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Charles Darwin

Index Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. [1]

403 relations: A. W. F. Edwards, Abolitionism in the United Kingdom, Abstract (summary), Adam Sedgwick, Adaptation, Alexander von Humboldt, Alfred Russel Wallace, An Essay on the Principle of Population, Andes, Androdioecy, Angina, Anglicanism, Anne Darwin, Anthropology, Antlion, Antoinette Brown Blackwell, Ape, Armadillo, Asa Gray, Asexual reproduction, Astronomer, Atheism, Atoll, Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Bachelor of Arts, Baden Powell (mathematician), Bahía Blanca, Bahia coastal forests, Bank of England, Bank of England note issues, Baptism, Barmouth, Barnacle, Baruch College, Beagle Channel, Beetle, Biblical inerrancy, Biblical literalism, Biodiversity, Biologist, Biology, Bishop of Oxford, Boarding school, Boil, Borneo, Botanical Society of Scotland, Botany, Brazil, British Science Association, ..., Burials and memorials in Westminster Abbey, Cambridge, Cambridge Digital Library, Cape Town, Cape Verde, Capybara, Caterpillar, Chagas disease, Charles Babbage, Charles Kingsley, Charles Lyell, Charles Waterton, Chile, Christ's College, Cambridge, Church of England, Civil engineer, Clergy, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Collins English Dictionary, Colonialism, Common blackbird, Common descent, Compulsory sterilization, Copley Medal, Coral reef, Coronary thrombosis, Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Cousin marriage, Creation myth, Creation–evolution controversy, Darwin College, Cambridge, Darwin Day, Darwin Sound, Darwin's finches, Darwin, Northern Territory, Darwin–Wallace Medal, Darwin–Wedgwood family, Darwinism, Deism, Dictionary of National Biography, Down House, Downe, Earthworm, Elizabeth Cotton, Lady Hope, Emma Darwin, Equestrianism, Erasmus Alvey Darwin, Erasmus Darwin, Ernst Haeckel, Essays and Reviews, Ethology, Eugenics, Eugenics in the United States, European and American voyages of scientific exploration, Evolution, Evolution as fact and theory, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary psychology, Evolutionism, Expert, Extinction, Falkland Islands wolf, Falmouth, Cornwall, Fellow of the Royal Society, Fertilisation of Orchids, Finch, Firth of Forth, Francis Darwin, Francis Galton, Freethought, Fuegians, Galápagos Islands, Galápagos tortoise, Galley proof, Gaucho, Genealogy, Genetics, Gentleman, Genus, Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man, Geological Society of London, Geology, Geometric progression, George Darwin, George Romanes, Gilbert and Sullivan, Glacier, Glen Roy, Glyptodon, Gonochorism, Gower Street, London, Grant Allen, Great Hippocampus Question, Great Malvern, Grosbeak, Ground sloth, Guanaco, H. G. Wells, Harriet (tortoise), Harriet Martineau, Health of Charles Darwin, Henrietta Litchfield, Henry Walter Bates, Herbert Spencer, Heredity, Heresy, Hermaphrodite, Heterosis, Hippopotamus, Historical criticism, Historiometry, History of biology, History of evolutionary thought, HMS Beagle, Homology (biology), Horace Darwin, Human evolution, Hummingbird, Hydrography, Hydrotherapy, Ichneumonoidea, Inbreeding, Independent scientist, Indigenous Australians, Inductive reasoning, Insectivorous Plants (book), Isaac Newton, Island, J. B. S. Haldane, James Francis Stephens, James Manby Gully, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Jemmy Button, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Brodie Innes, John Clements Wickham, John Edmonstone, John Gould, John Herschel, John Lort Stokes, John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, John Murray (publisher), John Stevens Henslow, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Josiah Wedgwood, Josiah Wedgwood II, Kangaroo, Laissez-faire, Lamarckism, Leech, Legum Doctor, Leonard Darwin, Liberal Christianity, Lineage (evolution), Linnean Society of London, List of coupled cousins, List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1839, List of life sciences, Loam, London Review of Books, Macrauchenia, Maer Hall, Malthusian catastrophe, Malthusianism, Mammal, Man's Place in Nature, Marine invertebrates, Marsupial, Master of Arts, Materialism, Mathematics, Medical school, Megatherium, Mendelian inheritance, Miracle, Mockingbird, Modern synthesis (20th century), Monogenism, Morality, Morphology (biology), Mount Darwin (Andes), Multiple discovery, Mussel, National Museum of Scotland, Natural history, Natural History Museum, London, Natural philosophy, Natural science, Natural selection, Natural Selection (manuscript), Natural theology, Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, Nazi eugenics, Nazi Germany, Neptunism, New Imperialism, Nonconformist, Northern Territory, On the Origin of Species, On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection, Orangutan, Orchidaceae, Order (biology), Orthodoxy, Oxford University Press, Oyster, Pacifism, Pangenesis, Parasitism, Parson, Parson-naturalist, Patagonia, Patrick Matthew, Peafowl, Pedogenesis, Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, Peter Kropotkin, Phylogenetics, Physical law, Pigeon keeping, Plankton, Platypus, Plinian Society, Plutonism, Pollination, Pollination syndrome, Polygenism, Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, Population genetics, Port Darwin, Portraits of Charles Darwin, Potoroidae, Pound sterling, Prenatal development, Princess Ida, Problem of evil, Proglacial lake, Protestant work ethic, Pseudoscience, Punta Alta, Race (human categorization), Racial hygiene, Radicalism (historical), Rainforest, Raised beach, Randal Keynes, Reform Act 1832, Rhea (bird), Richard Hofstadter, Richard Owen, Robert Darwin, Robert Edmond Grant, Robert FitzRoy, Robert Jameson, Rodent, Ronald Fisher, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal Medal, Royal Society, Samuel Haughton, Samuel Wilberforce, Santiago, Cape Verde, Scarlet fever, Scelidotherium, Second voyage of HMS Beagle, Seed, Selective breeding, Sewall Wright, Sexual reproduction, Sexual selection, Shooting sports, Shrewsbury, Shrewsbury Library, Shrewsbury School, Slavery, Social Darwinism, Species, Spiritualism, St Chad's Church, Shrewsbury, Statistics, Stratum, Struggle for existence, Survival of the fittest, Susannah Darwin, TalkOrigins Archive, Tanager, Taxidermy, Taxonomy (biology), Teleological argument, Teleology, Tenerife, The Athenaeum (British magazine), The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, The eclipse of Darwinism, The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilisation in the Vegetable Kingdom, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, The Guardian, The Mount, Shrewsbury, The Naturalist on the River Amazons, The New York Times, The Power of Movement in Plants, The Sexes Throughout Nature, The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, The Voyage of the Beagle, Theistic evolution, Theodicy, Thomas Henry Huxley, Thomas Robert Malthus, Tierra del Fuego, Tinamou egg, Tortoise, Toxodon, Transmutation of species, Tree of life (biology), Triatominae, Tribe, Tripos, Tropics, Trypanosoma cruzi, Uniformitarianism, Unitarianism, Universal Darwinism, University don, University of Cambridge, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Utopia, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, Vicar (Anglicanism), Victorian era, Vine, Volcanic rock, Wales, Warbler-finch, Whigs (British political party), William Darwin Fox, William Erasmus Darwin, William Graham Sumner, William Paley, William Spottiswoode, William Whewell, Wollaston Medal, Workhouse, Wren, X Club, Zoological Society of London, Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, 1860 Oxford evolution debate. Expand index (353 more) »

