299 relations: Abbott and Costello, Absurdism, Afterlife, Agon, Al-Farabi, Alan Ayckbourn, Allegory in the Middle Ages, Alternative comedy, American Comedy Awards, An Englishman, an Irishman and a Scotsman, Anatomy of Criticism, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek comedy, Ancient Rome, Aphra Behn, Arabic, Arabic literature, Arabic poetry, Aristophanes, Aristotle, Aspen, Colorado, Athenian democracy, Australian comedy, Averroes, Avicenna, Barry Humphries, Ben Jonson, Bharata Muni, Black comedy, Blackadder, Blonde joke, Bob Hope, Bollywood, Bouffon, Bozo the Clown, British comedy, British Comedy Awards, British sitcom, Burlesque, Buster Keaton, Cabaret, Canadian Comedy Awards, Canto, Cat Laughs, Catholic Church, Character (arts), Charlie Chaplin, Christian views on Hell, Cinema of Hong Kong, ..., Cinema of the United States, City comedy, Clown, Colley Cibber, Comédie larmoyante, Comedian, Comedic journalism, Comedy (drama), Comedy album, Comedy Central, Comedy Central (UK and Ireland), Comedy Central Extra, Comedy Central Spain, Comedy club, Comedy film, Comedy Nights with Kapil, Comedy of humours, Comedy of intrigue, Comedy of manners, Comedy of menace, Comic novel, Comic opera, Commedia dell'arte, Convention (norm), Crocodile Dundee, Dad's Army, Dada, Dallas Baptist University, Dame Edna Everage, Dan Aykroyd, Dan Leno, Dante Alighieri, Dario Fo, David Campton, Dithyramb, Divine Comedy, Dorothy L. Sayers, Dudley Moore, Early Islamic philosophy, Eddie Murphy, Edinburgh Comedy Festival, Edinburgh Festival Fringe, Editorial cartoon, Elizabethan era, Epic poetry, Ethnic joke, Eugène Ionesco, Euripides, F. M. Cornford, Farce, Fawlty Towers, Film, Fred Karno, Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari, Gamut, Genre, George Carlin, George Chapman, George Etherege, George Meredith, Georges Feydeau, German television comedy, Giovanni Boccaccio, Gold (UK TV channel), Gross out, Grotesque, Ha! (TV channel), Hal Roach, Halifax Comedy Festival, Harold Pinter, Heaven, Heaven in Christianity, Hell, HK International Comedy Festival, Hollywood, Humour, Impressionist (entertainment), Improvisational theatre, Indian aesthetics, Indian classical drama, Inferno (Dante), Irony, Islamic Golden Age, Italian language, Italian literature, Jacques Copeau, Jean Genet, Jester, Jim Carrey, Joe Orton, John Vanbrugh, Jon Stewart, Joseph Grimaldi, Just for Laughs, Kath & Kim, Kenneth Burke, Komos, Latin translations of the 12th century, Laughter, Laurel and Hardy, Leicester Comedy Festival, Light poetry, Lightbulb joke, List of American television series based on British television series, List of Australian comedians, List of British comedians, List of Canadian comedians, List of comedy television series, List of Filipino comedians, List of Finnish comedians, List of genres, List of German-language comedians, List of Indian comedians, List of Italian comedians, List of Mexican comedians, List of musical comedians, List of Puerto Rican comedians, List of stand-up comedians, Lists of comedy films, Literature, Lodovico Dolce, Lope de Vega, Louis-Sébastien Mercier, Lyric poetry, M*A*S*H (TV series), Marcel Marceau, Mark Twain Prize for American Humor, Martin and Lewis, Marx Brothers, Medieval literature, Medieval philosophy, Melbourne International Comedy Festival, Menander, Middle Ages, Mike Myers, Mimesis, Molière, Montreal, Monty Python, Mr. Bean, Muses, Music hall, Narrative poetry, Natya Shastra, New York Underground Comedy Festival, New Zealand International Comedy Festival, Niccolò Machiavelli, Northrop Frye, Obscenity, Oleg Popov, Oliver Goldsmith, One-line joke, Pantomime, Paradiso (Dante), Paramount Comedy (Russia), Parody, Parody film, Paul Hogan, Performance art, Peter Sellers, Phallic processions, Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée, Plato, Plautus, Poetics (Aristotle), Poetry, Polish joke, Political satire, Public opinion, Pulcinella, Punch and Judy, Purgatorio, Purgatory, Puritans, Radio comedy, Rasa (aesthetics), Renaissance humanism, Republic (Plato), Restoration comedy, Ribaldry, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Richard McKeon, Richard Steele, Richard Tarlton, Robert Armin, Robin Williams, Romantic comedy, Ron Terpening, Rowan Atkinson, Sacha Baron Cohen, Samuel Beckett, Satire, Satyr play, Screwball comedy film, Seinfeld, Shaggy dog story, Shakespearean comedy, Shaun Micallef's Mad as Hell, Sitcom, Sketch comedy, Slapstick, Slapstick film, Stan Laurel, Stand-up comedy, Summa