CPLP), occasionally known in English as the Lusophone Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organization of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language, mostly of former colonies of the Portuguese Empire.
The County of Portugal (Condado de Portugal, Condado Portucalense, Condado de Portucale; in documents of the period the name used was Portugalia) refers to two successive medieval counties in the region around Braga and Porto, today corresponding to littoral northern Portugal. It is the first state within which the identity of the Portuguese people formed, there the first Portuguese nation state and a predecessor to modern Portugal. The county existed from the mid-ninth to the mid-eleventh centuries as a vassalage of the Kingdom of Asturias and later the Kingdoms of Galicia and León, before being abolished as a result of a rebellion against the king of Galicia. A larger entity under the same name was then reestablished by the king of León in the late 11th century and lasted until the mid-12th century when its count elevated it into an independent Kingdom of Portugal.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Curitiba (Tupi: "Pine Nut Land") is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Paraná.
The Cynetes or Conii were one of the pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, living in today's Algarve and Lower Alentejo regions of southern Portugal and southern of province of Badajoz and northwest of provinces of Córdoba and Ciudad Real in Spain before the 6th century BCE (in what part of this become the southern part of the Roman province of Lusitania).
Daman and Diu is a union territory in Western India.
The Daman and Diu Portuguese or Daman and Diu Indo-Portuguese, known to its speakers as Língua da Casa (Portuguese for "Home language"), is a Portuguese-based creole spoken in Daman and Diu.
Decreolization is a phenomenon whereby over time a creole language reconverges with one of the standard languages from which it originally derived.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Denis (9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 in Santarém), called the Farmer King (Rei Lavrador) and the Poet King (Rei Poeta), was King of Portugal and the Algarve.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
The Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum (known in Vietnamese as Từ điển Việt-Bồ-La) is a trilingual Vietnamese-Portuguese-Latin dictionary written by the French Jesuit lexicographer Alexandre de Rhodes after 12 years in Vietnam.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum).
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
East Timorese Portuguese (Português timorense in Portuguese) is a Portuguese dialect spoken in the country of Timor-Leste or East Timor.
The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS, is a regional economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa.
The Edictum Rothari (lit. Edict of Rothari; also Edictus Rothari or Edictum Rotharis) was the first written compilation of Lombard law, codified and promulgated on 22 November 643 by King Rothari.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
Eljas (Ellas or As Ellas) is a municipality (''municipio'') located in the province of Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Entrimo is a municipality in Ourense (province) in the Galicia region of north-west Spain.
The Eo is a river, long, in northwestern Spain.
In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.
Ermesinde is a civil parish in the municipality (concelho) of Valongo, in continental Portugal, northeast of Porto.
Espírito Santo (meaning "Holy Spirit") is a state in southeastern Brazil.
Esposende is a city and a municipality in Braga District in Portugal.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Extremaduran (autonym: estremeñu, represents a variable vowel -->) is a Romance linguistic variety, spoken by several hundred thousand people in Spain, in an area covering the north-western part of the autonomous community of Extremadura and adjoining areas in the province of Salamanca.
Fala ("Speech", also called Xalimego) is a Romance language commonly classified in the Portuguese-Galician subgroup, with some traits from Leonese, spoken in Spain by about 10,500 people, of whom 5,500 live in a valley of the northwestern part of Extremadura near the border with Portugal.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Flores (Indonesian: Pulau Flores) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, a group of islands in the eastern half of Indonesia.
Florianópolis is the capital and second largest city of the state of Santa Catarina, in the South region of Brazil.
Florianopolitan dialect, pejoratively called manezês or manezinho, is a variety of Brazilian Portuguese heavily influenced by (and often considered an extension of) the Azorean dialect.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French phonology is the sound system of French.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
The Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language (Portuguese: Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa) is a learned institution dedicated to the advancement, study, and normalization of Galicia's language.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Galician-Asturian or Eonavian (official name by Act 1/1998, March 23 of Principality of Asturias; autonym: eonaviego, gallego-asturiano; eonaviegu, gallego-asturianu; eonaviego, galego-asturiano) is a set of Romance dialects or falas whose linguistic dominion extends into the zone of Asturias between the Eo River and Navia River (or more specifically the Eo and the Frejulfe River).
