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Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. [1]

406 relations: Acrostic, Adam Mickiewicz, Aeneid, Aesop, Aesop's Fables, Aesthetics, Aga Khan III, Al-Andalus, Alexander Pope, Alexander Pushkin, Alexandrine, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Allegory, Allegory in the Middle Ages, Alliteration, Allusion, Aloysius Bertrand, Ambiguity, Ambrose Bierce, Anapaest, Anapestic tetrameter, Ancient Rome, Andrew Marvell, Anthropomorphism, Antiphon, Antistrophe, Antonio Machado, Arabic, Arabic poetry, Aristotle, Arthur Rimbaud, Asemic writing, Assonance, Asuka period, Athens, Avestan, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani literature, Ballad, Balts, Bard, Ben Jonson, Bengali poetry, Bianwen, Biblical poetry, Biernat of Lublin, Burton Watson, Cadence (poetry), Caesura, Call and response (music), ..., Calligraphy, Cantar de Mio Cid, Canto, Catachresis, Catalan language, Chant royal, Character (arts), Charles Baudelaire, Charlotte Turner Smith, Checked tone, Chen Zi'ang, Chidiock Tichborne, Chinese opera, Chinese poetry, Choriamb, Classic of Poetry, Classical Chinese poetry, Classical language, Clerihew, Colonialism, Comedy, Concrete poetry, Context-free grammar, Contrast (linguistics), Couplet, Culture, Cuneiform, Dactyl (poetry), Dactylic hexameter, Dante Alighieri, Death of the Author, Derek Walcott, Dialect, Do not go gentle into that good night, Doggerel, Double dactyl, Drama, Du Fu, Dylan Thomas, East Asia, Edgar Allan Poe, Edmund Spenser, Elegiac, Elegy, Elision, Elizabeth Bishop, Enclosed rhyme, English language, Epic of Gilgamesh, Epic of King Gesar, Epic poetry, Epode, Eugene Onegin, Extrapolation, Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani, Farhad, Félix María de Samaniego, Feeling, Ferdowsi, Fernando de Rojas, Flash fiction, Foot (prosody), Four tones (Chinese), Free verse, French language, Funeral, Galician language, Gathas, Genre, Geoffrey Chaucer, Geoffrey Hartman, Gerard Manley Hopkins, German language, Ghazal, Giannina Braschi, Globalization, Glossary of poetry terms, Grammar, Greek language, Greek literature, Greek tragedy, Gushi (poetry), Hafez, Haiku, Harold Bloom, Hebrew language, Hendecasyllable, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Hermeneutics, Hero, Hesiod, Hexameter, High Middle Ages, History of poetry, Hokku, Homer, Horace, Horror fiction, Human interest story, Iamb (poetry), Iambic pentameter, Iambic tetrameter, Ignacy Krasicki, Iliad, Imagery, Incantation, Indian epic poetry, Internal rhyme, Intonation (linguistics), Iran, Iraq, Irony, Islamic Golden Age, Isochrony, Ivan Krylov, Jan Kochanowski, Japanese language, Japanese poetry, Jean de La Fontaine, Jean Racine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Donne, John Dryden, John Keats, John Milton, John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, Jorge Manrique, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Juan Ruiz, Jueju, Juvenal, Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Kenning, Khosrow and Shirin, Kigo, Kireji, Lament, Language, Latin, Latin poetry, Layla and Majnun, Leonese dialect, Lewis Carroll, Li Bai, Limerick (poetry), Line (poetry), Line break (poetry), List of poetry groups and movements, Literacy, Literary consonance, Literary genre, Literary theory, Literature, Long poem, Louis Gallet, Luís de Camões, Lyric poetry, Mac Flecknoe, Mahabharata, Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage, Marianne Moore, Marie de France, Masnavi, Matsuo Bashō, Meaning (linguistics), Memory, Mesopotamia, Metaphor, Meter (music), Metonymy, Metre (poetry), Middle Chinese, Modernism, Modernist poetry, Mora (linguistics), Moral, Mourning, Music, Mythology, Narrative, National epic, Negative capability, New Formalism, New Oxford Book of English Verse 1250–1950, Nibelungenlied, Niger–Congo languages, Nizami Ganjavi, Nobel Prize, Noh, Octavio Paz, Odyssey, Ogden Nash, Oku no Hosomichi, Old English, Omeros, On (Japanese prosody), Onomatopoeia, Oral tradition, Os Lusíadas, Ottava rima, Outline of poetry, Ovid, Oxford Book of English Verse, Oxford Book of Modern Verse 1892–1935, Papyrus, Paradise Lost, Parallelism (rhetoric), Perception, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Performance poetry, Persian literature, Person, Petrarch, Petrarchan sonnet, Phaedrus (fabulist), Phèdre, Phonaesthetics, Piers Plowman, Pindar, Poet laureate, Poetic diction, Poetics, Poetics (Aristotle), Poetry of Turkey, Poetry reading, Poland, Politics, Portugal, Postmodernism, Printing, Propertius, Prose, Psalms, Pun, Pyrrhic, Qasida, Qualia, Quatrain, Rainer Maria Rilke, Ramayana, Rapping, Refrain, Regulated verse, Renku, Rhapsode, Rhetoric, Rhetorical device, Rhyme, Rhyme scheme, Rhythm, Robert Burns, Robert Frost, Robert Henryson, Robert Pinsky, Robinson Jeffers, Roland Barthes, Roman de la Rose, Romance languages, Romantic poetry, Ruba'i, Rumi, Russian language, Sabir people, Sanskrit literature, Sappho, Satire, Satires (Juvenal), Scansion, Science fiction, Shahnameh, Shakespeare's sonnets, Shen Yue, Shi (poetry), Simile, Skald, Slavs, Sohrab, Song, Sonnet, Sound symbolism, Spanish language, Speech, Spondee, Sprung rhythm, Stanza, Stéphane Mallarmé, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, Stress (linguistics), Strophe, Stylistics (field of study), Sufism, Sumer, Sumerian language, Surrealism, Symbol, Tamil language, Tanakh, Tercet, Terza rima, Tetrameter, The Canterbury Tales, The Norton Anthology of Poetry, The Ode Less Travelled, The Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse, The Raven, The Renaissance, Thomas Gray, Thomas Shadwell, Thomas Wyatt (poet), To His Coy Mistress, Tomás de Iriarte y Oropesa, Tone (linguistics), Tory, Tragedy, Translation, Trochaic octameter, Trochee, Urdu, Urdu poetry, Vahshi Bafqi, Valmiki, Vedas, Vedic meter, Vedic period, Venpa, Verse (poetry), Verse drama and dramatic verse, Verse paragraph, Villanelle, Virgil, Virginia Woolf, Vis and Rāmin, Vishnu Sharma, Vladimir Nabokov, Vowel length, W. B. Yeats, W. H. Auden, Waka (poetry), Walt Whitman, Wendy Cope, West–östlicher Divan, Western canon, Willard R. Espy, William Carlos Williams, William Cullen Bryant, William Langland, William Shakespeare, Word play, X. J. Kennedy, Yasna, Yevgeny Baratynsky, Yuefu, Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism, 6th century in poetry, 7th century BC in poetry. Expand index (356 more) »