A. W. F. Edwards

Anthony William Fairbank Edwards, FRS (born 1935) is a British statistician, geneticist, and evolutionary biologist.

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Abolitionism in the United Kingdom

Abolitionism in the United Kingdom was the movement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries to end the practice of slavery, whether formal or informal, in the United Kingdom, the British Empire and the world, including ending the Atlantic slave trade.

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Abstract (summary)

An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose.

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Adam Sedgwick

Adam Sedgwick (22 March 1785 – 27 January 1873) was a British priest and geologist, one of the founders of modern geology.

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In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.

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Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was an English naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist.

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An Essay on the Principle of Population

The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus.

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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Androdioecy is a reproductive system characterized by the coexistence of males and hermaphrodites.

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Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Anne Darwin

Anne Elizabeth "Annie" Darwin (2 March 1841 – 23 April 1851) was the second child and eldest daughter of Charles and Emma Darwin.

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Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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The antlions are a group of about 2,000 species of insect in the family Myrmeleontidae, known for the fiercely predatory habits of their larvae, which in many species dig pits to trap passing ants or other prey.

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Antoinette Brown Blackwell

Antoinette Louisa Brown, later Antoinette Brown Blackwell (May 20, 1825 – November 5, 1921), was the first woman to be ordained as a mainstream Protestant minister in the United States.

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Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.

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Armadillos are New World placental mammals in the order Cingulata with a leathery armour shell.

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Asa Gray

Asa Gray (November 18, 1810 – January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely.

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Augustin Pyramus de Candolle

Augustin Pyramus de Candolle also spelled Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (4 February 17789 September 1841) was a Swiss botanist.

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Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire

Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (15 April 1772 – 19 June 1844) was a French naturalist who established the principle of "unity of composition".

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Bachelor of Arts

A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.

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Baden Powell (mathematician)

Baden Powell MA FRS FRGS (22 August 1796 – 11 June 1860) was an English mathematician and Church of England priest.

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Bahía Blanca

Bahía Blanca (English: White Bay) is a city in the southwest of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, by the Atlantic Ocean, and is the seat of government of Bahía Blanca Partido.

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Bahia coastal forests

The Bahia coastal forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of eastern Brazil, part of the larger Atlantic Forest region.

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Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Bank of England note issues

The Bank of England, which is now the central bank of the United Kingdom, has issued banknotes since 1694.

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Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.

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Barmouth (Abermaw (formal); Y Bermo (colloquial)) is a town in the county of Gwynedd, north-western Wales, lying on the estuary of the River Mawddach and Cardigan Bay.

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A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters.

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Baruch College

The Baruch College (officially, Bernard M. Baruch College) is a public research university in the Manhattan borough of New York City.

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Beagle Channel

Partial aerial view of Beagle Channel. The Chilean Navarino Island is seen in the top-right while the Argentine part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego is seen at the bottom-left. Beagle Channel is a strait in Tierra del Fuego Archipelago on the extreme southern tip of South America between Chile and Argentina.

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Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.

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Biblical inerrancy

Biblical inerrancy, as formulated in the "Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy", is the doctrine that the Protestant Bible "is without error or fault in all its teaching"; or, at least, that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact".