Galician-Portuguese (galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gallaeci or Callaeci were a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia, the north-western corner of Iberia, a region roughly corresponding to what is now northern Portugal, Galicia, western Asturias and western Castile and León in Spain, before and during the Roman period.
Gallaecian or Northwestern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Celtic language, and was one of the Hispano-Celtic languages.
The Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
Garcia de Resende (14703 February 1536) was a Portuguese poet and editor.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
Genoese (called Zeneize in the local language) is the main dialect of the Ligurian language spoken in Genoa (the principal city of the Liguria region in Northern Italy).
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the Center-West region of the country. The name Goiás (formerly, Goyaz) comes from the name of an indigenous community. The original word seems to have been guaiá, a compound of gua e iá, meaning "the same person" or "people of the same origin." It borders the Federal District and the states of (from north clockwise) Tocantins, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The most populous state of its region, Goiás is characterized by a landscape of chapadões (plateaus). In the height of the drought season, from June to September, the lack of rain makes the level of the Araguaia River go down and exposes almost of beaches, making it the main attraction of the State. At the Emas National Park in the municipality of Mineiros, it is possible to observe the typical fauna and flora from the region. At the Chapada dos Veadeiros the attractions are the canyons, valleys, rapids and waterfalls. Other attractions are the historical city of Goiás (or Old Goiás), from Goiânia, established in the beginning of 18th Century, and Caldas Novas, with its hot water wells attracting more than one million tourists per year. In Brazil's geoeconomic division, Goiás belongs to the Centro-Sul (Center-South), being the northernmost state of the southern portion of Brazil.
The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
Grande Florianópolis is a mesoregion in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina.
Greater Rio de Janeiro, officially Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region (Grande Rio, officially Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, in Portuguese) is a large metropolitan area located in Rio de Janeiro state in Brazil, the second largest in Brazil and third largest in South America.
The Greater São Paulo (Grande São Paulo) is a nonspecific term for one of the multiple definitions the large metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil.
Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.
Guilford Publications, Inc. is a New York City-based independent publisher founded in 1973 that specializes in publishing books, journals, and DVDs in psychology, psychiatry, the behavioral sciences, education, and geography.
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.
Guinean Portuguese (Português Guineense) is the variety of Portuguese spoken in Guinea-Bissau, where it is the official language.
Henriques is a common surname in the Portuguese language, namely in Portugal and Brazil.
Henry Edward Watts (1826–1904) was a British journalist and author on Spanish topics.
Herrera de Alcántara is a municipality located in the province of Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
Hispano-Celtic is a hypernym to include all the varieties of Celtic spoken in the Iberian Peninsula before the arrival of the Romans (in c. 218 BC, during the Second Punic War).
Hispanophone and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively.
Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomas Sancta or Hebdomas Maior, "Greater Week"; Greek: Ἁγία καὶ Μεγάλη Ἑβδομάς, Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas, "Holy and Great Week") in Christianity is the week just before Easter.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Dicionário Houaiss da Língua Portuguesa (Houaiss Dictionary of the Portuguese Language) is a major reference dictionary for the Portuguese language, edited by Brazilian writer Antônio Houaiss.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages is an areal grouping of Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France which are today more commonly separated into West Iberian and Occitano-Romance language groups.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign persons to reside permanently.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
Indigenous peoples in Brazil (povos indígenas no Brasil), or Indigenous Brazilians (indígenas brasileiros), comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited what is now the country of Brazil since prior to the European contact around 1500.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Portuguese creoles are the several creole languages of India and Sri Lanka which had a substantial Portuguese influence in grammar or lexicon, such as.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The Instituto Camões (English: Camões Institute) is an institution created in 1992 for the worldwide promotion of the Portuguese language and culture.