An acrostic is a poem or other form of writing in which the first letter, syllable or word of each line, paragraph or other recurring feature in the text spells out a word or a message.

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Adam Mickiewicz

Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.

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The Aeneid (Aenēis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.

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Aesop (Αἴσωπος, Aisōpos, c. 620–564 BCE) was an Ancient Greek fabulist or story teller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables.

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Aesop's Fables

Aesop's Fables or the Aesopica is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave and storyteller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 560 BCE.

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Aesthetics (also spelled æsthetics and esthetics also known in Greek as Αισθητική, or "Aisthētiké") is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Aga Khan III

Sir Sultan Muhammed Shah, Aga Khan III, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, PC (2 November 1877 – 11 July 1957) was the 48th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili community.

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al-Andalus (الأندلس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Andalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus or Wandalus), also known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim cultural domain and territory occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Alexander Pope

Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.

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Alexander Pushkin

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.

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An alexandrine is a line of poetic meter comprising 12 syllables.

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Alfred, Lord Tennyson

Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, FRS (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets.

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As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor.

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Allegory in the Middle Ages

Allegory in the Middle Ages was a vital element in the synthesis of biblical and classical traditions into what would become recognizable as medieval culture.

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Alliteration is a stylistic literary device identified by the repeated sound of the first consonant in a series of multiple words, or the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables of a phrase.

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Allusion is a figure of speech, in which one refers covertly or indirectly to an object or circumstance from an external context.

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Aloysius Bertrand

Louis Jacques Napoléon Bertrand, better known by his pen name Aloysius Bertrand (20 April 1807 — 29 April 1841), was a French Romantic poet, playwright and journalist.

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Ambiguity is a type of uncertainty of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible.

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Ambrose Bierce

Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – circa 1914) was an American editorialist, journalist, short story writer, fabulist, and satirist.

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An anapaest (also spelled anapæst or anapest, also called antidactylus) is a metrical foot used in formal poetry.

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Anapestic tetrameter

Anapestic tetrameter is a poetic meter that has four anapestic metrical feet per line.

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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

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Andrew Marvell

Andrew Marvell (31 March 1621 – 16 August 1678) was an English metaphysical poet and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678.

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Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human form or other characteristics to beings other than humans, particularly deities and animals.

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An antiphon (Greek ἀντίφωνον, ἀντί "opposite" and φωνή "voice") in Christian music and ritual is a responsory by a choir or congregation, usually in the form of a Gregorian chant, to a psalm or other text in a religious service or musical work.

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Antistrophe (ἀντιστροφή, "a turning back") is the portion of an ode sung by the chorus in its returning movement from west to east, in response to the strophe, which was sung from east to west.

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Antonio Machado

Antonio Machado, in full Antonio Cipriano José María y Francisco de Santa Ana Machado y Ruiz (26 July 1875 – 22 February 1939), was a Spanish poet and one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as the Generation of '98.

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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.

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Arabic poetry

Arabic poetry (Arabic: الشِعْر العَرَبي / ALA-LC: ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.

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Arthur Rimbaud

Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (or;; 20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet born in Charleville, Ardennes.

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Asemic writing

Asemic writing is a wordless open semantic form of writing.

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Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming within phrases or sentences, and together with alliteration and consonance serves as one of the building blocks of verse.

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Asuka period

The was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710 (or 592-645), although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína,; Ἀθῆναι, Athēnai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Avestan, formerly also known as "Zend", is an Iranian language of the Eastern Iranian division, known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture, i.e. the Avesta, from which it derives its name.

