258 relations: Alexander von Humboldt, Alexander Wilson (ornithologist), Algae, Alloenzyme, Amazon basin, American eel, American Philosophical Society, Americas, Amplified fragment length polymorphism, Angelo Heilprin, Ansel Adams, Apocynaceae, Applied ecology, Aquatic insect, Aquatic toxicology, Asa Gray, BBC Natural History Unit, Benjamin Smith Barton, Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins, Biodiversity, Biogeochemistry, Bioindicator, Biological illustration, Bone Wars, Botany, Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America), Bradford Washburn, Capacity building, Carbon cycle, Catfish, Catskill Formation, Centennial Exposition, Charles Alexandre Lesueur, Charles Darwin, Charles Lucien Bonaparte, Charles Pickering (naturalist), Cladistics, Coastal fish, Collection (artwork), Comparative anatomy, Computational phylogenetics, Conchology, Conrad Gessner, Conservation genetics, Conservation movement, Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, Core sample, Corythosaurus, Crane fly, Crawford Greenewalt, ..., Dan Otte, David Attenborough, Delaware River, Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, Desert bighorn sheep, Desertification, Devonian, Diatom, Dinosaur, Dinosaur renaissance, Diorama, Dissolved organic carbon, DNA sequencing, DNA–DNA hybridization, Don Walsh, Drainage basin, Drexel University, Ecosystem ecology, Ecosystem model, Edward Drinker Cope, Edward Lear, Eliot Porter, Endangered species, Entomology, Environmental chemistry, Environmental consulting, Environmental impact of reservoirs, Environmental movement in the United States, Environmental science, Estuary, Eutrophication, Extinction, Ezra Townsend Cresson, Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden, Field trip, Fisheries management, Fluid dynamics, Frank Gill (ornithologist), Franklin Institute, Frederick Traugott Pursh, Fresh water, Fungus, Gary Rosenberg, Georg Forster, George Ord, George Washington Tryon, Georges Cuvier, Gerald Durrell, Giant panda, Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting, Global Environment Facility, Global warming, Globalization, Hadrosaurus, Harrison Schmitt, Hayden Memorial Geological Award, Henry Augustus Pilsbry, Henry Charles Lea, Henry Weed Fowler, Herbarium, Herpetology, History of Philadelphia, Holotype, Human impact on the environment, Hynerpeton, Ichthyology, Immunoelectrophoresis, Interdisciplinarity, Introduced species, Invertebrate, Invertebrate paleontology, Isaac Lea, Jacques Piccard, James Bond (ornithologist), James Cook, James Prosek, Jim Gary, Johann Reinhold Forster, John Cassin, John Edwards Holbrook, John James Audubon, John Kirk Townsend, John Lawrence LeConte, John McPhee, Joseph Leidy, Khövsgöl Nuur, Kiang, Kodiak bear, Lake Baikal, Leidy Award, Lewis and Clark Expedition, Lewis Thomas, Library Company of Philadelphia, Lichen, Limnology, Lion, Logan Circle (Philadelphia), Louis Leakey, Malacology, Mammalogy, Maria Sibylla Merian, Meriwether Lewis, Microsatellite, Molecular biology, Molecular ecology, Molecular phylogenetics, Mongolia, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Monograph, Museum, Nanjing University, National Museum of Scotland, National Science Foundation, National University of Mongolia, Natural history, Natural history museum, Natural resource management, Natural science, Neotropical realm, Nitrogen cycle, Ornithology, Orthoptera, Othniel Charles Marsh, Overgrazing, Palaeogeography, Paleobotany, Paleolimnology, Parasitology, Passenger pigeon, Pastoralism, Pennsylvania, Permafrost, Peter Matthiessen, Peter Scott, Philadelphia, Phosphorus cycle, Phycology, Plains zebra, Plant evolutionary developmental biology, Please Touch Museum, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Population model, Princeton University, R. Tucker Abbott, Ray Troll, Reindeer, Research Experiences for Undergraduates, Restoration ecology, Richard Harlan, Richard Owen, Riparian zone, Risk assessment, River ecosystem, Rodolphe Meyer de Schauensee, Roger Tory Peterson, Rotifer, Ruth Patrick, Salt marsh, Samuel Stehman Haldeman, Science fair, Scientific literacy, Scott Weidensaul, Selenga River, Semi-arid climate, Serology, Smithsonian Institution, Stan Waterman, Stephen E. Ambrose, Steppe, Stock photography, Sustainable development, Swann Memorial Fountain, Sylvia Earle, Systematics, Taiga, Taxonomy (biology), Tetrapod, The Birds of America, Thomas