The International Portuguese Language Institute (Instituto Internacional da Língua Portuguesa in Portuguese) or IILP is the Community of Portuguese Language Countries's institute supporting the spread and popularity of the Portuguese language in the world.
Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
Kimbundu, or North Mbundu, one of two Bantu languages called Mbundu (see Umbundu), is the second-most-widely spoken Bantu language in Angola.
The Kingdom of Galicia (Reino de Galicia, or Galiza; Reino de Galicia; Reino da Galiza; Galliciense Regnum) was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
Papia Kristang ("speak kristang"), or just Kristang, is a creole language.
La Alamedilla is a town and municipality in Spain, in the province of Salamanca, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
Lanc-Patuá is a creole language spoken in the state of Amapá in Brazil, primarily now around the capital, Macapá.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Larantuka (Dutch: Larantoeka) is a kecamatan (district) and seat capital of East Flores Regency, on the eastern end of Flores Island, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
The Língua Geral Paulista (São Paulo General language), or Tupí Austral (Southern Tupi), was a Tupi-based trade language of São Vicente, São Paulo, and the upper Tietê River.
Leiria (ɸlāryo) is a city and a municipality in the Centro Region of Portugal.
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistic discrimination (also called linguicism and languagism) is the unfair treatment of an individual based solely on his or her use of language.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
The Class of Letters (Portuguese: Classe de Letras) of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences holds an official consultative role on the Portuguese language in Portugal.
These are lists of the most common Chinese surnames in mainland China (People's Republic of China), Taiwan (Republic of China), and the Chinese diaspora overseas as provided by authoritative government or academic sources.
List of international organisations which have Portuguese as an official, administrative or working language.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
The following is a list of famous or notable Portuguese language poets.
The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Portuguese is an official or de facto language.
This is a list of the Pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania, i. e., modern Portugal, Spain and Andorra).
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Lobios is a municipality in Ourense in the Galicia region of north-west Spain.
Luís Vaz de Camões (sometimes rendered in English as Camoens or Camoëns (e.g. by Byron in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers),; c. 1524 or 1525 – 10 June 1580), is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet.
Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was an Indo-European Paleohispanic language.
The Lusitanians (or Lusitani) were an Indo-European people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory into the Roman province of Lusitania (most of modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca).
Lusophones (lusófonos) are people who speak the Portuguese language, either as native speakers or as learners.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Macanese Portuguese (português macaense) is a Portuguese dialect spoken in Macau, where Portuguese is co-official with Cantonese.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Manado Malay, or simply the Manado language, is a creole language spoken in Manado, the capital of North Sulawesi province in Indonesia, and the surrounding area.
Manaus or Manaós before 1939 or (formerly) Barra do Rio Negro, is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in the North Region of Brazil.
Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the Midwestern states of Brazil.
Matteo Ricci, S.J. (Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.
Mercosur (also known as Mercosul or Ñemby Ñemuha) is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994.
Michele or Michael Ruggieri (1543– 11 May 1607), born Pompilio Ruggieri and known in China as Luo Mingjian, was an Italian Jesuit priest and missionary.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.
Mineiro feminine: Mineira), also called Brazilian mountain dialect, is the Brazilian Portuguese term for the inhabitants of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais and also the characteristic accent spoken in the heart of that state, and also in its capital, Belo Horizonte. This dialect is quite complicated, due the pronunciation of the words, which is fast and curled. There are times when other Brazilians, who speak other dialects, do not understand what the mineiros speak.
The Mirandese language (autonym: mirandés or lhéngua mirandesa; mirandês or língua mirandesa) is an Astur-Leonese language that is sparsely spoken in a small area of northeastern Portugal in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Mogadouro and Vimioso.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
The Rio Mondego (English language: Mondego River) is the longest river located exclusively in Portuguese territory.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Mozambican Portuguese (português moçambicano) refers to the varieties of Portuguese spoken in Mozambique.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus.