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Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası), is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Azerbaijani literature

Azerbaijani literature (Azərbaycan ədəbiyyatı) refers to the literature written in Azerbaijani, which currently is the official state language of the Republic of Azerbaijan and is widely spoken in northwestern Iran.

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A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music.

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The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.

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In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional poet/story teller, employed by a patron, such as a monarch or nobleman, to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.

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Ben Jonson

Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic of the seventeenth century, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.

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Bengali poetry

Bengali poetry is a form that originated in Pāli and other Prakrit socio-cultural traditions.

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Bianwen is a technical term referring to a literary form that is believed to be some of the earliest examples of vernacular and prosimetric narratives in Chinese literature.

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Biblical poetry

The ancient Hebrews perceived that there were poetical portions in their sacred texts, as shown by their entitling as songs or chants passages such as Exodus 15:1-19 and Numbers 21:17-20; a song or chant (shir) is, according to the primary meaning of the term, poetry.

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Biernat of Lublin

Biernat of Lublin (Polish: Biernat z Lublina, Latin Bernardus Lublinius, ca. 1465 – after 1529) was a Polish poet, fabulist, translator and physician.

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Burton Watson

Burton DeWitt Watson (born June 13, 1925) is an American scholar and translatorStirling 2006, pg.

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Cadence (poetry)

In poetry, cadence describes the fall in pitch of the intonation of the voice, and its modulated inflection with the rise and fall of its sound.

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An example of a caesura in modern western music notation. In meter, a caesura (or ((); alternative spellings are cæsura and cesura) is a complete pause in a line of poetry and/or in a musical composition. This can also be referred as a quarter rest with a fermata over it. The plural form of caesura is caesurae. In poetry, a masculine caesura follows a stressed syllable while a feminine caesura follows an unstressed syllable. A caesura is also described by its position in a line of poetry. A caesura close to the beginning of a line is called an initial caesura, one in the middle of a line is medial, and one near the end of a line is terminal. Initial and terminal caesurae are rare in formal, Romance, and Neoclassical verse, which prefer medial caesurae. In scansion, poetry written with signs to indicate the length and stress of syllables, the "double pipe" sign ("||") is used to denote the position of a caesura. In musical notation, a caesura denotes a brief, silent pause, during which metrical time is not counted. Similar to a silent fermata, caesurae are located between notes or measures (before or over bar lines), rather than on notes or rests (as with a fermata). A fermata may be placed over a caesura to indicate a longer pause. In musical notation, the symbol for a caesura is a pair of parallel lines set at an angle, rather like a pair of forward slashes: //. The symbol is popularly called "tram-lines" in the U.K. and "railroad tracks" in the U.S.

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Call and response (music)

In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually played by different musicians, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or response to the first.

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Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing.

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Cantar de Mio Cid

El Cantar de mio Cid (or El Poema de mio Cid, literally "The Song of my Cid"), also known in English as The Poem of the Cid, is the oldest preserved Castilian epic poem (epopeya).

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The canto is a principal form of division in a long poem.

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Catachresis (from Greek κατάχρησις, "abuse"), originally meaning a semantic misuse or error—e.g., using "militate" for "mitigate", "decimate" for "devastate", "chronic" for "severe", "anachronism" for "anomaly", "alibi" for "excuse", etc.—is also the name given to many different types of figure of speech in which a word or phrase is being applied in a way that significantly departs from conventional (or traditional) usage.

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Catalan language

Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.

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Chant royal

The Chant Royal is a poetic form that is a variation of the ballad form and consists of five eleven-line stanzas with a rhyme scheme a-b-a-b-c-c-d-d-e-d-E and a five-line envoi rhyming d-d-e-d-E or a seven-line envoi c-c-d-d-e-d-E. To add to the complexity, no rhyming word is used twice Jones,William Caswell.

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Character (arts)

A character (or fictional character) is a person in a narrative work of art (such as a novel, play, television series or film).

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Charles Baudelaire

Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.

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Charlotte Turner Smith

Charlotte Turner Smith (4 May 1749 – 28 October 1806) was an English Romantic poet and novelist.

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Checked tone

A checked tone, commonly known by its Chinese calque entering tone, is one of four syllable types in the phonology in Middle Chinese.

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Chen Zi'ang

Chen Zi'ang (661 (or 656)–702), courtesy name Boyu (伯玉), was a Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty.

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Chidiock Tichborne

Chidiock Tichborne (after 24 August 1562 – 20 September 1586), erroneously referred to as Charles, was an English conspirator and poet.

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Chinese opera

Chinese opera is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.

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Chinese poetry

Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language.

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In Greek and Latin poetry, a choriamb is a metron (prosodic foot) consisting of four syllables in the pattern long-short-short-long (— ‿ ‿ —), that is, a trochee alternating with an iamb.

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Classic of Poetry

The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.

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Classical Chinese poetry

Attributed to Han Gan, ''Huiyebai (Night-Shining White Steed)'', about 750 CE (Tang Dynasty). Classical Chinese poetry is traditional Chinese poetry written in Classical Chinese: typified by certain traditional forms, or modes, and certain traditional genres, as well as being considered in terms associations with particular historical periods, such as the poetry of the Tang Dynasty.

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Classical language

A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.