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Biblical literalism

Biblical literalism or biblicism is a term used differently by different authors concerning biblical interpretation.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Bishop of Oxford

The Bishop of Oxford is the diocesan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford in the Province of Canterbury; his seat is at Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford.

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Boarding school

A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school.

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A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle.

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Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

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Botanical Society of Scotland

The Botanical Society of Scotland (BSS) is the national learned society for botanists of Scotland.

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Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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British Science Association

The British Science Association (BSA) is a charity and learned society founded in 1831 to aid in the promotion and development of science.

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Burials and memorials in Westminster Abbey

Honouring individuals with burials and memorials in Westminster Abbey has a long tradition.

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Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Cambridge Digital Library

The Cambridge Digital Library is a project operated by the Cambridge University Library designed to make items from the unique and distinctive collections of Cambridge University Library available online.

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Cape Town

Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.

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Cape Verde

Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.

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The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is a mammal native to South America.

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Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).

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Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi.

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Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.

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Charles Kingsley

Charles Kingsley (12 June 1819 – 23 January 1875) was a broad church priest of the Church of England, a university professor, social reformer, historian and novelist.

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Charles Lyell

Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.

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Charles Waterton

Charles Waterton (3 June 1782 – 27 May 1865) was an English naturalist and explorer.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Christ's College, Cambridge

Christ's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Civil engineer

A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering – the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructures while protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructures that have been neglected.

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Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.

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Cocos (Keeling) Islands

The Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is an Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean, comprising a small archipelago approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka.

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Collins English Dictionary

The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.

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Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Common blackbird

The common blackbird (Turdus merula) is a species of true thrush.

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Common descent

Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

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Compulsory sterilization

Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, programs are government policies which force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization.

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Copley Medal

The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.

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Coral reef

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

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Coronary thrombosis

Coronary thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel of the heart.

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Correspondence of Charles Darwin

The British naturalist Charles Darwin corresponded with numerous other luminaries of his age and members of his family.

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Cousin marriage

Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins (i.e. people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors).

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Creation myth

A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.

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Creation–evolution controversy

The creation–evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. evolution debate or the origins debate) involves an ongoing, recurring cultural, political, and theological dispute about the origins of the Earth, of humanity, and of other life.

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Darwin College, Cambridge

Darwin College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.

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Darwin Day

Darwin Day is a celebration to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin on 12 February 1809.

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Darwin Sound

The Darwin Sound is an expanse of seawater which forms a westward continuation of the Beagle Channel and links it to the Pacific Ocean at Londonderry Island and Stewart Island, not far from the southern tip of South America.

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Darwin's finches

Darwin's finches (also known as the Galápagos finches) are a group of about fifteen species of passerine birds.

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Darwin, Northern Territory

Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia.

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Darwin–Wallace Medal

The Darwin–Wallace Medal is a medal awarded by the Linnean Society of London for "major advances in evolutionary biology".

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Darwin–Wedgwood family

The Darwin–Wedgwood family is composed of two interrelated English families, descending from prominent 18th-century doctor Erasmus Darwin, and Josiah Wedgwood, founder of the pottery company, Josiah Wedgwood and Sons.

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Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.

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Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.

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Dictionary of National Biography

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.

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Down House

Down House is the former home of the English naturalist Charles Darwin and his family.

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Downe is a village in the London Borough of Bromley.

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An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.

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Elizabeth Cotton, Lady Hope

Elizabeth Reid Cotton, (9 December 1842 – 8 March 1922) who became Lady Hope when she married Sir James Hope in 1877, was a British evangelist active in the Temperance movement.

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Emma Darwin

Emma Darwin (née Wedgwood; 2 May 1808 – 2 October 1896) was an English woman who was the wife and first cousin of Charles Darwin.

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Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.

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Erasmus Alvey Darwin

Erasmus Alvey Darwin (29 December 1804 – 26 August 1881), nicknamed Eras or Ras, was the older brother of Charles Darwin, born five years earlier.

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Erasmus Darwin

Erasmus Darwin (12 December 173118 April 1802) was an English physician.

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Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

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Essays and Reviews

Essays and Reviews, edited by John William Parker, published in March 1860, is a broad-church volume of seven essays on Christianity.

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Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.

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Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.

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Eugenics in the United States

Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.

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European and American voyages of scientific exploration

The era of European and American voyages of scientific exploration followed the Age of Discovery and were inspired by a new confidence in science and reason that arose in the Age of Enlightenment.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolution as fact and theory

Many scientists and philosophers of science have described evolution as fact and theory, a phrase which was used as the title of an article by paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould in 1981.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Evolutionism describes the belief in the evolution of organisms.

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An expert is someone who has a prolonged or intense experience through practice and education in a particular field.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Falkland Islands wolf

The Falkland Islands wolf (Dusicyon australis), also known as the warrah and occasionally as the Falkland Islands dog, Falkland Islands fox, or Antarctic wolf, was the only native land mammal of the Falkland Islands.

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Falmouth, Cornwall

Falmouth (Aberfala) is a town, civil parish and port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.

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Fellow of the Royal Society

Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".

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Fertilisation of Orchids

Fertilisation of Orchids is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin published on 15 May 1862 under the full explanatory title On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects, and on the good effects of intercrossing.

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The true finches are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Fringillidae.

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Firth of Forth

The Firth of Forth (Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth.

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Francis Darwin

Sir Francis "Frank" Darwin,, FRSE LLD (16 August 1848 – 19 September 1925), was a son of the British naturalist and scientist Charles Darwin.