Henry Huxley, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Lovejoy, Thomas Meehan (botanist), Thomas Nuttall, Thomas Say, Tidal marsh, Tiktaalik, Titian Peale, Trace metal, Type (biology), Unionidae, United States environmental law, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Exploring Expedition, United States Geological Survey, University of Delaware, Vascular plant, Vertebrate paleontology, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Water pollution, Water quality, Watershed management, Wildfire, Wildlife management, William Bartram, William Maclure, William T. Cooper, Witmer Stone. Expand index (208 more) » « Shrink index
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Alexander Wilson (July 6, 1766 – August 23, 1813) was a Scottish-American poet, ornithologist, naturalist, and illustrator.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Alloenzymes (or also called allozymes) are variant forms of an enzyme which differs structurally but not functionally from other allozymes coded for by different alleles at the same locus.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The American eel (Anguilla rostrata) is a facultative catadromous fish found on the eastern coast of North America.
The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
AFLP-PCR or just AFLP is a PCR-based tool used in genetics research, DNA fingerprinting, and in the practice of genetic engineering.
Angelo Heilprin (March 31, 1853 – July 17, 1907) was an American geologist, paleontologist, naturalist, and explorer.
Ansel Easton Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) was an American photographer and environmentalist.
Apocynaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes trees, shrubs, herbs, stem succulents, and vines, commonly known as the dogbane family, (Greek for "away from dog" since some taxa were used as dog poison).
Applied ecology is a subfield within ecology, which considers the application of the science of ecology to real-world (usually management) questions.
Aquatic insects or water insects live some portion of their life cycle in the water.
Aquatic toxicology is the study of the effects of manufactured chemicals and other anthropogenic and natural materials and activities on aquatic organisms at various levels of organization, from subcellular through individual organisms to communities and ecosystems.
Asa Gray (November 18, 1810 – January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century.
The BBC Natural History Unit (NHU) is a department of the BBC which produces television, radio and online content with a natural history or wildlife theme.
Benjamin Smith Barton (February 10, 1766 – December 19, 1815) was an American botanist, naturalist, and physician.
Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins (8 February 1807 – 27 January 1894) was an English sculptor and natural history artist renowned for his work on the life-size models of dinosaurs in the Crystal Palace Park in south London.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere).
A bioindicator is any species (an indicator species) or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal the qualitative status of the environment.
Biological illustration is the use of technical illustration to visually communicate the structure and specific details of biological subjects of study.
The Bone Wars, also known as the Great Dinosaur Rush, was a period of intense and ruthlessly competitive fossil hunting and discovery during the Gilded Age of American history, marked by a heated rivalry between Edward Drinker Cope (of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia) and Othniel Charles Marsh (of the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale).
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Boy Scouts is a membership level of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) for boys and young men.
Henry Bradford Washburn, Jr. (June 7, 1910 – January 10, 2007) was an American explorer, mountaineer, photographer, and cartographer.
Capacity building (or capacity development) is the process by which individuals and organizations obtain, improve, and retain the skills, knowledge, tools, equipment and other resources needed to do their jobs competently or to a greater capacity (larger scale, larger audience, larger impact, etc).
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.