Theologica, Surrealism, Taboo, TBS (U.S. TV channel), Television, Television comedy, Terence, Thalia (Muse), The Colbert Report, The Comedy Channel, The Comedy Channel (UK), The Comedy Channel (United States), The Comedy Festival, The Comedy Network, The Daily Show, The Goon Show, The Office (UK TV series), The Onion, The Simpsons, The Three Stooges, Theatre, Theatre of ancient Greece, Theatre of ancient Rome, Theatre of the Absurd, Theories of humor, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Dekker (writer), Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Middleton, Thomism, Toilet humour, Tragedy, Tuscan dialect, Utopia (Australian TV series), Vaudeville, Vsevolod Meyerhold, W. C. Fields, Western canon, William Congreve, William Kempe, William Shakespeare, William Wycherley, Women in comedy, Word, World literature. Expand index (249 more) » « Shrink index
Abbott and Costello were an American comedy duo composed of Bud Abbott and Lou Costello, whose work on radio and in film and television made them the most popular comedy team of the 1940s and early 1950s.
In philosophy, "the Absurd" refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to find any.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
Agon (Classical Greek ἀγών) is an ancient Greek term for a struggle or contest.
Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
Sir Alan Ayckbourn, (born 12 April 1939) is a prolific English playwright and director.
Allegory in the Middle Ages was a vital element in the synthesis of biblical and classical traditions into what would become recognizable as medieval culture.
Alternative comedy is a term coined in the 1980s for a style of comedy that makes a conscious break with the mainstream comedic style of an era but can also be found in cartoons.
The American Comedy Awards are a group of awards presented annually in the United States recognizing performances and performers in the field of comedy, with an emphasis on television comedy and comedy films.
"An Englishman, an Irishman and a Scotsman" is the opening line of a category of joke popular in Ireland and the United Kingdom.
Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton University Press, 1957) is a book by Canadian literary critic and theorist, Northrop Frye, which attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek comedy was one of the final three principal dramatic forms in the theatre of classical Greece (the others being tragedy and the satyr play).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Aphra Behn (14 December 1640? (baptismal date)–16 April 1689) was a British playwright, poet, translator and fiction writer from the Restoration era.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
Arabic poetry (الشعر العربي ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aspen is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Pitkin County, Colorado, United States.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
Australian comedy (or Australian humour) refers to the comedy and humour performed in or about Australia or by the people of Australia.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
John Barry Humphries, AO, CBE (born 17 February 1934) is an Australian comedian, actor, satirist, artist, and author.
Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.
Bharata Muni was an ancient Indian theatrologist and musicologist who wrote the Natya Shastra, a theoretical treatise on ancient Indian dramaturgy and histrionics, especially Sanskrit theatre.
Black comedy, also known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter that is generally considered taboo, particularly subjects that are normally considered serious or painful to discuss.
Blackadder is a series of four BBC1 pseudohistorical British sitcoms, plus several one-off instalments, which originally aired in the 1980s.
Blonde jokes are a class of jokes based on a stereotype of a dumb blonde woman.
Sir Leslie Townes Hope, KBE, KC*SG, KSS (May 29, 1903 – July 27, 2003) known professionally as Bob Hope, was an English-American stand-up comedian, vaudevillian, actor, singer, dancer, athlete, and author.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
Bouffon (English originally from French: "farceur", "comique", “Donovan”, "jester") is a modern French theater term that was re-coined in the early 1960s by Jacques Lecoq at his L'École Internationale de Théâtre Jacques Lecoq in Paris to describe a specific style of performance work that has a main focus in the art of mockery.