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Francis Galton

Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.

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Freethought (or "free thought") is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma.

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Fuegians are one of the three tribes of indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, at the southern tip of South America.

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Galápagos Islands

The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, west of continental Ecuador.

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Galápagos tortoise

The Galápagos tortoise complex or Galápagos giant tortoise complex (Chelonoidis nigra and related species) are the largest living species of tortoise.

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Galley proof

In printing and publishing, proofs are the preliminary versions of publications meant for review by authors, editors, and proofreaders, often with extra-wide margins.

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A gaucho or gaúcho is a skilled horseman, reputed to be brave and unruly.

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Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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In modern parlance, a gentleman (from gentle + man, translating the Old French gentilz hom) is any man of good, courteous conduct.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man

Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man is a book written by British geologist, Charles Lyell in 1863.

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Geological Society of London

The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.

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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Geometric progression

In mathematics, a geometric progression, also known as a geometric sequence, is a sequence of numbers where each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous one by a fixed, non-zero number called the common ratio.

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George Darwin

Sir George Howard Darwin, KCB, FRS, FRSE (9 July 1845 – 7 December 1912) was an English barrister and astronomer.

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George Romanes

George John Romanes FRS (20 May 1848 – 23 May 1894) was a Canadian-English evolutionary biologist and physiologist who laid the foundation of what he called comparative psychology, postulating a similarity of cognitive processes and mechanisms between humans and other animals.

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Gilbert and Sullivan

Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the dramatist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900) and to the works they jointly created.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Glen Roy

Glen Roy (Gleann Ruaidh meaning "red glen") in the Lochaber area of the Highlands of Scotland is a National Nature Reserve and is noted for the geological puzzle of the three roads ("Parallel Roads").

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Glyptodon (from Greek for "grooved or carved tooth" – Greek γλυπτός sculptured + ὀδοντ-, ὀδούς tooth) was a genus of large, armored mammals of the subfamily Glyptodontinae (glyptodonts or glyptodontines) – relatives of armadillos – that lived during the Pleistocene epoch.

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In biology, gonochorism (Greek offspring + disperse) or unisexualism or gonochory describes the state of having just one of at least two distinct sexes in any one individual organism.

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Gower Street, London

Gower Street is a street in Bloomsbury, central London, running from Montague Place in the south to Euston Road at the north.

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Grant Allen

Charles Grant Blairfindie Allen (February 24, 1848October 25, 1899) was a Canadian science writer and novelist, and a public promoter of Evolution in the second half of the 19th century.

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Great Hippocampus Question

The Great Hippocampus Question was a 19th-century scientific controversy about the anatomy of apes and human uniqueness.

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Great Malvern

Great Malvern is an area of the spa town of Malvern, Worcestershire, England.

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Grosbeak is a form taxon containing various species of seed-eating passerine birds with large beaks.

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Ground sloth

Ground sloths are a diverse group of extinct sloths, in the mammalian superorder Xenarthra.

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The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is a camelid native to South America.

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H. G. Wells

Herbert George Wells.

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Harriet (tortoise)

Harriet (c. 1830 – 23 June 2006) was a Galápagos tortoise (Geochelone nigra porteri) who had an estimated age of 175 years at the time of her death in Australia.

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Harriet Martineau

Harriet Martineau (12 June 1802 – 27 June 1876) was a British social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist.

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Health of Charles Darwin

For much of his adult life, Charles Darwin's health was repeatedly compromised by an uncommon combination of symptoms, leaving him severely debilitated for long periods of time.

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Henrietta Litchfield

Henrietta Emma Litchfield (née Darwin; 25 September 1843 - 17 December 1927) was a daughter of Charles Darwin and his wife Emma Wedgwood.

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Henry Walter Bates

Henry Walter Bates (8 February 1825 in Leicester – 16 February 1892 in London) was an English naturalist and explorer who gave the first scientific account of mimicry in animals.

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Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring.

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The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

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Historical criticism

Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text".

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Historiometry is the historical study of human progress or individual personal characteristics, using statistics to analyze references to geniuses, their statements, behavior and discoveries in relatively neutral texts.

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History of biology

The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times.

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History of evolutionary thought

Evolutionary thought, the conception that species change over time, has roots in antiquity – in the ideas of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Chinese as well as in medieval Islamic science.

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HMS Beagle

HMS Beagle was a 10-gun brig-sloop of the Royal Navy, one of more than 100 ships of this class.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Horace Darwin

Sir Horace Darwin, KBE, FRS (13 May 1851 – 22 September 1928), was an English civil engineer and a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

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Human evolution

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.

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Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.

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Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.

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Hydrotherapy, formerly called hydropathy and also called water cure, is a part of alternative medicine, in particular of naturopathy, occupational therapy and physiotherapy, that involves the use of water for pain relief and treatment.

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The superfamily Ichneumonoidea contains the two largest families within Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae and Braconidae.

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Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.

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Independent scientist

An independent scientist (historically also known as gentleman scientist) is a financially independent scientist who pursues scientific study without direct affiliation to a public institution such as a university or government-run research and development body.

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Indigenous Australians

Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.

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Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.

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Insectivorous Plants (book)

Insectivorous Plants is a book by British naturalist and evolutionary theory pioneer Charles Darwin, first published on 2 July 1875 in London.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.

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J. B. S. Haldane

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.

