261 relations: A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, Actor, Acute accent, Ad hoc, Advanced and retracted tongue root, Affricate consonant, Africa Alphabet, African D, Airstream mechanism, Akan language, Alexander John Ellis, Allophone, Alphabet, Alveolar clicks, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Americanist phonetic notation, Apical consonant, Apostrophe, Arabic International Phonetic Alphabet, Arabic script, Arial Unicode MS, ARPABET, Articulatory phonetics, ASCII, Aspirated consonant, Ayin, Ʋ, Badaga language, Banda languages, Bantu languages, Barred lambda, Bilabial clicks, Bitstream Cyberbit, Boston accent, Bracket, Brill Publishers, Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Cambridge University Press, Charis SIL, Cleft lip and cleft palate, Click consonant, Co-articulated consonant, Cockney, Connected speech, Consonant, Constructed language, Contour (linguistics), Creaky voice, Cursive, Czech language, ..., Daniel Jones (phonetician), DejaVu fonts, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental clicks, Dental consonant, Descender, Diacritic, Diphthong, Doubly articulated consonant, Doulos SIL, Downstep, Egressive sound, Ejective consonant, Eng (letter), English language, English Phonotypic Alphabet, Estonian phonology, Even-Shoshan Dictionary, Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, Extra-short, Featural writing system, Flap consonant, Foreign language, France, French language, Fula language, Gamma, Gbe languages, Gemination, General American, Gentium, Geoffrey K. Pullum, Glottal stop, Glottalic consonant, Glottis, Glyph, Greek alphabet, Hangul, Hard and soft C, Hard and soft G, Harsh voice, Hausa language, Hebrew alphabet, Henry Sweet, History of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Hot metal typesetting, Human mouth, Ian Maddieson, Implosive consonant, Index of phonetics articles, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Ingressive sound, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association, International Phonetic Association, Intonation (linguistics), Iotation, IPA Extensions, Islay, Israel, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, Kabiye language, Kamatz, Khoisan languages, Kirshenbaum, Korean phonology, Labialization, Labiodental flap, Laminal consonant, Language Log, Languages of the Caucasus, Lateral clicks, Lateral flap, Lateral release (phonetics), LaTeX, Latin alphabet, Latin epsilon, Latin script, Length (phonetics), Lenition, Letter (alphabet), Lexicography, Libretto, Lingala, Linguistics, Linguolabial consonant, Lisp, List of international common standards, Luciano Canepari, Lucida Sans Unicode, Mainland China, Manding languages, Manner of articulation, Merriam-Webster, Microsoft, Mid central vowel, Modal voice, Monolingual learner's dictionary, Morphophonology, Multigraph (orthography), Murmured voice, Nasal release, Nasal vowel, Nasalization, NATO phonetic alphabet, Nico Castel, Nonce word, Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, Obstruent, Open central unrounded vowel, Open front unrounded vowel, Open O, Open-source Unicode typefaces, Operating system, Otto Jespersen, Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Oxford English Dictionary, Palantla Chinantec, Palatal clicks, Palatalization (phonetics), Paul Passy, Pharyngeal consonant, Pharyngealization, Phonation, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonetic Symbol Guide, Phonetic symbols in Unicode, Phonetic transcription, Phonetics, Phonological hierarchy, Phonological history of English low back vowels, Phrase, Pince-nez, Place of articulation, Pronunciation respelling for English, Prosodic unit, Prosody (linguistics), Question mark, R-colored vowel, Raising (phonetics), Relative articulation, Retroflex consonant, Rhythm, Romic alphabet, Roundedness, Russian language, SAMPA, Saraiki language, Scottish Gaelic, Secondary articulation, Secondary stress, Segment (linguistics), Semivowel, Semyon Novgorodov, Sergey Ozhegov, SIL International, Sindhi language, Singing, Sj-sound, Slack voice, Slash (punctuation), Sonorant, Speech disorder, Speech-language pathology, Spelling reform, Spoken language, Stiff voice, Stress (linguistics), Strident vowel, Swahili language, Syllabic consonant, Syllable, Symbol, Tenuis consonant, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Times New Roman, TIPA (software), Togo, Tone (linguistics), Tone letter, Translation, Typographic ligature, Unicode, Unicode Consortium, United Kingdom, University of Chicago Press, University of Pennsylvania, Unreleased stop, Upstep, Uvular consonant, Velarization, Vietnamese language, Visible Speech, Vocal tract, Voice (phonetics), Voice Quality Symbols, Voiced retroflex implosive, Voiced velar fricative, Voiced velar stop, Voiceless retroflex lateral fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel breaking, Vowel length, Web browser, Word, X-SAMPA, Yakut scripts, 19th century. Expand index (211 more) » « Shrink index
A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, also referred to as Kenyon and Knott, was first published by the G. & C. Merriam Company in 1944, and written by John Samuel Kenyon and Thomas A. Knott.