Bozo the Clown is a fictional clown character, created and introduced in the United States in 1946, and to television in 1949, whose broad popularity peaked locally in the 1960s as a result of widespread franchising in early television.
British comedy, in film, radio and television, is known for its consistently peculiar characters, plots and settings, and has produced some of the most famous and memorable comic actors and characters.
The British Comedy Awards were an annual awards ceremony in the United Kingdom celebrating notable comedians and entertainment performances of the previous year.
A British sitcom or a Britcom is a situation comedy programme produced for British television.
A burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects.
Joseph Frank "Buster" Keaton (October 4, 1895 – February 1, 1966) was an American actor, comedian, film director, producer, screenwriter, and stunt performer.
Cabaret is a form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama.
The Canadian Comedy Awards (CCA) is an annual ceremony that celebrates achievements in Canadian comedy in live performances, radio, film, television and internet media.
The canto is a principal form of division in medieval and modern long poetry.
The Cat Laughs Comedy Festival is a comedy festival held over the first weekend in June each year in Kilkenny, Ireland.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A character (sometimes known as a fictional character) is a person or other being in a narrative (such as a novel, play, television series, film, or video game).
Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film.
In Christian theology, Hell is the place or state into which by God's definitive judgment unrepentant sinners pass either immediately after death (particular judgment) or in the general judgment.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The cinema of Hong Kong is one of the three major threads in the history of Chinese language cinema, alongside the cinema of China, and the cinema of Taiwan.
The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.
City comedy, also known as citizen comedy, is a genre of comedy in the English early modern theatre.
Clowns are comic performers who employ slapstick or similar types of physical comedy, often in a mime style.
Colley Cibber (6 November 1671 – 11 December 1757) was an English actor-manager, playwright and Poet Laureate.
Comédie larmoyante was a genre of French drama of the 18th century.
A comedian or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience by making them laugh.
Comedic journalism is a new form of journalism, popularized in the twenty-first century, that incorporates a comedic tone to transmit the news to mass audiences, using humour and/or satire to relay a point in news reports.
A comedy is entertainment consisting of jokes intended to make an audience laugh.
A comedy album is an audio recording of comedic material from a comedian or group of comedians, usually performed either live or in a studio.
Comedy Central is an American basic cable and satellite television channel owned by Viacom Global Entertainment Group, a unit of the Viacom Media Networks division of Viacom.
Comedy Central is a television channel that carries comedy programming, both original and syndicated.
Comedy Central Extra is a television channel shown in United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.
Comedy Central is a channel available in Spain through satellite platform Digital+, ADSL TV Movistar TV, Orange TV and cable services.
A comedy club is a venue—typically a nightclub, bar, casino, or restaurant—where people watch or listen to performances, including stand-up comedians, improvisational comedians, impersonators, impressionists, magicians, ventriloquists, and other comedy acts.
Comedy is a genre of film in which the main emphasis is on humor.
Comedy Nights With Kapil was an Indian sketch comedy and celebrity talk show hosted by Kapil Sharma, that premiered on Colors TV on 22 June 2013 and ended on 24 January 2016.
The comedy of humours is a genre of dramatic comedy that focuses on a character or range of characters, each of whom exhibits two or more overriding traits or 'humours' that dominates their personality, desires and conduct.
The comedy of intrigue, also known as the comedy of situation, is a genre of comedy in which dramatic action is prioritised over the development of character, complicated strategems and conspiracies drive the plot, and farcical humour and contrived or ridiculous dramatic situations are often employed.
The comedy of manners is a form of comedy that satirizes the manners and affectations of contemporary society and questions societal standards.
Comedy of menace is the body of plays written by David Campton, Nigel Dennis, N. F. Simpson, and Harold Pinter.
A comic novel is a novel-length work of humorous fiction.
Comic opera denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending.
(comedy of the profession) was an early form of professional theatre, originating from Italy, that was popular in Europe from the 16th through the 18th century.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
Crocodile Dundee (stylised as "Crocodile" Dundee in the U.S.) is a 1986 Australian-American action comedy film set in the Australian Outback and in New York City.
Dad's Army is a BBC television sitcom about the British Home Guard during the Second World War.
Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916); New York Dada began circa 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris.
Dallas Baptist University (DBU), formerly known as Dallas Baptist College, is a Christian liberal arts university located in Dallas, Texas.