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A clerihew is a whimsical, four-line biographical poem invented by Edmund Clerihew Bentley.

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Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory.

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In a modern sense, comedy (from the κωμῳδία, kōmōidía) refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or to amuse by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film and stand-up comedy.

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Concrete poetry

Concrete, pattern or shape poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on.

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Context-free grammar

In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a formal grammar in which every production rule is of the form where V is a single nonterminal symbol, and w is a string of terminals and/or nonterminals (w can be empty).

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Contrast (linguistics)

In semantics, contrast is a relationship between two discourse segments.

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A couplet is a pair of lines of metre in poetry.

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Culture is, in the words of E.B. Tylor, "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is, "the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies.

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Cuneiform script or is one of the earliest systems of writing, distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus.

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Dactyl (poetry)

A dactyl (δάκτυλος, dáktylos, “finger”) is a foot in poetic meter.

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Dactylic hexameter

Dactylic hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter") is a form of meter or rhythmic scheme in poetry.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, simply called Dante (c. 1265–1321), was a major Italian poet of the late Middle Ages.

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Death of the Author

The Death of the Author (French: La mort de l'auteur) is a 1967 essay by the French literary critic and theorist Roland Barthes.

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Derek Walcott

Derek Alton Walcott, OBE OCC (born 23 January 1930) is a Saint Lucian poet and playwright.

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The term dialect (from the ancient Greek word διάλεκτος diálektos, "discourse", from διά diá, "through" and λέγω legō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways.

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Do not go gentle into that good night

"Do not go gentle into that good night" is a poem in the form of a villanelle, and the most famous work of Welsh poet Dylan Thomas (1914–1953).

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Doggerel is poetry that is irregular in rhythm and in rhyme, often deliberately for burlesque or comic effect.

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Double dactyl

The double dactyl is a verse form invented by Anthony Hecht and Paul Pascal in 1951.

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Drama is the specific mode of narrative, typically fictional, represented in performance.

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Du Fu

Du Fu (Wade–Giles: Tu Fu;; 712 – 770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty.

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Dylan Thomas

Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 – 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion", the "Play for Voices", Under Milk Wood, and stories and radio broadcasts such as A Child's Christmas in Wales and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog.

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East Asia

East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Edgar Allan Poe

Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American author, poet, editor, and literary critic, widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and American literature as a whole.

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Edmund Spenser

Edmund Spenser (1552/1553 – 13 January 1599) was an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of the premier craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse, and is often considered one of the greatest poets in the English language.

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Elegiac refers either generally to compositions that are like elegies or specifically to Greek and Latin poetry composed in elegiac couplets, in which a line of dactylic hexameter is followed by a line of dactylic pentameter.

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In English literature, an elegy is a mournful, melancholic or plaintive poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the dead.

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In linguistics, Elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.

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Elizabeth Bishop

Elizabeth Bishop (February 8, 1911 – October 6, 1979) was an American poet and short-story writer.

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Enclosed rhyme

Enclosed rhyme (or enclosing rhyme) is the rhyme scheme "abba" (that is, where the first and fourth lines, and the second and third lines rhyme).

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Epic of Gilgamesh

The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia.

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Epic of King Gesar

The Epic of King Gesar (or;, "King Gesar"; Khan, "King Geser", Гесар-хан or Кесар), also spelled Geser (especially in Mongolian contexts) or Kesar, is an epic cycle, believed to date from the 12th century, that relates the heroic deeds of the culture hero Gesar, the fearless lord of the legendary kingdom of Ling.

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Epic poetry

An epic (from the Ancient Greek adjective ἐπικός (epikos), from ἔπος (epos) "word, story, poem") is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.

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Epode, in verse, is the third part of an ode, which followed the strophe and the antistrophe, and completed the movement.

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Eugene Onegin

Eugene Onegin (Евге́ний Оне́гин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Alexander Pushkin.

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In mathematics, extrapolation is the process of estimating, beyond the original observation range, the value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another variable.

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Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani

Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani, also spelled as Fakhraddin Asaad Gorgani (فخرالدين اسعد گرگاني), was an 11th-century Persian poet.

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Farhad (Middle Persian: Frahāt, فرهاد), also transliterated as Ferhad, Farhod, Farkhad is a Persian name meaning elation or happiness, and may refer to.

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Félix María de Samaniego

Félix María de Samaniego (October 12, 1745 – August 11, 1801), born and died in Laguardia, Álava, in the Basque Country, was a Spanish neoclassical fabulist, educated at Valladolid.

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Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.

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Hakim Abu ʾl-Qasim Ferdowsi Tusi (935–1025 CE), or Firdawsi, was a highly revered Persian poet and the author of the epic of Shahnameh (the Persian "Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Iran and the Persian-speaking world.

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Fernando de Rojas

Fernando de Rojas (La Puebla de Montalbán, Toledo, Spain, c. 1465/73 – Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain, April 1541) was a Spanish author and dramatist, known for his only surviving work, La Celestina (originally titled Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea), first published in 1499.

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Flash fiction

Flash fiction is a style of fictional literature or fiction of extreme brevity.

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Foot (prosody)

The foot is the basic metrical unit that forms part of a line of verse in most Western traditions of poetry, including English accentual-syllabic verse and the quantitative meter of classical ancient Greek and Latin poetry.