An actor (often actress for women; see terminology) is a person who portrays a character in a performance.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
In phonetics, advanced tongue root and retracted tongue root, abbreviated ATR or RTR, are contrasting states of the root of the tongue during the pronunciation of vowels in some languages, especially in Western and Eastern Africa but also in Kazakh and Mongolian.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
The Africa Alphabet (also International African Alphabet or IAI alphabet) was developed by the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures in 1928, with the help of some Africans led by Diedrich Hermann Westermann, who served as director of the organization from 1926 until 1939.
Retroflex D (Ɖ, ɖ) is a Latin letter representing the voiced retroflex plosive.
In phonetics, the airstream mechanism is the method by which airflow is created in the vocal tract.
Akan is a Central Tano language that is the principal native language of the Akan people of Ghana, spoken over much of the southern half of that country, by about 58% of the population, and among 30% of the population of Ivory Coast.
Alexander John Ellis, (14 June 1814 – 28 October 1890) was an English mathematician, philologist and early phonetician, who also influenced the field of musicology.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
The alveolar or postalveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
Americanist phonetic notation, also known as the North American Phonetic Alphabet or NAPA, is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and American anthropologists and language scientists (many of whom were students of Neogrammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of indigenous languages of the Americas and for languages of Europe.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
Arabic International Phonetic Alphabet (أبجدية صوتية دولية عربية) (AIPA) is a system of Phonetic transcription, based on the Arabic alphabet, to adapt the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to the Arabic script.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
In digital typography, the TrueType font Arial Unicode MS is an extended version of the font Arial.
ARPABET (also spelled ARPAbet) is a set of phonetic transcription codes developed by Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) as a part of their Speech Understanding Research project in the 1970s.
The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
The letter V with hook (Upper case Ʋ, minuscule: ʋ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, based on an italic form of V. It is used in the orthographies of some African languages such as Ewe, and Shona from 1931 to 1955 to write.
Badaga is a southern Dravidian language spoken by approximately 135,000 people in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu.
Banda is a family of Ubangian languages spoken by the Banda people of Central Africa.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
The barred lambda ƛ, (in Unicode), also called running man, is a modified letter of the Greek alphabet used in Americanist phonetic notation to transcribe.
The labial or bilabial clicks are a family of click consonants that sound something like a smack of the lips.
Bitstream Cyberbit is a commercial serif Unicode font designed by Bitstream Inc.
The Boston accent is the local accent of Eastern New England English spoken specifically in the city of Boston, its suburbs, and much of eastern Massachusetts.
A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary, abbreviated CALD) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Charis SIL is a transitional serif typeface developed by SIL International based on Bitstream Charter, one of the first fonts designed for laser printers.
Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).
Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa.
Co-articulated consonants or complex consonants are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation.
The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.
Connected speech, or connected discourse, in linguistics, is a continuous sequence of sounds forming utterances or conversations in spoken language.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.
In phonetics, contour describes speech sounds which behave as single segments, but which make an internal transition from one quality, place, or manner to another.
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Daniel Jones (12 September 1881 – 4 December 1967) was a London-born British phonetician who studied under Paul Passy, professor of phonetics at the École des Hautes Études at the Sorbonne (University of Paris).
The DejaVu fonts are modifications of the Bitstream Vera fonts designed for greater coverage of Unicode, as well as providing more styles.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Dental (or more precisely denti-alveolar) clicks are a family of click consonants found, as constituents of words, only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
In typography, a descender is the portion of a letter that extends below the baseline of a font.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Doubly articulated consonants are consonants with two simultaneous primary places of articulation of the same manner (both plosive, or both nasal, etc.). They are a subset of co-articulated consonants.
Doulos SIL is a serif typeface developed by SIL International, very similar to Times or Times New Roman.