The Devonian Catskill Formation or the Catskill clastic wedge is a unit of mostly terrestrial sedimentary rock found in Pennsylvania and New York.
The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, the first official World's Fair in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from May 10 to November 10, 1876, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia.
Charles Alexandre Lesueur (1 January 1778 in Le Havre – 12 December 1846 in Le Havre) was a French naturalist, artist and explorer.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte, 2nd Prince of Canino and Musignano (24 May 1803 – 29 July 1857), was a French biologist and ornithologist.
Charles Pickering (November 10, 1805 – March 17, 1878) was an American anthropologist and botanist.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
Coastal fish, also called inshore fish or neritic fish, inhabit the sea between the shoreline and the edge of the continental shelf.
A museum is distinguished by a collection of often unique objects that forms the core of its activities for exhibitions, education, research, etc.
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.
Computational phylogenetics is the application of computational algorithms, methods, and programs to phylogenetic analyses.
Conchology (from κόγχος konkhos, "cockle") is the study of mollusc shells.
Conrad Gessner (Conradus Gesnerus; Conrad Geßner or Cůnrat Geßner; 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Swiss physician, naturalist, bibliographer, and philologist.
Conservation genetics is an interdisciplinary subfield of Population Genetics that aims to understand the dynamics of genes in populations principally to avoid extinction.
The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz, as he is known in Europe (October 22, 1783 – September 18, 1840), was a nineteenth-century polymath born near Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire and self-educated in France.
A core sample is a cylindrical section of (usually) a naturally occurring substance.
Corythosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid "duck-billed" dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Period, about 77–75.7 million years ago.
Crane fly is a common name referring to any member of the insect family Tipulidae, of the order Diptera, true flies in the superfamily Tipuloidea.
Crawford Hallock Greenewalt (August 16, 1902 – September 28, 1993) was an American chemical engineer who served as president of the DuPont Company from 1948 to 1962 and as board chairman from 1962 to 1967.
Daniel Otte (born 14 March 1939) is a noted behavior ecologist, a world expert on crickets and grasshoppers and a prominent scientific illustrator.
Sir David Frederick Attenborough (born 8 May 1926) is an English broadcaster and naturalist.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
The Delaware Valley Ornithological Club (DVOC) is the one of the oldest ornithology organizations in the United States.
Desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) is a subspecies of bighorn sheep (''Ovis canadensis''), that is native to the deserts of the Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
The dinosaur renaissance was a small-scale scientific revolution that started in the late 1960s, and led to renewed academic and popular interest in dinosaurs.
The word diorama can either refer to a 19th-century mobile theatre device, or, in modern usage, a three-dimensional full-size or miniature model, sometimes enclosed in a glass showcase for a museum.
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sometimes known as dissolved organic material (DOM), is a broad classification for organic molecules of varied origin and composition within aquatic systems.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
DNA–DNA hybridization generally refers to a molecular biology technique that measures the degree of genetic similarity between pools of DNA sequences.
Don Walsh (born November 2, 1931) is an American oceanographer, explorer and marine policy specialist.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Drexel University is a private research university with its main campus located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework.
An ecosystem model is an abstract, usually mathematical, representation of an ecological system (ranging in scale from an individual population, to an ecological community, or even an entire biome), which is studied to better understand the real system.
Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840 – April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist.
Edward Lear (12 May 1812 – 29 January 1888) was an English artist, illustrator, musician, author and poet, and is known now mostly for his literary nonsense in poetry and prose and especially his limericks, a form he popularised.
Eliot Furness Porter (December 6, 1901 – November 2, 1990) was an American photographer best known for his intimate color photographs of nature.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
Environmental consulting is often a form of compliance consulting, in which the consultant ensures that the client maintains an appropriate measure of compliance with environmental regulations.
The environmental impact of reservoirs comes under ever-increasing scrutiny as the global demand for water and energy increases and the number and size of reservoirs increases.