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Four tones (Chinese)

The four tones of Chinese poetry and dialectology are four traditional tone classes of Chinese words.

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Free verse

Free verse is an open form of poetry.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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A funeral is a ceremony for honoring, respecting, sanctifying, or remembering the life of a person who has died.

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Galician language

Galician (or; galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.

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The Gathas (Gāθās) are 17 hymns believed to have been composed by Zarathusthra (Zoroaster) himself.

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Genre (or; from French genre, "kind" or "sort", from Latin genus (stem gener-), Greek γένος, génos) is any category of literature or other forms of art or entertainment, e.g. music, whether written or spoken, audial or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria.

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Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages and was the first poet to be buried in Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey.

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Geoffrey Hartman

Geoffrey H. Hartman (born August 11, 1929, Frankfurt am Main) is a German-born American literary theorist, sometimes identified with the Yale School of deconstruction, but also has written on a wide range of subjects, and cannot be categorized by a single school or method.

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Gerard Manley Hopkins

Reverend Father Gerard Manley Hopkins, S.J. (28 July 1844 – 8 June 1889) was an English poet, Roman Catholic convert, and a Jesuit priest, whose posthumous fame established him among the leading Victorian poets.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter.

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Giannina Braschi

Giannina Braschi (born February 5, 1953) is a Puerto Rican writer.

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Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.

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Glossary of poetry terms

This is a glossary of poetry terms.

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In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

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Greek language

Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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Greek literature

Greek literature refers to writings composed in areas of Greek influence, throughout the whole period in which the Greek-speaking people have existed.

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Greek tragedy

Greek tragedy is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece and Asia Minor.

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Gushi (poetry)

Gushi is one of the main poetry forms of defined in Classical Chinese poetry, literally meaning "old (or ancient) poetry" or "old (or ancient) style poetry": gushi is a technical term for certain historically exemplary poems, together with later poetry composed in this formal style.

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Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muhammad Hāfez-e Shīrāzī (خواجه شمس‌‌الدین محمد حافظ شیرازی), known by his pen name Hafez (حافظ Hāfiz; 1325/26–1389/90), was a Persian poet who "laud the joys of love and wine also targeted religious hypocrisy".

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(plural haiku) is a very short form of Japanese poetry.

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Harold Bloom

Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American literary critic and Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University.

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Hebrew language

Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.

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The hendecasyllable is a line of eleven syllables, used in Ancient Greek and Latin quantitative verse as well as in medieval and modern European poetry.

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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline.

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Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of text interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.

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A hero (masculine or gender-neutral) or heroine (feminine) (ἥρως, hḗrōs) is a person or character who, in the face of danger and adversity or from a position of weakness, displays courage, bravery or self-sacrifice—that is, heroism—for some greater good; a man or woman of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his/her brave deeds and noble qualities.

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Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.

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Hexameter is a metrical line of verses consisting of six feet.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages or High Medieval Period was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (c. 1001–1300).

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History of poetry

Poetry as an art form may predate literacy.

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is the opening stanza of a Japanese orthodox collaborative linked poem, renga, or of its later derivative, renku (haikai no renga).

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is best known as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey.

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Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).

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Horror fiction

Horror fiction, horror literature and also horror fantasy are genres of literature, which are intended to, or have the capacity to frighten, scare, or startle their readers or viewers by inducing feelings of horror and terror.

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Human interest story

In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way.

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Iamb (poetry)

An iamb or iambus is a metrical foot used in various types of poetry.

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Iambic pentameter

Iambic pentameter is a commonly used type of metrical line in traditional English poetry and verse drama.

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Iambic tetrameter

Iambic tetrameter is a meter in poetry.

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Ignacy Krasicki

Ignacy Krasicki (3 February 173514 March 1801), from 1766 Prince-Bishop of Warmia (in German, Ermland) and from 1795 Archbishop of Gniezno (thus, Primate of Poland), was Poland's leading Enlightenment poet"Ignacy Krasicki", Encyklopedia Polski (Encyclopedia of Poland), p. 325.

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The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Imagery, in a literary text, is an author's use of vivid and descriptive language to add depth to his or her work.

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An incantation or enchantment is a charm or spell created using words.

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Indian epic poetry

Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá).

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Internal rhyme

In poetry, internal rhyme, or middle rhyme, is rhyme that occurs within a single line of verse, or between internal phrases across multiple lines.

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Intonation (linguistics)

In linguistics, intonation is variation of spoken pitch that is not used to distinguish words; instead it is used for a range of functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.

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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.

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Irony, in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case.

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period in Islam's history during the Middle Ages from the 8th century to the 13th century when much of the historically Arabic-speaking world was ruled by various caliphates, experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing.

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Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language.

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Ivan Krylov

Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (Ива́н Андре́евич Крыло́в; February 13, 1769 – November 21, 1844) is Russia's best known fabulist and probably the most epigrammatic of all Russian authors.

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Jan Kochanowski

Jan Kochanowski (1530 – 22 August 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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Japanese poetry

Japanese poetry is poetry of or typical of Japan, or written, spoken, or chanted in the Japanese language, which includes Old Japanese, Early Middle Japanese, Late Middle Japanese, and Modern Japanese, and some poetry in Japan which was written in the Chinese language or the ryūka written in Ryukyuan: it is possible to make a more accurate distinction between Japanese poetry written in Japan or by Japanese people in other languages versus that written in the Japanese language by speaking of Japanese-language poetry.