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James Francis Stephens

James Francis Stephens (16 September 1792 – 22 December 1852) was an English entomologist and naturalist.

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James Manby Gully

James Manby Gully (14 March 1808 – 1883) was a Victorian medical doctor, well known for practising hydrotherapy, or the "water cure".

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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.

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Jemmy Button

Orundellico, known as "Jeremy Button" or "Jemmy Button" (c. 1815–1864), was a native Fuegian of the Yaghan (or Yámana) people from islands around Tierra del Fuego, in modern Chile and Argentina.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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John Brodie Innes

The Reverend John Brodie Innes (26 December 1815 – 19 October 1894), John Innes before 1862, was a clergyman who became a close friend of Charles Darwin at Downe in Kent, and remained a friendly correspondent for the rest of Darwin's life.

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John Clements Wickham

John Clements Wickham (21 November 17986 January 1864) was a Scottish explorer, naval officer, magistrate and administrator.

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John Edmonstone

John Edmonstone was a black enslaved man probably born in Demerara, British Guiana (present day Guyana, South America), who later gained his freedom.

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John Gould

John Gould FRS (14 September 1804 – 3 February 1881) was an English ornithologist and bird artist.

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John Herschel

Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical work.

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John Lort Stokes

Admiral John Lort Stokes, RN (1 August 1811 – 11 June 1885)Although 1812 is frequently given as Stokes's year of birth, it has been argued by author Marsden Hordern that Stokes was born in 1811, citing a letter by fellow naval officer Crawford Pasco congratulating him on his birthday in 1852.

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John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury

John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, 4th Baronet, (30 April 183428 May 1913), known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was an English banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath.

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John Murray (publisher)

John Murray is a British publisher, known for the authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Lord Byron, Charles Lyell, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Herman Melville, Edward Whymper, and Charles Darwin.

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John Stevens Henslow

John Stevens Henslow (6 February 1796 – 16 May 1861) was a British priest, botanist and geologist.

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Joseph Dalton Hooker

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century.

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Josiah Wedgwood

Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter and entrepreneur.

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Josiah Wedgwood II

Josiah Wedgwood II (3 April 1769 – 12 July 1843), the son of the English potter Josiah Wedgwood, continued his father's firm and was a Member of Parliament (MP) for Stoke-upon-Trent from 1832 to 1835.

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The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").

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Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Lamarckism (or Lamarckian inheritance) is the hypothesis that an organism can pass on characteristics that it has acquired through use or disuse during its lifetime to its offspring.

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Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.

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Legum Doctor

Legum Doctor (Latin: "teacher of the laws") (LL.D.; Doctor of Laws in English) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law, or an honorary doctorate, depending on the jurisdiction.

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Leonard Darwin

Leonard Darwin Major Leonard Darwin (15 January 1850 – 26 March 1943), a son of the English naturalist Charles Darwin, was variously a soldier, politician and economist.

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Liberal Christianity

Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward.

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Lineage (evolution)

An evolutionary lineage is a temporal series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to descendent.

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Linnean Society of London

The Linnean Society of London is a society dedicated to the study of, and the dissemination of information concerning, natural history, evolution and taxonomy.

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List of coupled cousins

This is a list of prominent individuals who have been romantically or maritally coupled with a cousin.

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List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1839

This page lists Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1839.

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List of life sciences

The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.

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Loam is soil composed mostly of sand (particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size These proportions can vary to a degree, however, and result in different types of loam soils: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam. In the USDA textural classification triangle, the only soil that is not predominantly sand, silt, or clay is called "loam". Loam soils generally contain more nutrients, moisture, and humus than sandy soils, have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silt and clay-rich soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. The different types of loam soils each have slightly different characteristics, with some draining liquids more efficiently than others. The soil's texture, especially its ability to retain nutrients and water are crucial. Loam soil is suitable for growing most plant varieties. Bricks made of loam, mud, sand, and water, with an added binding material such as rice husks or straw, have been used in construction since ancient times.

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London Review of Books

The London Review of Books (LRB) is a British journal of literary essays.

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Macrauchenia (name meaning "long llama", based on the now superseded Latin term for llamas, Auchenia, from Greek terms which literally means "big neck") was a long-necked and long-limbed, three-toed South American ungulate, typifying the order Litopterna.

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Maer Hall

Maer Hall Maer Hall is a large Grade II listed 17th century country house in Maer, Staffordshire.

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Malthusian catastrophe

A Malthusian catastrophe (also known as Malthusian check or Malthusian spectre) is a prediction of a forced return to subsistence-level conditions once population growth has outpaced agricultural production - that there will be too many people and not enough food.

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Malthusianism is the idea that population growth is potentially exponential while the growth of the food supply is linear.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Man's Place in Nature

Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature is an 1863 book by Thomas Henry Huxley, in which he gives evidence for the evolution of man and apes from a common ancestor.

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Marine invertebrates

Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats.

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Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.

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Master of Arts

A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.

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Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Medical school

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.

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Megatherium (from the Greek mega, meaning "great", and therion, "beast") was a genus of elephant-sized ground sloths endemic to South America, sometimes called the giant ground sloth, that lived from the Early Pliocene through the end of the Pleistocene.

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Mendelian inheritance

Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.

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A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.

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Mockingbirds are a group of New World passerine birds from the Mimidae family.

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Modern synthesis (20th century)

The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.