In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
Ezra Townsend Cresson, also Ezra Townsend senior (18 June 1838, Byberry – 19 April 1926, Swarthmore) was an American entomologist who specialised in Hymenoptera.
Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden (September 7, 1829 – December 22, 1887) was an American geologist noted for his pioneering surveying expeditions of the Rocky Mountains in the late 19th century.
A field trip or excursion is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment.
Fisheries management is the activity of protecting fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible, drawing on fisheries science, and including the precautionary principle.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
Frank Bennington Gill (October 2, 1941 in New York City) is an American ornithologist with worldwide research interests and birding experience.
The Franklin Institute is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Frederick Traugott Pursh (or Friedrich Traugott Pursch) (February 4, 1774 – July 11, 1820) was a German–American botanist.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gary Rosenberg (born New Rochelle, New York, 16 October 1959) is an American malacologist.
Johann Georg Adam Forster (November 27, 1754Many sources, including the biography by Thomas Saine, give Forster's birth date as November 26; according to Enzensberger, Ulrich (1996) Ein Leben in Scherben, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag,, the baptism registry of St Peter in Danzig lists November 27 as the date of birth and December 5 as the date of baptism. – January 10, 1794) was a German naturalist, ethnologist, travel writer, journalist, and revolutionary.
George Ord (March 4, 1781 – January 24, 1866) was an American naturalist, ornithologist and writer.
George Washington Tryon Jr. (20 May 1838 – 5 February 1888) was an American malacologist who worked at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia.
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".
Gerald Malcolm Durrell, OBE (7 January 1925 – 30 January 1995) was a British naturalist, zookeeper, conservationist, author and television presenter.
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot";, literally "big bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China.
A Guide, Girl Guide or Girl Scout is a member of a section of some Guiding organisations who is between the ages of 10 and 14.
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Hadrosaurus (from Greek ἁδρός, hadros, meaning "bulky" or "large", and σαῦρος, sauros, meaning "lizard") is a valid genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur that lived in North America during the Late Cretaceous Period. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only species in this genus, is known from a single specimen consisting of much of the skeleton and parts of the skull. The specimen was collected in 1858 from the Woodbury Formation in New Jersey, USA, representing the first dinosaur species known from more than isolated teeth to be identified in North America. Using radiometric dating of bivalve shells from the same formation, the sedimentary rocks where the Hadrosaurus fossil was found have been dated at some time between 80.5 and 78.5 million years ago.Gallagher, W.B. (2005). "" Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 84(3): 241. In 1868 the only known specimen became the first ever mounted dinosaur skeleton and since 1991 the species H. foulkii has become the official state dinosaur of New Jersey.
Harrison Hagan "Jack" Schmitt (born July 3, 1935) is an American geologist, retired NASA astronaut, university professor, former U.S. senator from New Mexico, and the most recent living person to have walked on the Moon.
The Hayden Memorial Geological Award is presented by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University (formerly the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Henry Augustus Pilsbry (7 December 1862 – 26 October 1957) was an American biologist, malacologist and carcinologist, among other areas of study.
Henry Charles Lea (September 19, 1825 – October 24, 1909) was an American historian, civic reformer, and political activist.
Henry Weed Fowler (March 23, 1878 – June 21, 1965) was an American zoologist born in Holmesburg, Pennsylvania.
A herbarium (plural: herbaria) is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study.
Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
The written history of Philadelphia begins on October 27, 1682, when the city was founded by William Penn in the English Crown Province of Pennsylvania between the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers.
A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
Hynerpeton (from Greek Υνηρπετον "creeping animal from Hyner") was a basal carnivorous tetrapod that lived in the lakes and estuaries of the Late Devonian period around 360 million years ago.
Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthys, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study"), also known as fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish.
Immunoelectrophoresis is a general name for a number of biochemical methods for separation and characterization of proteins based on electrophoresis and reaction with antibodies.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Invertebrate paleontology (also spelled Invertebrate palaeontology) is sometimes described as Invertebrate paleozoology or Invertebrate paleobiology.