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Jean de La Fontaine

Jean de La Fontaine (8 July 1621 – 13 April 1695) was the most famous French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century.

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Jean Racine

Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 163921 April 1699), was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France (along with Molière and Corneille), and an important literary figure in the Western tradition.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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John Donne

John Donne (22 January 1572 – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and a cleric in the Church of England.

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John Dryden

John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made Poet Laureate in 1668.

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John Keats

John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.

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John Milton

John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell.

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John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester

John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester (1 April 1647 – 26 July 1680), was an English poet and courtier of King Charles II's Restoration court.

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Jorge Manrique

Jorge Manrique (Paredes de Nava, Palencia c. 1440 Santa María del Campo, Cuenca – 1479) was a major Castilian poet, whose main work, the Coplas a la muerte de su padre (Verses on the death of Don Rodrigo Manrique, his Father), is still read today.

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Juan Ramón Jiménez

Juan Ramón Jiménez Mantecón (24 December 1881 – 29 May 1958) was a Spanish poet, a prolific writer who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1956 "for his lyrical poetry, which in the Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity".

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Juan Ruiz

Juan Ruiz (ca. 1283 – ca. 1350), known as the Archpriest of Hita (Arcipreste de Hita), was a medieval Castilian poet.

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Jueju is a style of jintishi ("modern form poetry") that grew popular among Chinese poets in the Tang Dynasty (618-907), although traceable to earlier origins.

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Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, known in English as Juvenal, was a Roman poet active in the late 1st and early 2nd century CE, author of the Satires.

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Kakinomoto no Hitomaro

was a Japanese waka poet and aristocrat of the late Asuka period.

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A kenning (Modern Icelandic pronunciation:; derived from Old Norse) is a type of circumlocution, in the form of a compound that employs figurative language in place of a more concrete single-word noun.

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Khosrow and Shirin

"Khosrow and Shirin", also spelled Khosrau and Shirin, Chosroes and Shirin, Husraw and Shireen and Khosru and Shirin (خسرو و شیرین), is the title of a famous Persian tragic romance by the Persian poet Nizami Ganjavi (1141–1209) who also wrote Layla and Majnun.

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(plural kigo) is a word or phrase associated with a particular season, used in Japanese poetry.

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is the term for a special category of words used in certain types of Japanese traditional poetry.

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A lament or lamentation is a passionate expression of grief, often in music, poetry, or song form.

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Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin poetry

The history of Latin poetry can be understood as the adaptation of Greek models.

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Layla and Majnun

Layla and Majnun (Possessed by madness for Layla; لیلی و مجنون عامری (Leyli o Majnun); مجنون لیلی (Majnun Layla)) is a love story that originated as poem in ancient Arabia, later was adopted by the Persian poet Nizami Ganjavi who also wrote "Khosrow and Shirin".

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Leonese dialect

Leonese (llionés), in the narrow sense of this article, is a set of certain vernacular Romance dialects that are spoken in northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca), and in a few adjoining areas in Portugal.

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Lewis Carroll

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name, Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.

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Li Bai

Li Bai (701 – 762), also known as Li Po, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights. He and his friend Du Fu (712–770) were the two most prominent figures in the flourishing of Chinese poetry in the Tang Dynasty that is often called the "Golden Age of China". "Three Wonders of the Great Tang Empire" referred to Li Bai’s poetry, Pei Min’s swordplay, and Zhang Xu’s calligraphy. Around a thousand poems attributed to him are extant. His poems have been collected into four Tang dynasty poetry anthologies, and thirty-four of his poems are included in the anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems, which was first published in the 18th century. In the same century, translations of his poems began to appear in Europe. The poems were models for celebrating the pleasures of friendship, the depth of nature, solitude, and the joys of drinking wine. Among the most famous are "Waking from Drunkenness on a Spring Day", "The Hard Road to Shu", and "Quiet Night Thought", which still appear in school texts in China. In the West, translations of Li's poems continue to be made into many languages. His life has even taken on a legendary aspect, including tales of drunkenness, chivalry, and the well-known fable that Li drowned when he reached from his boat to grasp the moon’s reflection in the river. Much of Li's life is reflected in his poetry: places which he visited, friends whom he saw off on journeys to distant locations perhaps never to meet again, his own dream-like imaginations embroidered with shamanic overtones, current events of which he had news of, descriptions sliced from nature in a timeless moment of poetry, and so on. However, of particular general importance are the changes in the times through which he lived: his early poetry took place in the context of a "golden age" of internal peace and prosperity in the Chinese empire of the Tang dynasty, under the reign of an emperor who actively promoted and participated in the arts; but this all changed suddenly and shockingly, as, beginning with the rebellion of the general An Lushan, all of northern China was devastated by war and famine, in one of the greatest catastrophic losses of population in all history. Li's poetry as well takes on new tones and qualities. Unlike his younger friend Du Fu, Li was not to live to see the quelling of these disorders. However, much of Li's poetry has survived, with enduring popularity in China and a developing influence in the Western world.

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Limerick (poetry)

A limerick is a form of poetry, especially one in five-line, predominantly anapestic meter with a strict rhyme scheme (AABBA), which is sometimes obscene with humorous intent.