Dame Edna Everage is a character created and performed by Australian comedian Barry Humphries, known for her lilac-coloured or "wisteria hue" hair and cat eye glasses or "face furniture", her favourite flower, the gladiolus ("gladdies") and her boisterous greeting: "Hello, Possums!" As Dame Edna, Humphries has written several books including an autobiography, My Gorgeous Life, appeared in several films and hosted several television shows (on which Humphries has also appeared as himself and other alter-egos).
Daniel Edward Aykroyd (born July 1, 1952) is a Canadian-American actor, comedian, musician, and filmmaker.
George Wild Galvin (20 December 1860 – 31 October 1904), better known by the stage name Dan Leno, was a leading English music hall comedian and musical theatre actor during the late Victorian era.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
Dario Fo (24 March 1926 – 13 October 2016) was an Italian actor–playwright, comedian, singer, theatre director, stage designer, songwriter, painter, political campaigner for the Italian left-wing and the recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Literature.
David Campton (2nd May 1924 – 9 September 2006) was a prolific British dramatist who wrote plays for the stage, radio, and cinema for thirty-five years.
The dithyramb (διθύραμβος, dithyrambos) was an ancient Greek hymn sung and danced in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility; the term was also used as an epithet of the god: Plato, in The Laws, while discussing various kinds of music mentions "the birth of Dionysos, called, I think, the dithyramb." Plato also remarks in the Republic that dithyrambs are the clearest example of poetry in which the poet is the only speaker.
The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.
Dorothy Leigh Sayers (13 June 1893 – 17 December 1957) was a renowned English crime writer and poet.
Dudley Stuart John Moore, CBE (19 April 193527 March 2002) was an English actor, comedian, musician and composer.
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).
Edward Regan Murphy (born April 3, 1961) is an American comedian, actor, writer, singer, and producer.
Edinburgh Comedy Festival was a short-lived festival of comedy shows which operated during the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in August 2008 and 2009.
The Edinburgh Festival Fringe (often referred to as simply The Fringe) is the world's largest arts festival, which in 2017 spanned 25 days and featured 53,232 performances of 3,398 shows in 300 venues.
An editorial cartoon, also known as a political cartoon, is a drawing containing a commentary expressing the artist's opinion.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
An ethnic joke is a remark attempting humor relating to an ethnic, racial or cultural group, often referring to an ethnic stereotype of the group in question for its punchline.
Eugène Ionesco (born Eugen Ionescu,; 26 November 1909 – 28 March 1994) was a Romanian-French playwright who wrote mostly in French, and one of the foremost figures of the French Avant-garde theatre.
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
Francis Macdonald Cornford, FBA (27 February 1874 – 3 January 1943) was an English classical scholar and translator; because of the similarity of his forename to his wife's, he was known to family as "FMC" and his wife Frances as "FCC".
In theatre, a farce is a comedy that aims at entertaining the audience through situations that are highly exaggerated, extravagant, and thus improbable.
Fawlty Towers is a British television sitcom broadcast on BBC2 in 1975 and 1979.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
Frederick John Westcott (26 March 1866 – 18 September 1941), best known by his stage name Fred Karno, was an English theatre impresario of the British music hall.
Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari (c. 1508 – 1578) was a 16th-century Italian printer active in Venice.
In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors.
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
George Denis Patrick Carlin (May 12, 1937 – June 22, 2008) was an American stand-up comedian, actor, author, and social critic.
George Chapman (Hitchin, Hertfordshire, c. 1559 – London, 12 May 1634) was an English dramatist, translator, and poet.
Sir George Etherege (c. 1636, Maidenhead, Berkshire – c. 10 May 1692, Paris) was an English dramatist.
George Meredith, OM (12 February 1828 – 18 May 1909) was an English novelist and poet of the Victorian era.
Georges Feydeau (8 December 1862 – 5 June 1921) was a French playwright of the era known as the Belle Époque.
Germany has a long tradition of television comedy stretching as far back as the 1950s, and with its origins in cabaret and radio.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
Gold (stylised as GOLD) is a British classic comedy channel from the UKTV network, broadcasting to the United Kingdom and Ireland.
Gross out describes a movement in art (often comic), which aims to shock and disgust the audience with controversial material such as toilet humour, nudity, or any sexual topic.