The Mozarabs (mozárabes; moçárabes; mossàrabs; مستعرب trans. musta'rab, "Arabized") is a modern historical term that refers to the Iberian Christians who lived under Moorish rule in Al-Andalus.
The Museum of the Portuguese Language (Museu da Língua Portuguesa) is an interactive Portuguese language—and Linguistics/Language Development in general—museum in São Paulo, Brazil.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
Spain is a diverse country integrated by different contrasting entities that show varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical, political and cultural traditions.
The Navia is a river in northern Spain flowing South to North from Galicia into the Autonomous Community of Asturias.
Neapolitan (autonym: (’o n)napulitano; napoletano) is a Romance language of the Italo-Dalmatian group spoken across much of southern Italy, except for southern Calabria and Sicily.
The Nheengatu language, often spelled Nhengatu, is an indigenous language of the Americas from the Tupi–Guarani language family.
The or Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam (Vocabulário da Língua do Japão in modern Portuguese; "Vocabulary of the Language of Japan" in English) was a Japanese to Portuguese dictionary compiled by Jesuit missionaries and published in Nagasaki, Japan, in 1603.
North coast dialect dialeto da costa norte, also called cearense dialect, is a dialect of Portuguese in the Brazilian state of Ceará, having many internal variations, like in the regions Jaguaribe and Sertões (backcountries).
The North Region of Brazil (Região Norte do Brasil) is the largest Region of Brazil, corresponding to 45.27% of the national territory.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
This article describes the phonology of the Occitan language.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Olavo Brás Martins dos Guimarães Bilac (16 December 1865 – 28 December 1918), often known as Olavo Bilac, was a Brazilian Parnassian poet, journalist and translator.
Olivenza or Olivença is a town situated on a disputed section of the Portugal–Spain border.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.
Os Lusíadas, usually translated as The Lusiads, is a Portuguese epic poem written by Luís Vaz de Camões (– 1580) and first published in 1572.
The Paleohispanic languages were the languages of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, excluding languages of foreign colonies, such as Greek in Emporion and Phoenician in Qart Hadast.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil, in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the province of Misiones, Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.
A patronymic surname is a surname originated from the given name of the father or a patrilineal ancestor.
The Peneda-Gerês National Park (Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês), also known simply as Gerês, is the only national park in Portugal (although many natural parks, protected landscapes, and reserves exist across the nation).
Piauí is one of the states of Brazil, located in the country's Northeast Region.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.
Popcorn, popcorns, or pop-corn, is a variety of corn kernel, which expands and puffs up when heated.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
Portuñol (Spanish spelling) or Portunhol (Portuguese spelling) is the name often given to any unsystematic mixture of Portuguese with Spanish.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese Africans (luso-africanos) are Portuguese people born or permanently settled in Africa (they should not be confused with Portuguese of Black African ancestry).
Portuguese Braille is the braille alphabet of the Portuguese language, both in Portugal and in Brazil.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
Portuguese is spoken in a number of African countries and is the official language in six African states: Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea.
The Portuguese language is spoken in Asia by small communities either in regions which formerly served as colonies to Portugal, notably Macau and East Timor where the language is official albeit not widely spoken, or of Lusophone immigrants, notably the Brazilians in Japan.
Portuguese literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the Portuguese language, particularly by citizens of Portugal; it may also refer to literature written by people living in Portugal, Brazil, Angola and Mozambique, as well as other Portuguese-speaking countries.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The beginnings of Portuguese poetry go back to the early 12th century, around the time when the County of Portugal separated from the medieval Kingdom of Galicia in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have Portuguese as their substantial lexifier.
The Portuguese-speaking African countries (also referred to as Lusophone Africa) consist of six African countries in which the Portuguese language is an official language: Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and, since 2011, Equatorial Guinea.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
The present perfect is a grammatical combination of the present tense and perfect aspect that is used to express a past event that has present consequences.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.