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Monogenism or sometimes monogenesis is the theory of human origins which posits a common descent for all human races.

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mount Darwin (Andes)

Mount Darwin is a peak in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego forming part of the Cordillera Darwin, the southernmost range of the Andes, just to the north of the Beagle Channel.

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Multiple discovery

The concept of multiple discovery (also known as simultaneous invention) is the hypothesis that most scientific discoveries and inventions are made independently and more or less simultaneously by multiple scientists and inventors.

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Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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National Museum of Scotland

The National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland, was formed in 2006 with the merger of the new Museum of Scotland, with collections relating to Scottish antiquities, culture and history, and the adjacent Royal Museum (so renamed in 1995), with collections covering science and technology, natural history, and world cultures.

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Natural history

Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.

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Natural History Museum, London

The Natural History Museum in London is a natural history museum that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Natural Selection (manuscript)

Natural Selection is a manuscript written by Charles Darwin, in which he presented his theory of natural selection and its role in biological evolution.

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Natural theology

Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.

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Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity

Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity is an 1802 work of Christian apologetics and philosophy of religion by the English clergyman William Paley (July 1743 – 25 May 1805).

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Nazi eugenics

Nazi eugenics (Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neptunism, a superseded scientific theory of geology proposed by Abraham Gottlob Werner (1749-1817) in the late 18th century, proposed rocks formed from the crystallisation of minerals in the early Earth's oceans.

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New Imperialism

In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.

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Northern Territory

The Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia.

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On the Origin of Species

On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

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On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection

On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection is the title of a joint presentation of two scientific papers to the Linnean Society of London on 1 July 1858: On The Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type by Alfred Russel Wallace and an Extract from an unpublished Work on Species from Charles Darwin's Essay of 1844, together with an Abstract of a Letter from Darwin to Asa Gray.

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The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.

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The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.

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Pangenesis was Charles Darwin's hypothetical mechanism for heredity, in which he proposed that each part of the body continually emitted its own type of small organic particles called gemmules that aggregated in the gonads, contributing heritable information to the gametes.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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In the pre-Reformation church, a parson is the priest of an independent parish church, that is, a parish church not under the control of a larger ecclesiastical or monastic organization.

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A parson-naturalist was a cleric (a "parson", strictly defined as a country priest who held the living of a parish, but the term is generally extended to other clergy), who often saw the study of natural science as an extension of his religious work.

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Patrick Matthew

Patrick Matthew (20 October 1790 – 8 June 1874) was a Scottish grain merchant, fruit farmer, forester, and landowner, who contributed to the understanding of horticulture, silviculture, and agriculture in general, with a focus on maintaining the British navy and feeding new colonies.

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The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.

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Pedogenesis (from the Greek pedo-, or pedon, meaning 'soil, earth,' and genesis, meaning 'origin, birth') (also termed soil development, soil evolution, soil formation, and soil genesis) is the process of soil formation as regulated by the effects of place, environment, and history.

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Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith

Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, subtitled Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation is the academic publication of the American Scientific Affiliation.

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Peter Kropotkin

Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Physical law

A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.

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Pigeon keeping

Pigeon keeping or pigeon fancying is the art and science of breeding domestic pigeons.

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Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.

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Plinian Society

The Plinian Society was a club at the University of Edinburgh for students interested in natural history.

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Plutonism (or volcanism) is the geologic theory that the igneous rocks forming the Earth originated from intrusive magmatic activity, with a continuing gradual process of weathering and erosion wearing away rocks, which were then deposited on the sea bed, re-formed into layers of sedimentary rock by heat and pressure, and raised again.

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Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.

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Pollination syndrome

Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth.

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Polygenism is a theory of human origins which posits the view that the human races are of different origins (polygenesis).

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Poor Law Amendment Act 1834

The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 (PLAA), known widely as the New Poor Law, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey.

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Population genetics

Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.

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Port Darwin

Port Darwin is the port in northern Australia.

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Portraits of Charles Darwin

There are many known portraits of Charles Darwin.

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The marsupial family Potoroidae includes the bettongs, potoroos, and two of the rat-kangaroos.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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Princess Ida

Princess Ida; or, Castle Adamant is a comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

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Problem of evil

The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).

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Proglacial lake

In geology, a proglacial lake is a lake formed either by the damming action of a moraine during the retreat of a melting glacier, a glacial ice dam, or by meltwater trapped against an ice sheet due to isostatic depression of the crust around the ice.

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Protestant work ethic

The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic is a concept in theology, sociology, economics and history which emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith, particularly Calvinism.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Punta Alta

Punta Alta is a city in Argentina, about 20 kilometers southeast of Bahía Blanca.

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Race (human categorization)

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

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Racial hygiene

The term racial hygiene was used to describe an approach to eugenics in the early twentieth century, which found its most extensive implementation in Nazi Germany (Nazi eugenics).

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Radicalism (historical)

The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century and early 19th-century identified proponents of democratic reform, in what subsequently became the parliamentary Radical Movement.

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Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.

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Raised beach

A raised beach, coastal terrace,Pinter, N (2010): 'Coastal Terraces, Sealevel, and Active Tectonics' (educational exercise), from or perched coastline is a relatively flat, horizontal or gently inclined surface of marine origin,Pirazzoli, PA (2005a): 'Marine Terraces', in Schwartz, ML (ed) Encyclopedia of Coastal Science. Springer, Dordrecht, pp.