Since at least the 18th century (in French and German as well as English), grotesque (or grottoesque) has come to be used as a general adjective for the strange, mysterious, magnificent, fantastic, hideous, ugly, incongruous, unpleasant, or disgusting, and thus is often used to describe weird shapes and distorted forms such as Halloween masks.
Ha!, owned by Viacom, was one of the first American all-comedy channels available to basic cable subscribers.
Harold Eugene Roach Sr. (January 14, 1892 – November 2, 1992) was an American film and television producer, director, and actor from the 1910s to the 1990s, best known today for producing the Laurel and Hardy and Our Gang film comedy series.
The Halifax Comedy Festival (often spelled in promotional materials as Ha!ifax Comedy Festival) is an annual comedy festival held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Harold Pinter (10 October 1930 – 24 December 2008) was a Nobel Prize-winning British playwright, screenwriter, director and actor.
Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.
In Christianity, heaven is traditionally the location of the throne of God as well as the holy angelsEhrman, Bart.
Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.
The HK International Comedy Festival is an annual comedy festival in Hong Kong.
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
Humour (British English) or humor (American English; see spelling differences) is the tendency of experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement.
An impressionist or a mimic is a performer whose act consists of imitating sounds, the voice and mannerisms of people or animals.
Improvisational theatre, often called improv or impro, is the form of theatre, often comedy, in which most or all of what is performed is unplanned or unscripted: created spontaneously by the performers.
Indian art evolved with an emphasis on inducing special spiritual or philosophical states in the audience, or with representing them symbolically.
The term Indian classical drama refers to the tradition of dramatic literature and performance in ancient India.
Inferno (Italian for "Hell") is the first part of Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy.
Irony, in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy.
Jacques Copeau (4 February 1879 – 20 October 1949) was a French theatre director, producer, actor, and dramatist.
Jean Genet (–) was a French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist.
A jester, court jester, or fool, was historically an entertainer during the medieval and Renaissance eras who was a member of the household of a nobleman or a monarch employed to entertain him and his guests.
James Eugene Carrey (born January 17, 1962) is a Canadian-American actor, comedian, impressionist, screenwriter, musician, producer and painter.
John Kingsley "Joe" Orton (1 January 1933 – 9 August 1967) was an English playwright and author.
Sir John Vanbrugh (24 January 1664 (baptised) – 26 March 1726) was an English architect and dramatist, perhaps best known as the designer of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard.
Jon Stewart (born Jonathan Stuart Leibowitz; November 28, 1962) is an American comedian, writer, producer, director, political commentator, actor, and television host.
Joseph Grimaldi (18 December 1778 – 31 May 1837) was an English actor, comedian and dancer, who became the most popular English entertainer of the Regency era.
Just for Laughs (Juste pour rire) is a comedy festival held each July in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Kath & Kim is a character-driven multi-award-winning Australian television satirical situation comedy.
Kenneth Duva Burke (May 5, 1897 – November 19, 1993) was an American literary theorist, as well as poet, essayist, and novelist, who wrote on 20th-century philosophy, aesthetics, criticism, and rhetorical theory.
The Kōmos (κῶμος; pl. kōmoi) was a ritualistic drunken procession performed by revelers in ancient Greece, whose participants were known as komasts (κωμασταί, kōmastaí).
Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.
Laughter is a physical reaction in humans consisting typically of rhythmical, often audible contractions of the diaphragm and other parts of the respiratory system.
Laurel and Hardy were a comedy double act during the early Classical Hollywood era of American cinema.
The Leicester Comedy Festival is an annual comedy festival held in a number of venues across Leicester, England early in the year.
Light poetry, or light verse, is poetry that attempts to be humorous.
A lightbulb joke is a joke that asks how many people of a certain group are needed to change, replace, or screw in a light bulb.
Many successful British television shows (particularly sitcoms and reality shows) have been remade for the American market.
This is a list of comedians who were born in Australia, or have spent part of their careers performing in Australia.
This is a list of comedians of British birth or famous mainly in Britain.
This following is a list of Canadian comedians.
A list of comedy television series by country of origin.
This is a list of Filipino comedians.
This is a list of Finnish comedians.
This is a list of genres of literature and entertainment, excluding genres in the visual arts.
This is a list of notable German-language comedians.
This is a list of notable Indian comedians, sorted by country or area of notability.
This is a list of Italian comedians sorted by last name.
This is a list of famous Mexican comedians.