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Line (poetry)

A line is a unit of language into which a poem or play is divided, which operates on principles which are distinct from and not necessarily coincident with grammatical structures, such as the sentence or clauses in sentences.

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Line break (poetry)

A line break in poetry is the termination of the line of a poem, and the beginning of a new line; within the standard conventions of Western literature, this is usually but not always at the left margin.

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List of poetry groups and movements

Poetry groups and movements or schools may be self-identified by the poets that form them or defined by critics who see unifying characteristics of a body of work by more than one poet.

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Literacy is traditionally understood as the ability to read and write.

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Literary consonance

Consonance is a poetic device characterized by the repetition of the same consonant two or more times in short succession, as in "pitter patter" or in "all mammals named Sam are clammy".

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Literary genre

A literary genre is a category of literary composition.

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Literary theory

Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.

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Literature, in its broadest sense, is any written work; etymologically the term derives from Latin litaritura/litteratura "writing formed with letters", although some definitions include spoken or sung texts.

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Long poem

The long poem is a literary genre including all poetry of considerable length.

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Louis Gallet

Louis Gallet (1835, Valence, Drôme – 1898) was a French writer of operatic libretti, plays, romances, memoirs, pamphlets, and innumerable articles, who is remembered above all for his adaptations of fiction—and Scripture— to provide librettos of cantatas and opera, notably by composers Georges Bizet, Camille Saint-Saëns and Jules Massenet.

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Luís de Camões

Luís Vaz de Camões (sometimes rendered in English as Camoens or Camoëns (e.g. by Byron in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers),; c. 1524 or 1525 –), is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet.

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Lyric poetry

Lyric poetry is a form of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.

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Mac Flecknoe

Mac Flecknoe (full title: Mac Flecknoe; or, A satyr upon the True-Blew-Protestant Poet, T.S.Cox, Michael, editor, The Concise Oxford Chronology of English Literature, Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-19-860634-6) is a verse mock-heroic satire written by John Dryden.

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The Mahabharata or Mahābhārata (US; UK; महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.

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Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage

Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage (15 September 1765 – 21 December 1805) was a Portuguese Neoclassic poet, writing at the beginning of his career under the pen name Elmano Sadino.

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Marianne Moore

Marianne Craig Moore (November 15, 1887 – February 5, 1972) was an American Modernist poet, critic, translator, and editor.

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Marie de France

Marie de France was a medieval poet who was probably born in France and lived in England during the late 12th century.

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The Masnavi, or Masnavi-I Ma'navi (مثنوی معنوی), also written Mathnawi, Ma'navi, or Mathnavi, is an extensive poem written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi also known as Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi saint and poet.

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Matsuo Bashō

, born, then, was the most famous poet of the Edo period in Japan.

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Meaning (linguistics)

In linguistics, meaning is what the source or sender expresses, communicates, or conveys in their message to the observer or receiver, and what the receiver infers from the current context.

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In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میان‌رودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.

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A metaphor is a figure of speech that identifies something as being the same as some unrelated thing for rhetorical effect, thus highlighting the similarities between the two.

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Meter (music)

The meter (or metre) of music is its rhythmic structure, the patterns of accents heard in regularly recurring measures of stressed and unstressed beats (''arsis'' and ''thesis'') at the frequency of the music's pulse.

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Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is called not by its own name but rather by the name of something associated in meaning with that thing or concept.

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Metre (poetry)

In poetry, metre (meter in American spelling) is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.

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Middle Chinese

Middle Chinese, formerly known as Ancient Chinese, is the historical variety of Chinese that is phonologically recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.

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Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Modernist poetry

Modernist poetry refers to poetry written, mainly in Europe and North America, between 1890 and 1950 in the tradition of modernist literature, but the dates of the term depend upon a number of factors, including the nation of origin, the particular school in question, and the biases of the critic setting the dates.

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Mora (linguistics)

A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.

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A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.

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Mourning is, in the simplest sense, synonymous with grief over the death of someone.

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Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence.

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Mythology is a collection of myths, especially one belonging to a particular religious or cultural tradition of a group of people–their collection of stories they tell to explain nature, history, and customs–or the study of such myths.

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A narrative or story is any report of connected events, actual or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images.

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National epic

A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy.

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Negative capability

Negative capability describes the capacity of human beings to transcend and revise their contexts.

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New Formalism

New Formalism is a late-20th and early 21st century movement in American poetry that has promoted a return to metrical and rhymed verse.

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New Oxford Book of English Verse 1250–1950

The New Oxford Book of English Verse 1250–1950 is a poetry anthology edited by Helen Gardner, and published in New York and London in 1972 by the Oxford University Press with ISBN 0-19-812136-9, as a replacement for the Quiller-Couch Oxford Book of English Verse.

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The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German.

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families, and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages.