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Randal Keynes

Randal Hume Keynes, OBE, FLS (born 29 July 1948) is a British conservationist, author, and great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin.

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Reform Act 1832

The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.

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Rhea (bird)

The rheas are large ratites (flightless birds without a keel on their sternum bone) in the order Rheiformes, native to South America, distantly related to the ostrich and emu.

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Richard Hofstadter

Richard Hofstadter (August 6, 1916 – October 24, 1970) was an American historian and public intellectual of the mid-20th century.

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Richard Owen

Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.

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Robert Darwin

Robert Waring Darwin (30 May 1766 – 13 November 1848) was an English medical doctor, who today is best known as the father of the naturalist Charles Darwin.

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Robert Edmond Grant

Robert Edmond Grant MD FRCPEd FRS FRSE FZS FGS (11 November 1793 – 23 August 1874) was a British anatomist and zoologist.

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Robert FitzRoy

Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy RN (5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) was an English officer of the Royal Navy and a scientist.

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Robert Jameson

Robert Jameson Professor Robert Jameson FRS FRSE (11 July 1774 – 19 April 1854) was a Scottish naturalist and mineralogist.

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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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Ronald Fisher

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.

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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (brand name Kew) is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

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Royal College of Surgeons of England

The Royal College of Surgeons of England (abbreviated RCS and sometimes RCSEng), is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales.

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Royal Medal

A Royal Medal, known also as The King's Medal or The Queen's Medal, depending on the gender of the monarch at the time of the award, is a silver-gilt medal, of which three are awarded each year by the Royal Society, two for "the most important contributions to the advancement of natural knowledge" and one for "distinguished contributions in the applied sciences", done within the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Samuel Haughton

Samuel Haughton (21 December 1821 – 31 October 1897) was an Irish scientific writer.

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Samuel Wilberforce

Samuel Wilberforce FRS (7 September 1805 – 19 July 1873) was an English bishop in the Church of England, third son of William Wilberforce.

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Santiago, Cape Verde

Santiago (Portuguese for “Saint James”), or Santiagu in Cape Verdean Creole, is the largest island of Cape Verde, its most important agricultural centre and home to half the nation’s population.

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Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A ''streptococcus'' (group A strep) infection.

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Scelidotherium is an extinct genus of ground sloth of the family Mylodontidae, endemic to South America during the Late Pleistocene epoch.

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Second voyage of HMS Beagle

The second voyage of HMS Beagle, from 27 December 1831 to 2 October 1836, was the second survey expedition of HMS ''Beagle'', under captain Robert FitzRoy who had taken over command of the ship on its first voyage after the previous captain committed suicide.

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A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Sewall Wright

Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Sexual selection

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

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Shooting sports

Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.

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Shrewsbury is the county town of Shropshire, England.

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Shrewsbury Library

Shrewsbury Library is housed in a Grade 1 listed building situated on Castle Gates near Shrewsbury Castle.

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Shrewsbury School

Shrewsbury School is an English co-educational independent school for pupils aged 13 to 18 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, founded by Edward VI in 1552 by Royal Charter.

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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Social Darwinism

The term Social Darwinism is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.

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St Chad's Church, Shrewsbury

St Chad's Church, Shrewsbury occupies a prominent position in the county town of Shropshire.

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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

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Struggle for existence

The concept of the struggle for existence concerns the competition or battle for resources needed to live.

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Survival of the fittest

"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.

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Susannah Darwin

Susannah Wedgwood Darwin (née Wedgwood 1765–1817) was the wife of Robert Darwin, a wealthy doctor, and mother of Charles Darwin, and part of the Wedgwood pottery family.

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TalkOrigins Archive

The TalkOrigins Archive is a website that presents mainstream science perspectives on the antievolution claims of young-earth, old-earth, and "intelligent design" creationists.

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The tanagers (singular) comprise the bird family Thraupidae, in the order Passeriformes.

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Taxidermy is the preserving of an animal's body via stuffing and mounting for the purpose of display or study.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Teleological argument

The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world.

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Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.

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Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands.

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The Athenaeum (British magazine)

The Athenaeum was a literary magazine published in London, England from 1828 to 1921.

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The Autobiography of Charles Darwin

The Autobiography of Charles Darwin is an autobiography by the English naturalist Charles Darwin.

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The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online

The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online (or Darwin Online) is a freely-accessible website containing the complete print and manuscript works of Charles Darwin, as well as related supplementary material.

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The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex

The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, a form of biological adaptation distinct from, yet interconnected with, natural selection.

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The eclipse of Darwinism

Julian Huxley used the phrase “the eclipse of Darwinism” to describe the state of affairs prior to what he called the modern synthesis, when evolution was widely accepted in scientific circles but relatively few biologists believed that natural selection was its primary mechanism.

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The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilisation in the Vegetable Kingdom

The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilisation in the Vegetable Kingdom is a book on evolution in plants by Charles Darwin, first published in 1876.

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The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is Charles Darwin's third major work of evolutionary theory, following On The Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871).

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The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms

The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, with Observations on their Habits (sometimes shortened to Worms) is an 1881 book by Charles Darwin on earthworms.

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The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection

The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection is a book by Ronald Fisher which combines Mendelian genetics with Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, with Fisher being the first to argue that "Mendelism therefore validates Darwinism" and stating with regard to mutations that "The vast majority of large mutations are deleterious; small mutations are both far more frequent and more likely to be useful", thus refuting orthogenesis.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Mount, Shrewsbury

The Mount is the site in Shrewsbury on which stands the Georgian house, officially known as Mount House but often itself described simply as The Mount, which was the birthplace of Charles Darwin.