This alphabetical list is limited to comedians who share their comedy through music and song.
The following is a list of Puerto Rican comedians which includes comedians who were born in Puerto Rico, comedians who are of full or partial Puerto Rican ancestry, and many long-term residents and/or immigrants of other ethnic heritages who have made Puerto Rico their home and happen to be comedians as well.
The following is a list of notable stand-up comedians by nationality.
Lists of comedy films are divided into the lists below.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Lodovico Dolce (1508/10–1568) was an Italian man of letters and theorist of painting.
Lope Félix de Vega y Carpio (25 November 156227 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright, poet, novelist and marine.
Louis-Sébastien Mercier (6 June 1740 – 25 April 1814) was a French dramatist and writer.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
M*A*S*H is an American television series that aired on CBS from 1972 to 1983.
Marcel Marceau (born Marcel Mangel, 22 March 1923 – 22 September 2007) was a French actor and Mime artist most famous for his stage persona as "Bip the Clown".
The Mark Twain Prize for American Humor is an American award for humor awarded by the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts annually since 1998.
Martin and Lewis were an American comedy duo, comprising singer Dean Martin and comedian Jerry Lewis.
The Marx Brothers were an American family comedy act that was successful in vaudeville, on Broadway, and in motion pictures from 1905 to 1949.
Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (that is, the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. AD 500 to the beginning of the Florentine Renaissance in the late 15th century).
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. to the Renaissance in the 16th century.
The Melbourne International Comedy Festival (MICF) is the third-largest international comedy festival in the world.
Menander (Μένανδρος Menandros; c. 342/41 – c. 290 BC) was a Greek dramatist and the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Michael John Myers (born May 25, 1963) is a Canadian-American actor, comedian, screenwriter, and film producer.
Mimesis (μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate", from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (15 January 162217 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Monty Python (also collectively known as The Pythons) were a British surreal comedy group who created their sketch comedy show Monty Python's Flying Circus, which first aired on the BBC in 1969.
The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.
Music hall is a type of British theatrical entertainment that was popular from the early Victorian era circa 1850 and lasting until 1960.
Narrative poetry is a form of poetry that tells a story, often making the voices of a narrator and characters as well; the entire story is usually written in metered verse.
The Nāṭya Śāstra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is a Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The New York Underground Comedy Festival is a comedy festival.
The New Zealand International Comedy Festival, is held simultaneously over three weeks in Auckland and Wellington and then takes to the road with the Comedy Convoy, touring to regional cities across New Zealand.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Herman Northrop Frye (July 14, 1912 – January 23, 1991) was a Canadian literary critic and literary theorist, considered one of the most influential of the 20th century.
An obscenity is any utterance or act that strongly offends the prevalent morality of the time.
Oleg Konstantinovich Popov (Олег Константинович Попoв, 31 July 1930 – 2 November 2016) was a Soviet and Russian clown and circus artist.
Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1728 – 4 April 1774) was an Irish novelist, playwright and poet, who is best known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770), and his plays The Good-Natur'd Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1771, first performed in 1773).
A one-liner is a joke that is delivered in a single line.
Pantomime (informally panto) is a type of musical comedy stage production designed for family entertainment.
Paradiso (Italian for "Paradise" or "Heaven") is the third and final part of Dante's Divine Comedy, following the Inferno and the Purgatorio.
Paramount Comedy is a 24-hour Russian cable television and satellite television comedy channel available in Russia, launched in 2012.
A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on something, caricature, or joke) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.
A parody film is a subgenre of comedy film that parodies other film genres or films as pastiches, works created by imitation of the style of many different films reassembled together.
Paul Hogan, (born 8 October 1939) is an Australian comedian, actor and television presenter.
Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary.
Peter Sellers, CBE (born Richard Henry Sellers; 8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was an English film actor, comedian and singer.
Phallic processions, or Penis Parade,Tim Younger called phallika in ancient Greece, were a common feature of Dionysiac celebrations; they were processions that advanced to a cult center, and were characterized by obscenities and verbal abuse.
Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée (14 February 1692 in Paris – 14 May 1754 in Paris) was a French dramatist who blurred the lines between comedy and tragedy with his comédie larmoyante.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period.
Aristotle's Poetics (Περὶ ποιητικῆς; De Poetica; c. 335 BCDukore (1974, 31).) is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory in the West.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
A Polish joke is an ethnic joke used to mock the Polish people in the English language based on negative stereotypes.