Downstep is a phenomenon in tone languages in which if two syllables have the same tone (for example, both with a high tone or both with a low tone), the second syllable is lower in pitch than the first.
In human speech, egressive sounds are sounds by which the air stream is created by pushing air out through the mouth or nose.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
Eng or engma (capital: Ŋ, lowercase: ŋ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, used to represent a velar nasal (as in English sii) in the written form of some languages and in the International Phonetic Alphabet.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The English Phonotypic Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet developed by Sir Isaac Pitman and Alexander John Ellis originally as an English language spelling reform.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Estonian language.
The Hebrew dictionary by Avraham Even-Shoshan, commonly known as the Even-Shoshan Dictionary, was first published (1948–1952) as "מִלּוֹן חָדָשׁ" (milon khadash, A New Dictionary), later (1966–1970) as "הַמִּלּוֹן הֶחָדָשׁ" (hamilon hekhadash, The New Dictionary), and finally (2003, well after his death) as "מִלּוֹן אֶבֶן־שׁוֹשָׁן" (milon even-shoshan, The Even-Shoshan Dictionary).
The extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, also extIPA symbols for disordered speech or simply extIPA, are a set of letters and diacritics devised by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association to augment the International Phonetic Alphabet for the phonetic transcription of disordered speech.
The International Phonetic Alphabet uses a breve,, to indicate a speech sound (usually a vowel) with less than normal or extra short duration.
In a featural writing system, the shapes of the symbols (such as letters) are not arbitrary but encode phonological features of the phonemes that they represent.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
A foreign language is a language originally from another country.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.
Gamma (uppercase, lowercase; gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Gbe languages (pronounced) form a cluster of about twenty related languages stretching across the area between eastern Ghana and western Nigeria.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
Gentium (Latin for "of the nations") is a Unicode serif typeface designed by Victor Gaultney.
Geoffrey Keith Pullum (born March 8, 1945) is a British-American linguist specialising in the study of English.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
A glottalic consonant is a consonant produced with some important contribution (a movement, a closure) of the glottis (the opening that leads from the nose and mouth cavities into the larynx and the lungs).
The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds (the rima glottidis).
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.
In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), the letter is used in different contexts to represent two distinct phonemes, often called hard and soft.
Harsh voice, also called ventricular voice or (in some high-tone registers) pressed voice, is the production of speech sounds (typically vowels) with a constricted laryngeal cavity, which generally involves epiglottal co-articulation.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Henry Sweet (15 September 1845 – 30 April 1912) was an English philologist, phonetician and grammarian.
The International Phonetic Alphabet was created soon after the International Phonetic Association was established in the late 19th century.
In printing and typography, hot metal typesetting (also called mechanical typesetting, hot lead typesetting, hot metal, and hot type) is a technology for typesetting text in letterpress printing.
In human anatomy, the mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and produces saliva.
Ian Maddieson is a linguist who was at University of California, Berkeley, and is now an adjunct professor emeritus at the University of New Mexico.
Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
In phonetics, ingressive sounds are sounds by which the airstream flows inward through the mouth or nose.
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.
The International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association (ICPLA) is an international scholarly association dedicated to the study of speech disorders and language disorders.
The International Phonetic Association (IPA; in French, Association phonétique internationale, API) is an organization that promotes the scientific study of phonetics and the various practical applications of that science.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
In Slavic languages, iotation is a form of palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding morpheme.
IPA Extensions is a block (0250–02AF) of the Unicode standard that contains full size letters used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
Islay (Ìle) is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Journal of the International Phonetic Association (JIPA) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that appears three times a year.
Kabiye (also rendered Kabiyé, Kabiyè, Kabye, Kabyé, Kabyè, Cabrais) is an Eastern Gurunsi Gur language spoken primarily in northern Togo.
Kamatz or Qamatz (קָמַץ) is a Hebrew niqqud (vowel) sign represented by two perpendicular lines (looking like an uppercase T) underneath a letter.
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
Kirshenbaum, sometimes called ASCII-IPA or erkIPA, is a system used to represent the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in ASCII.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
In phonetics, the labiodental flap is a speech sound found primarily in languages of Central Africa, such as Kera and Mangbetu.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
Language Log is a collaborative language blog maintained by Mark Liberman, a phonetician at the University of Pennsylvania.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The lateral clicks are a family of click consonants found only in African languages.