Isaac Lea (March 4, 1792 – December 8, 1886) was an American conchologist, geologist, and publisher, who was born in Wilmington, Delaware.
Jacques Piccard (28 July 19221 November 2008) was a Swiss oceanographer and engineer, known for having developed underwater submarines for studying ocean currents.
James Bond (January 4, 1900 – February 14, 1989) was an American ornithologist and expert on the birds of the Caribbean.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
James Prosek (born May 23, 1975) is an American artist, writer and naturalist.
Jim Gary (March 17, 1939 – January 14, 2006) was an American sculptor popularly known for his large, colorful creations of dinosaurs made from discarded automobile parts.
Johann Reinhold Forster (22 October 1729 – 9 December 1798) was a Reformed (Calvinist) pastor and naturalist of partially Scottish descent who made contributions to the early ornithology of Europe and North America.
John Cassin (September 6, 1813 – January 10, 1869) was an American ornithologist.
John Edwards Holbrook (December 31, 1796 – September 8, 1871) was an American zoologist, herpetologist, physician, and naturalist, born in Beaufort, South Carolina, the son of Silas Holbrook, a teacher, and Mary Edwards.
John James Audubon (born Jean Rabin; April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) was an American ornithologist, naturalist, and painter.
John Kirk Townsend (August 10, 1809 – February 6, 1851) was an American naturalist, ornithologist and collector.
John Lawrence LeConte (May 13, 1825 – November 15, 1883) was an American entomologist of the 19th century, responsible for naming and describing approximately half of the insect taxa known in the United States during his lifetime, - URL retrieved September 14, 2006 including some 5,000 species of beetles.
John Angus McPhee (born March 8, 1931) is an American writer, widely considered one of the pioneers of creative nonfiction.
Joseph Mellick Leidy (September 9, 1823 – April 30, 1891) was an American paleontologist, parasitologist, and anatomist.
Lake Khövsgöl (Хөвсгөл нуур, Höwsgöl núr; classic script:, köbsügül naɣur), also referred to as Khövsgöl dalai (Хөвсгөл далай, Höwsgöl dalai; Khövsgöl ocean) or Dalai Eej (Далай ээж, Dalai éj; ocean mother), is the largest fresh water lake in Mongolia by volume and second largest by area.
The kiang (Equus kiang) is the largest of the wild asses.
The Kodiak bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi), also known as the Kodiak brown bear, sometimes the Alaskan brown bear, inhabits the islands of the Kodiak Archipelago in southwest Alaska.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
The Leidy Award is a medal and prize presented by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University (formerly the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States.
The Library Company of Philadelphia (LCP) is a non-profit organization based in Philadelphia.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
Logan Circle, also known as Logan Square, is an open-space park in Center City Philadelphia's northwest quadrant and one of the five original planned squares laid out on the city grid.
Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey (7 August 1903 – 1 October 1972) was a Kenyan paleoanthropologist and archaeologist whose work was important in demonstrating that humans evolved in Africa, particularly through discoveries made at Olduvai Gorge with his wife, fellow paleontologist Mary Leakey.
Malacology is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods.
In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems.
Maria Sibylla Merian (2 April 164713 January 1717) was a German-born naturalist and scientific illustrator, a descendant of the Frankfurt branch of the Swiss Merian family.
Meriwether Lewis (August 18, 1774 – October 11, 1809) was an American explorer, soldier, politician, and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery, with William Clark.
A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular ecology is a field of evolutionary biology that is concerned with applying molecular population genetics, molecular phylogenetics, and more recently genomics to traditional ecological questions (e.g., species diagnosis, conservation and assessment of biodiversity, species-area relationships, and many questions in behavioral ecology).
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongolian Academy of Sciences (Mongol ulsyn Shinjlekh ukhaany Akademi) is Mongolia's first centre of modern sciences.