Political satire is satire that specializes in gaining entertainment from politics; it has also been used with subversive intent where political speech and dissent are forbidden by a regime, as a method of advancing political arguments where such arguments are expressly forbidden.
Public opinion consists of the desires, wants, and thinking of the majority of the people; it is the collective opinion of the people of a society or state on an issue or problem.
Pulcinella, a name derived from "pulcino," meaning chick, and "pollastrello," meaning rooster, is a classical character that originated in commedia dell'arte of the 17th century and became a stock character in Neapolitan puppetry.
Punch and Judy is a traditional, popular, and usually violent puppet show featuring Pulcinella (Mr. Punch) and his wife Judy.
Purgatorio (Italian for "Purgatory") is the second part of Dante's Divine Comedy, following the Inferno, and preceding the Paradiso.
In Roman Catholic theology, purgatory (via Anglo-Norman and Old French) is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven," holding that "certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come." And that entrance into Heaven requires the "remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven," for which indulgences may be given which remove "either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin," such as an "unhealthy attachment" to sin.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Radio comedy, or comedic radio programming, is a radio broadcast that may involve sitcom elements, sketches and various types of comedy found on other media.
A rasa (रस, രാസ്യം.) literally means "juice, essence or taste".
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
The term "Restoration comedy" refers to English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1710.
Ribaldry, or blue comedy, is humorous entertainment that ranges from bordering on indelicacy to gross indecency.
Richard Brinsley Butler Sheridan (30 October 17517 July 1816) was an Irish satirist, a playwright and poet, and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.
Richard McKeon (April 26, 1900 – March 31, 1985) was an American philosopher and longtime professor at the University of Chicago.
Sir Richard Steele (bap. 12 March 1672 – 1 September 1729) was an Irish writer, playwright, and politician, remembered as co-founder, with his friend Joseph Addison, of the magazine The Tatler.
Richard Tarlton or Tarleton (died September 1588), was an English actor of the Elizabethan era.
Robert Armin (c. 1563 – 1615) was an English actor, a member of the Lord Chamberlain's Men.
Robin McLaurin Williams (July 21, 1951 – August 11, 2014) was an American actor and comedian.
Romantic comedy (also known as the portmanteaus romedy or romcom) is a genre with light-hearted, humorous plotlines, centered on romantic ideals such as that true love is able to surmount most obstacles.
Ron Terpening (born Ronnie Harold Terpening on May 3, 1946) is an American writer, professor of Italian, and editor.
Rowan Sebastian Atkinson, CBE (born 6 January 1955) is an English actor, comedian, and screenwriter best known for his work on the sitcoms Blackadder and Mr. Bean.
Sacha Noam Baron Cohen (born 13 October 1971) is an English actor, comedian, screenwriter, and producer.
Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, similar in spirit to the bawdy satire of burlesque.
Screwball comedy is a genre of comedy film that became popular during the Great Depression, originating in the early 1930s and thriving until the early 1940s.
Seinfeld is an American television sitcom that ran for nine seasons on NBC, from 1989 to 1998.
In its original sense, a shaggy dog story or yarn is an extremely long-winded anecdote characterized by extensive narration of typically irrelevant incidents and terminated by an anticlimax or a pointless punchline.
In the First Folio, the plays of William Shakespeare were grouped into three categories: comedies, histories, and tragedies, though today many scholars recognize a fourth category, romance, to describe the specific types of comedies that appear as Shakespeare's later works.
Shaun Micallef's Mad as Hell is an Australian comedy news television program hosted by Shaun Micallef.
A sitcom, short for "situation comedy", is a genre of comedy centered on a fixed set of characters who carry over from episode to episode.
Sketch comedy comprises a series of short comedy scenes or vignettes, called "sketches", commonly between one and ten minutes long.
Slapstick is a style of humor involving exaggerated physical activity which exceeds the boundaries of normal physical comedy.
Slapstick films are comedy films where physical comedy that includes pratfalls, tripping, falling, are highlighted over dialogue, plot and character development.
Stan Laurel (born Arthur Stanley Jefferson; 16 June 1890 – 23 February 1965) was an English comic actor, writer and film director, who was part of the comedy duo Laurel and Hardy.
Stand-up comedy is a comic style in which a comedian performs in front of a live audience, usually speaking directly to them.