A lateral flap is a family of consonantal sounds, used in some spoken languages.
In phonetics, a lateral release is the release of a plosive consonant into a lateral consonant.
LaTeX (or; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin epsilon or open e (majuscule: Ɛ, minuscule: ɛ) is a letter of the extended Latin alphabet, based on the lowercase of the Greek letter epsilon (ε).
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
In phonetics, length or quantity is a feature of sounds that have distinctively extended duration compared with other sounds.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups.
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.
Lingala (Ngala) is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a large part of the Republic of the Congo, as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Linguolabials or apicolabials are consonants articulated by placing the tongue tip or blade against the upper lip, which is drawn downward to meet the tongue.
A lisp, also known as sigmatism, is a speech impediment in which a person misarticulates sibilants,. These misarticulations often result in unclear speech.
A list of common and basic information standards, that are related by their frequent and widespread use, and which are conventionally used internationally by industry and organizations.
Luciano Canepari (b. 19 January 1947 in Venice) is a professor in the Department of Linguistics at the University of Venice.
In digital typography, Lucida Sans Unicode OpenType font from the design studio of Bigelow & Holmes is designed to support the most commonly used characters defined in version 1.0 of the Unicode standard.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Manding languages (sometimes spelt Manden) are mutually intelligible dialects or languages in West Africa of the Mande family.
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
The mid central vowel (also known as schwa) is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Modal voice is the vocal register used most frequently in speech and singing in most languages.
A Monolingual learner's dictionary (or MLD) is a type of dictionary designed to meet the reference needs of people learning a foreign language.
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.
A multigraph (or pleongraph) is a sequence of letters that behaves as a unit and is not the sum of its parts, such as English or French.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
In phonetics, a nasal release is the release of a stop consonant into a nasal.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
The NATO phonetic alphabet, officially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, and also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabet, and in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet.
Nico Castel (August 1, 1931 – May 31, 2015), born Naftali Chaim Castel Kalinhoff, was a comprimario tenor and well-known language and diction coach, as well as a prolific translator of libretti and writer of books on singing diction.
A nonce word (also called an occasionalism) is a lexeme created for a single occasion to solve an immediate problem of communication.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) possesses a variety of obsolete and nonstandard symbols.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
The open central unrounded vowel, or low central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in many spoken languages.
The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner. However, the accuracy of the quadrilateral vowel chart is disputed, and the sound has been analyzed acoustically as an extra-open/low unrounded vowel at a position where the front/back distinction has lost its significance. There are also differing interpretations of the exact quality of the vowel: the classic sound recording of by Daniel Jones is slightly more front but not quite as open as that by John Wells. In practice, it is considered normal by many phoneticians to use the symbol for an open ''central'' unrounded vowel and instead approximate the open front unrounded vowel with (which officially signifies a ''near-open'' front unrounded vowel). This is the usual practice, for example, in the historical study of the English language. The loss of separate symbols for open and near-open front vowels is usually considered unproblematic, because the perceptual difference between the two is quite small, and very few languages contrast the two. If one needs to specify that the vowel is front, one can use symbols like (advanced/fronted), or (lowered), with the latter being more common. The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels, which is extremely unusual.
Open o (majuscule: Ɔ, minuscule: ɔ) is a letter of the extended Latin alphabet.
A few projects exist to provide free and open-source Unicode typefaces, i.e. Unicode typefaces which are open-source and designed to contain glyphs of all Unicode characters.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (16 July 1860 – 30 April 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language.
The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (OALD) was the first advanced learner's dictionary of English.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Palantla Chinantec, also known as Chinanteco de San Pedro Tlatepuzco, is a major Chinantecan language of Mexico, spoken in San Juan Palantla and a couple dozen neighboring towns in northern Oaxaca.
The palatal or palato-alveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found, as components of words, only in Africa.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
Paul Édouard Passy (13 January 1859, Versailles21 March 1940, Bourg-la-Reine) was a French linguist, founder of the International Phonetic Association in 1886.
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
The Phonetic Symbol Guide is a book by Geoffrey Pullum and William Ladusaw that explains the histories and uses of symbols used in various phonetic transcription conventions.