León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Zamora is a province of western Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The phonology of Quebec French is more complex than that of French of France.
Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 3,995,949 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America.
Regional Italian, sometimes also called dialects of Italian, is any regionalRegional in the broad sense of the word; not to be confused with the Italian endonym regione for Italy's administrative units variety of the Italian language.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries, particularly by the Renaissance humanism movement.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.
Resende is a municipality in the Viseu District in Portugal.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil.
Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.
Rioplatense Spanish (español rioplatense, locally castellano rioplatense) is a dialect of the Spanish language spoken mainly in the areas in and around the Río de la Plata Basin of Argentina and Uruguay.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rondônia is a state in Brazil, located in the north part of the country.
San Martín de Trevejo (Sa Martín de Trevellu) is a municipality (''municipio'') located in the province of Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain.
Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus.
São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa.
São Toméan Portuguese (português santomense or português de São Tomé) is a dialect of Portuguese spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Sergipe, officially State of Sergipe, is a state of Brazil.
The Sertão ("outback" or "backcountry") is one of the four sub-regions of the northeast of Brazil.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
Sikka is a regency within East Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia, on the island of Flores.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The South Region of Brazil (Região Sul do Brasil) is one of the five regions of Brazil.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.
Sranan Tongo (also Sranantongo "Surinamese tongue", Sranan, Surinaams, Surinamese, Surinamese Creole, Taki Taki) is an English-based creole language that is spoken as a lingua franca by approximately 500,000 people in Suriname.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Taíno is an extinct and poorly-attested Arawakan language that was spoken by the Taíno people of the Caribbean.
Tetum, also Tetun, is an Austronesian language spoken on the island of Timor.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
Tocantins is one of the states of Brazil.
A toponymic surname is a surname derived from a place name.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Toucans are members of the Neotropical near passerine bird family Ramphastidae.
The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil occurred with the strategic retreat of Queen Maria I of Portugal, Prince Regent John, also referred to as Dom João or Dom João VI, and the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807.
Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro is a historical province of Portugal located in the northeastern corner of the country.
The Triângulo Mineiro is an area in the west of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tsonga (Xitsonga) is a southern African Bantu language spoken by the Tsonga people.
Old Tupi or classical Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the native Tupi people of Brazil, mostly those who inhabited coastal regions in South and Southeast Brazil.
Tupi–Guarani is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Uruguayan Portuguese (português uruguaio), also known as fronteiriço and portunhol riverense, is a variety of Portuguese with influences from Spanish.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Valverde del Fresno (Valverdi el Fresnu, Valverdi du Fresnu) is a municipality located in the province of Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
West Iberian is a branch of the Romance languages that includes Castilian (Spanish and Judaeo-Spanish/Ladino), Astur-Leonese (Asturian, Extremaduran, Leonese, Mirandese and Cantabrian, where cantabrian language is listed in the Astur-Leonese linguistic group.), and the modern descendants of Galician-Portuguese (Galician, Portuguese, and the Fala language).
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
The Zona da Mata (forest area) is the narrow coastal plain between the Atlantic Ocean and the dry agreste and sertão regions in the northeastern Brazilian states of Maranhão, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia.
Zona da Mata is a mesoregion of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, situated in the southeastern part of the state, along the border of the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo.
Acoriano, Algarvio, Alto-Alentejano, Alto-Minhoto, Açoriano, Baixo-Beirao, Baixo-Beirão, Beirao dialect, Beirão dialect, Benguelense, Declension in Portuguese, Decline in the Portuguese Language, ISO 639:por, ISO 639:pt, Lingua portuguesa, Luandense, Língua portuguesa, Madeirense, Modern Portuguese, Portugese (language), Portugese language, Portuguese (language), Portuguese Language, Portuguese idiom, Portuguese-language, Português, Standard Portuguese, Transmontano.