A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, often by a single author, and usually on a scholarly subject.
A museum (plural musea or museums) is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance.
Nanjing University (NJU or NU,. Chinese abbr. 南大; pinyin: Nándà, Nanda), or Nanking University, is a prestigious public (national) university, and is the oldest institution of higher learning, located in Nanjing, China.
The National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland, was formed in 2006 with the merger of the new Museum of Scotland, with collections relating to Scottish antiquities, culture and history, and the adjacent Royal Museum (so renamed in 1995), with collections covering science and technology, natural history, and world cultures.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The National University of Mongolia (Монгол Улсын Их Сургууль, Mongol Ulsyn Ikh Surguuli, abbreviated NUM or MUIS) is the oldest university in Mongolia, established in 1942 and originally named in honour of Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
A natural history museum or museum of natural history is a scientific institution with natural history collections that include current and historical records of animals, plants, fungi, ecosystems, geology, paleontology, climatology, and more.
Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations (stewardship).
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
Orthoptera is an order of insects that comprises the grasshoppers, locusts and crickets, including closely related insects such as the katydids and wetas.
Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 – March 18, 1899) was an American paleontologist.
Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods.
Palaeogeography (or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.
Paleobotany, also spelled as palaeobotany (from the Greek words paleon.
Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
The passenger pigeon or wild pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) is an extinct species of pigeon that was endemic to North America.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Peter Matthiessen (May 22, 1927 – April 5, 2014) was an American novelist, naturalist, wilderness writer, zen teacher and CIA agent.
Sir Peter Markham Scott, (14 September 1909 – 29 August 1989) was a British ornithologist, conservationist, painter, naval officer, broadcaster and sportsman.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
The phosphorus cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
Phycology (from Greek φῦκος, phykos, "seaweed"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of algae.
The plains zebra (Equus quagga, formerly Equus burchellii), also known as the common zebra or Burchell's zebra, or locally as the "quagga" (not to be confused with the extinct subspecies), is the most common and geographically widespread species of zebra.
Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) refers to the study of developmental programs and patterns from an evolutionary perspective.
The Please Touch Museum is a children's museum located in the Centennial District of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
A population model is a type of mathematical model that is applied to the study of population dynamics.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Robert Tucker Abbott (September 28, 1919 – November 3, 1995) was an American conchologist (seashells) and malacologist (molluscs).
Ray Troll (born March 4, 1954) Attended Wichita Heights High School in Kansas, graduating in 1972.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
Research Experiences for Undergraduates (or REUs) are competitive summer research programs in the United States for undergraduates studying science, engineering, or mathematics.
Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action.
Richard Harlan (September 19, 1796 – September 30, 1843) was an American naturalist, zoologist, herpetologist, physicist, and paleontologist.
Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.
A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream.
Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative estimate of risk related to a well-defined situation and a recognized threat (also called hazard).
The ecosystem of a river is the river viewed as a system operating in its natural environment, and includes biotic (living) interactions amongst plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic (nonliving) physical and chemical interactions.
Rodolphe Meyer de Schauensee (January 4, 1901 – April 24, 1984) was an American ornithologist.
Roger Tory Peterson (August 28, 1908 – July 28, 1996) was an American naturalist, ornithologist, artist, and educator, and held to be one of the founding inspirations for the 20th-century environmental movement.
The rotifers (Rotifera, commonly called wheel animals) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals.
Ruth Myrtle Patrick (November 26, 1907 – September 23, 2013) was an American botanist and limnologist specializing in diatoms and freshwater ecology, who developed ways to measure the health of freshwater ecosystems and established a number of research facilities.
A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.
Samuel Stehman Haldeman (August 12, 1812 – September 10, 1880) was a United States naturalist and philologist.
A science fair experiment is generally a competition where contestants present their science project, results in the form of a report, display board, and/or models that they have created.