The Summa Theologiae (written 1265–1274 and also known as the Summa Theologica or simply the Summa) is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274).
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.
TBS is an American basic cable and satellite television channel owned by Turner Broadcasting System.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Television comedy had a presence from the earliest days of broadcasting.
Publius Terentius Afer (c. 195/185 – c. 159? BC), better known in English as Terence, was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic, of Berber descent.
Thalia (Θάλεια, Θαλία; "the joyous, the flourishing", from θάλλειν, thállein; "to flourish, to be verdant"), also spelled Thaleia, was the goddess who presided over comedy and idyllic poetry.
The Colbert Report is an American late-night talk and news satire television program hosted by Stephen Colbert that aired four days a week on Comedy Central from October 17, 2005 to December 18, 2014 for 1,447 episodes.
The Comedy Channel (promoted on air as comedy) is an Australian subscription television channel available on Foxtel, and Optus Television.
The Comedy Channel was a short-lived United Kingdom subscription television channel during the early 1990s.
The Comedy Channel was a television comedy cable channel owned by HBO, a division of Time Warner.
The Comedy Festival, formerly known as the US Comedy Arts Festival, was a comedy festival that ran from 1995 to 2008.
The Comedy Network (often shortened to Comedy) is a Canadian English language Category A specialty channel that is owned by Bell Media.
The Daily Show is an American late-night talk and news satire television program.
The Goon Show was a British radio comedy programme, originally produced and broadcast by the BBC Home Service from 1951 to 1960, with occasional repeats on the BBC Light Programme.
The Office is a British mockumentary sitcom, first broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC Two on 9 July 2001.
The Onion is an American digital media company and news satire organization that publishes articles on international, national, and local news.
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company.
The Three Stooges were an American vaudeville and comedy team active from 1922 until 1970, best known for their 190 short subject films by Columbia Pictures that have been regularly airing on television since 1958.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c. 700 BC.
Theatre of ancient Rome refers to the time period of theatrical practice and performance in Rome beginning in the 4th century B.C., following the state’s transition from Monarchy to Republic.
The Theatre of the Absurd (théâtre de l'absurde) is a post–World War II designation for particular plays of absurdist fiction written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1950s, as well as one for the style of theatre which has evolved from their work.
There are many theories of humor which attempt to explain what humor is, what social functions it serves, and what would be considered humorous.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Dekker (c. 1572 – 25 August 1632) was an English Elizabethan dramatist and pamphleteer, a versatile and prolific writer, whose career spanned several decades and brought him into contact with many of the period's most famous dramatists.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Middleton (baptised 18 April 1580 – July 1627; also spelled Midleton) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet.
Thomism is the philosophical school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church.
Toilet humour or scatological humour is a type of off-colour humour dealing with defecation, urination and flatulence, and to a lesser extent vomiting and other body functions.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
Utopia, internationally titled Dreamland, is a Logie Award-winning Australian television comedy series by Working Dog Productions that premiered on the ABC on 13 August 2014.
Vaudeville is a theatrical genre of variety entertainment.
Vsevolod Emilevich Meyerhold (Все́волод Эми́льевич Мейерхо́льд; born Karl Kasimir Theodor Meierhold; 2 February 1940) was a Russian and Soviet theatre director, actor and theatrical producer.
William Claude Dukenfield (January 29, 1880 – December 25, 1946), better known as W. C. Fields, was an American comedian, actor, juggler and writer.
The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".
William Congreve (24 January 1670 – 19 January 1729) was an English playwright and poet of the Restoration period.
William Kempe (died 1603), commonly referred to as Will Kemp, was an English actor and dancer specialising in comic roles and best known for having been one of the original players in early dramas by William Shakespeare.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William Wycherley (baptised 8 April 1641 – 1 January 1716) was an English dramatist of the Restoration period, best known for the plays The Country Wife and The Plain Dealer.
Women in comedy refers to females who participate in comedic works as well as their experience within the social environment.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
World literature is sometimes used to refer to the sum total of the world's national literatures, but usually it refers to the circulation of works into the wider world beyond their country of origin.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Comedic, Comedic effect, Comedie, Comedies, Comedy Writing, Comedy formula, Comedy writer, Comedy writing, Elizabethan comedy, Gagman, Gagster, History of comedy, Joke writer, Sense of the comic, Theory of comedy.