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The Naturalist on the River Amazons

The Naturalist on the River Amazons, subtitled A Record of the Adventures, Habits of Animals, Sketches of Brazilian and Indian Life, and Aspects of Nature under the Equator, during Eleven Years of Travel, is an 1863 book by the British naturalist Henry Walter Bates about his expedition to the Amazon basin.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Power of Movement in Plants

The Power of Movement in Plants is a book by Charles Darwin on phototropism and other types of movement in plants.

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The Sexes Throughout Nature

The Sexes Throughout Nature is a book written by Antoinette Brown Blackwell, published by G. P. Putnam's Sons in 1875.

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The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs

The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, Being the first part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle, under the command of Capt.

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The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication

The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication is a book by Charles Darwin that was first published in January 1868.

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The Voyage of the Beagle

The Voyage of the Beagle is the title most commonly given to the book written by Charles Darwin and published in 1839 as his Journal and Remarks, bringing him considerable fame and respect.

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Theistic evolution

Theistic evolution, theistic evolutionism, evolutionary creationism or God-guided evolution are views that regard religious teachings about God as compatible with modern scientific understanding about biological evolution.

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Theodicy, in its most common form, is an attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil, thus resolving the issue of the problem of evil.

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Thomas Henry Huxley

Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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Tierra del Fuego

Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.

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Tinamou egg

The tinamou egg in Darwin's collection is an egg of the tinamou species and is the only specimen left in Darwin's collections during his HMS Beagle voyage.

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Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae. Testudinidae is a Family under the order Testudines and suborder Cryptodira.

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Toxodon (meaning "bow tooth") is an extinct genus of South American mammals from the Late Miocene to Middle Holocene epochs (Mayoan to post-Lujanian in the SALMA classification) (about 11.6 million to 5000 years ago).

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Transmutation of species

Transmutation of species and transformism are 19th-century evolutionary ideas for the altering of one species into another that preceded Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection.

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Tree of life (biology)

The tree of life or universal tree of life is a metaphor, model and research tool used to explore the evolution of life and describe the relationships between organisms, both living and extinct, as described in a famous passage in Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).

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The members of Triatominae, a subfamily of Reduviidae, are also known as conenose bugs, kissing bugs (so called from their habit of feeding on the lips of human victims),https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/kissing_bug assassin bugs, or vampire bugs.

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A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.

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At the University of Cambridge, a Tripos (plural 'Triposes') is any of the undergraduate examinations that qualify an undergraduate for a bachelor's degree or the courses taken by an undergraduate to prepare.

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The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma cruzi is a species of parasitic euglenoids.

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Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity,, "The assumption of spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws is by no means unique to geology since it amounts to a warrant for inductive inference which, as Bacon showed nearly four hundred years ago, is the basic mode of reasoning in empirical science.

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Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

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Universal Darwinism

Universal Darwinism (also known as generalized Darwinism, universal selection theory, or Darwinian metaphysics) refers to a variety of approaches that extend the theory of Darwinism beyond its original domain of biological evolution on Earth.

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University don

A don is a fellow or tutor of a college or university, especially traditional collegiate universities such as Oxford and Cambridge and Durham in England, and Trinity College, Dublin, in Ireland.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Edinburgh Medical School

The University of Edinburgh Medical School (also known as Edinburgh Medical School) is the medical school of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and part of the College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, the head of which is Sir John Savill.

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A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.

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Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation

Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation is an 1844 work of speculative natural history and philosophy by Robert Chambers.

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Vicar (Anglicanism)

Vicar is the title given to certain parish priests in the Church of England.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners.

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Volcanic rock

Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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The two warbler-finches comprise the genus Certhidea.

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Whigs (British political party)

The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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William Darwin Fox

The Reverend William Darwin Fox (23 April 1805 – 8 April 1880) was an English clergyman, naturalist, and a second cousin of Charles Darwin.

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William Erasmus Darwin

William Erasmus Darwin (27 December 18398 September 1914) was the first-born son of Charles and Emma Darwin, and the subject of psychological studies by his father.

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William Graham Sumner

William Graham Sumner (October 30, 1840 – April 12, 1910) was a classical liberal American social scientist.

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William Paley

William Paley (July 1743 – 25 May 1805) was an English clergyman, Christian apologist, philosopher, and utilitarian.

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William Spottiswoode

William H. Spottiswoode (11 January 1825 – 27 June 1883) was an English mathematician and physicist.

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William Whewell

William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.

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Wollaston Medal

The Wollaston Medal is a scientific award for geology, the highest award granted by the Geological Society of London.

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In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment.

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The wrens are mostly small, brownish passerine birds in the mainly New World family Troglodytidae.

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X Club

The X Club was a dining club of nine men who supported the theories of natural selection and academic liberalism in late 19th-century England.

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Zoological Society of London

The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) is a charity devoted to the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats.

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Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle

The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., during the Years 1832 to 1836 is a 5-part book published unbound in nineteen numbers as they were ready, between February 1838 and October 1843.

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1860 Oxford evolution debate

The 1860 Oxford evolution debate took place at the Oxford University Museum in Oxford, England, on 30 June 1860, seven months after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin

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