Scientific literacy or Science literacy encompasses written, numerical, and digital literacy as they pertain to understanding science, its methodology, observations, and theories.
Scott Weidensaul (born 1959) is a Pennsylvania-based naturalist and author.
The Selenga River (Selenge River, Mongolian: Сэлэнгэ мөрөн, Selenge mörön; Сэлэнгэ гол / Сэлэнгэ мүрэн, Selenge gol / Selenge müren; Селенга́) is a major river in Mongolia and Buryatia, Russia.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Stanton A. Waterman (born 1923) is a five-time Emmy winning cinematographer and underwater film producer.
Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American historian and biographer of U.S. Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Stock photography is the supply of photographs, which are often licensed for specific uses.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
The Swann Memorial Fountain (also known as the Fountain of the Three Rivers) is a fountain sculpture located in the center of Logan Circle in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
Sylvia Alice Earle (née Reade; born August 30, 1935) is an American marine biologist, explorer, author, and lecturer.
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
The Birds of America is a book by naturalist and painter John James Audubon, containing illustrations of a wide variety of birds of the United States.
Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas E. Lovejoy, "the Godfather of Biodiversity", is a Senior Fellow at the United Nations Foundation and University Professor in the Environmental Science and Policy department at George Mason University.
Thomas Meehan (21 March 1826 Potters Bar, which was in Middlesex at the time and is now in Hertfordshire, England – 19 November 1901), was a noted British-born nurseryman, botanist and author.
Thomas Nuttall (5 January 1786 – 10 September 1859) was an English botanist and zoologist who lived and worked in America from 1808 until 1841.
Thomas Say (June 27, 1787 – October 10, 1834) was an American entomologist, conchologist, and herpetologist.
A tidal marsh is a type of marsh that is found along rivers, coasts and estuaries of which the flooding characteristics are determined by the tidal movement of the adjacent estuary, sea or ocean.
Tiktaalik is a monospecific genus of extinct sarcopterygian (lobe-finned fish) from the late Devonian period, about 375 MYA (million years ago), having many features akin to those of tetrapods (four-legged animals).
Titian Ramsay Peale (November 17, 1799 – March 13, 1885) was an American artist, naturalist, and explorer.
Trace metals are the metals subset of trace elements; that is, metals normally present in small but measurable amounts in animal and plant cells and tissues and that are a necessary part of nutrition and physiology.
In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.
The Unionidae are a family of freshwater mussels, the largest in the order Unionoida, the bivalve mollusks sometimes known as river mussels, or simply as unionids.
United States environmental law concerns legal standards to protect human health and improve the natural environment of the United States.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean and surrounding lands conducted by the United States from 1838 to 1842.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The University of Delaware (colloquially UD, UDel, or U of D) is a public research university located in Newark, Delaware.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vertebrate paleontology is the subfield of paleontology that seeks to discover, through the study of fossilized remains, the behavior, reproduction and appearance of extinct animals with vertebrae or a notochord.
The Wagner Free Institute of Science is a natural history museum at 1700 West Montgomery Avenue in northern Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary.
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
Wildlife management attempts to balance the needs of wildlife with the needs of people using the best available science.
William Bartram (April 20, 1739 – July 22, 1823) was an American naturalist.
William Maclure (27 October 1763 – 23 March 1840) was an Americanized Scottish geologist, cartographer and philanthropist.
William Thomas Cooper AO (6 April 1934 – 10 May 2015) was an Australian artist. William was born in Adamstown NSW Australia to Coral Bird and William Cooper. He had one brother, Buddy Cooper. He trained originally as a landscape and seascape artist but achieved renown through natural history scientific illustrations, especially of birds. Cooper also became a qualified taxidermist in his teenage years.
Witmer Stone (September 22, 1866 – May 24, 1939) was an American ornithologist, botanist, and mammalogist, and was considered one of the last of the “great naturalists.” Stone is remembered principally as an ornithologist.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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