Unicode supports several phonetic scripts and notations through the existing writing systems and the addition of extra blocks with phonetic characters.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
The phonological hierarchy describes a series of increasingly smaller regions of a phonological utterance, each nested within the next highest region.
The phonology of the low back vowels of the English language has undergone changes both overall and with regional variations, through Old and Middle English to the present.
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
Pince-nez is a style of glasses, popular in the 19th century, that are supported without earpieces, by pinching the bridge of the nose.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
A pronunciation respelling for English is a notation used to convey the pronunciation of words in the English language, which does not have a phonemic orthography (i.e. the spelling does not reliably indicate pronunciation).
In linguistics, a prosodic unit, often called an intonation unit or intonational phrase, is a segment of speech that occurs with a single prosodic contour (pitch and rhythm contour).
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
The question mark (also known as interrogation point, query, or eroteme in journalism) is a punctuation mark that indicates an interrogative clause or phrase in many languages.
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
In phonology and phonetics, raising is a sound change in which a vowel or consonant becomes higher or raised, meaning that the tongue becomes more elevated or positioned closer to the roof of the mouth than before.
In phonetics and phonology, relative articulation is description of the manner and place of articulation of a speech sound relative to some reference point.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".
The Romic Alphabet, sometimes known as the Romic Reform, is a phonetic alphabet proposed by Henry Sweet.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (SAMPA) is a computer-readable phonetic script using 7-bit printable ASCII characters, based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
Saraiki (سرائیکی, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda (Western Punjabi) group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
Secondary articulation occurs when the articulation of a consonant is equivalent to the combined articulations of two or three simpler consonants, at least one of which is an approximant.
Secondary stress (or obsolete: secondary accent) is the weaker of two degrees of stress in the pronunciation of a word; the stronger degree of stress being called primary.
In linguistics, a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech".
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Semyon Andreyevich Novgorodov (Семен Андреевич Новгородов, Semen Andreyevich Novgorodov, the older orthography Сэмэн Ноҕоруодап, Semen Noğoruodap, Семён Андреевич Новгородов Semjon Andrejevič Novgorodov; February 13, 1892 – 28 February 1924) was a Yakut politician and linguist, the creator of a Yakut written language.
Sergey Ivanovich Ozhegov (Серге́й Ива́нович О́жегов; 22 September 1900 – 15 December 1964) was a Russian lexicographer who in 1926 graduated from the Leningrad University where his teachers included Lev Shcherba and Viktor Vinogradov.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
In Swedish phonology, the sj-sound (sj-ljudet) is a voiceless fricative phoneme found in most dialects.
Slack voice (or lax voice) is the pronunciation of consonant or vowels with a glottal opening slightly wider than that occurring in modal voice.
The slash is an oblique slanting line punctuation mark.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Speech disorders or speech impediments are a type of communication disorder where 'normal' speech is disrupted.
Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.
A spelling reform is a deliberate, often officially sanctioned or mandated change to spelling rules of a language.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
The term stiff voice describes the pronunciation of consonants or vowels with a glottal opening narrower, and the vocal folds stiffer, than occurs in modal voice.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Strident vowels (also called sphincteric vowels) are strongly-pharyngealized vowels accompanied by (ary)epiglottal trill, with the larynx being raised and the pharynx constricted.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
Times New Roman is a serif typeface designed for legibility in body text.
TIPA is a free software package providing International Phonetic Alphabet and other phonetic character capabilities for TeX and LaTeX.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tone letters are letters that represent the tones of a language, most commonly in languages with contour tones.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Unicode Consortium (Unicode Inc.) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that coordinates the development of the Unicode standard, based in Mountain View, California.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
A stop with no audible release, also known as an unreleased stop or an applosive, is a stop consonant with no release burst: no audible indication of the end of its occlusion (hold).
In linguistics, upstep is a phonemic or phonetic upward shift of tone between the syllables or words of a tonal language.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Visible Speech is a system of phonetic symbols developed by Alexander Melville Bell in 1867 to represent the position of the speech organs in articulating sounds.
The vocal tract is the cavity in human beings and in animals where the sound produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
Voice Quality Symbols (VoQS) are a set of phonetic symbols used for voice quality, such as to transcribe disordered speech.
The voiced retroflex implosive is a type of consonantal sound.
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless retroflex lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA;, /%Eks"s.
There have been three major Yakut writing systems in use since the early 20th century.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.
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