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Nizami Ganjavi

Nizami Ganjavi (نظامی گنجوی, Nezāmi-ye Ganjavi; Nîzamî Gencewî; Nizami Gəncəvi) (1141 to 1209) (6th Hejri century), Nizami Ganje'i, Nizami, or Nezāmi, whose formal name was Jamal ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī,Mo'in, Muhammad(2006), "Tahlil-i Haft Paykar-i Nezami", Tehran.: p. 2: Some commentators have mentioned his name as “Ilyas the son of Yusuf the son of Zakki the son of Mua’yyad” while others have mentioned that Mu’ayyad is a title for Zakki. Mohammad Moin, rejects the first interpretation claiming that if it were to mean 'Zakki son of Muayyad' it should have been read as 'Zakki i Muayyad' where izafe (-i-) shows the son-parent relationship but here it is 'Zakki Muayyad' and Zakki ends in silence/stop and there is no izafe (-i-). Some may argue that izafe is dropped due to meter constraints but dropping parenthood izafe is very strange and rare. So it is possible that Muayyad was a sobriquet for Zaki or part of his name (like Muayyad al-Din Zaki). This is supported by the fact that later biographers also state Yusuf was the son of Mu’ayyad was a 12th-century Persian poet. Nezāmi is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. excerpt: Greatest romantic epic poet in Persian Literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic..... Nezami is admired in Persian-speaking lands for his originality and clarity of style, though his love of language for its own sake and of philosophical and scientific learning makes his work difficult for the average reader. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, the Kurdistan region and Tajikistan.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.

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, or —derived from the Sino-Japanese word for "skill" or "talent"—is a major form of classical Japanese musical drama that has been performed since the 14th century.

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Octavio Paz

Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican poet-diplomat and writer.

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The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.

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Ogden Nash

Frederic Ogden Nash (August 19, 1902 – May 19, 1971) was an American poet well known for his light verse.

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Oku no Hosomichi

, translated alternately as The Narrow Road to the Deep North and The Narrow Road to the Interior, is a major work of haibun by the Japanese poet Matsuo Bashō, considered "one of the major texts of classical Japanese literature." The text is written in the form of a prose and verse travel diary and was penned as Bashō made an epic and dangerous journey on foot through the Edo Japan of the late 17th century.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Omeros is an epic poem by Caribbean writer Derek Walcott, first published in 1990.

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On (Japanese prosody)

The term "On" (rarely "Onji") refers to counting phonetic sounds in Japanese poetry.

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An onomatopoeia (or chiefly NZ; from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the source of the sound that it describes.

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Oral tradition

Oral tradition and oral lore is cultural material and tradition transmitted orally from one generation to another.

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Os Lusíadas

Os Lusíadas, usually translated as The Lusiads, is a Portuguese epic poem by Luís Vaz de Camões (sometimes anglicized as Camoens).

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Ottava rima

Ottava rima is a rhyming stanza form of Italian origin.

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Outline of poetry

The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to poetry: Poetry – a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities, in addition to, or instead of, its apparent meaning.

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Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – AD 17/18), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.

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Oxford Book of English Verse

The Oxford Book of English Verse, 1250–1900 is an anthology of English poetry, edited by Arthur Quiller-Couch, that had a very substantial influence on popular taste and perception of poetry for at least a generation.

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Oxford Book of Modern Verse 1892–1935

The Oxford Book of Modern Verse 1892–1935 was a poetry anthology edited by W. B. Yeats, and published in 1936 by Oxford University Press.

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The word papyrus refers to a thick paper-like material made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus.

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Paradise Lost

Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674).

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Parallelism (rhetoric)

In rhetoric, parallelism means giving two or more parts of the sentences a similar form so as to give the passage a definite pattern.

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Perception (from the Latin perceptio, percipio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment.

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Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric, as well as epic, poets in the English language.

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Performance poetry

Performance poetry is poetry that is specifically composed for or during a performance before an audience.

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Persian literature

Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی) is one of the world's oldest literatures.

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A person is a being, such as a human, that has certain capacities or attributes constituting personhood, which in turn is defined differently by different authors in different disciplines, and by different cultures in different times and places.

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Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists.

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Petrarchan sonnet

The Petrarchan sonnet was not developed by Petrarch himself, but rather by a string of Renaissance poets.

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Phaedrus (fabulist)

Phaedrus (Φαῖδρος; dates unknown fl. first century CE), Roman fabulist, was a Latin author and versifier of Aesop's fables.

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Phèdre (originally Phèdre et Hippolyte) is a dramatic tragedy in five acts written in alexandrine verse by Jean Racine, first performed in 1677.

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Phonaesthetics (from the φωνή phōnē, "voice-sound"; and αἰσθητική aisthētikē, "aesthetics") is the study of the inherent pleasantness (euphony) or unpleasantness (cacophony) of the sound of certain words, phrases, and sentences.

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Piers Plowman

Piers Plowman (written 1370–90) or Visio Willelmi de Petro Ploughman (William's Vision of Piers Plowman) is a Middle English allegorical narrative poem by William Langland.

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Pindar (Πίνδαρος Pindaros,; Pindarus) (c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.

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Poet laureate

A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, who is often expected to compose poems for special events and occasions.

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Poetic diction

Poetic diction is the term used to refer to the linguistic style, the vocabulary, and the metaphors used in the writing of poetry.

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Poetics is the theory of literary forms and literary discourse.

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Poetics (Aristotle)

Aristotle's Poetics (Περὶ ποιητικῆς, De Poetica; c. 335 BCEDukore (1974, 31).) is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and the first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory.

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Poetry of Turkey

Poetry of the Republic of Turkey covers the "Turkish Poetry" beginning with 1911 with the national literature movement.

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Poetry reading

A poetry reading is a public oral recitation or performance of poetry.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.

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Politics (from πολιτικός politikos, definition "of, for, or relating to citizens") is the practice and theory of influencing other people.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe.

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Postmodernism is a late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism.

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Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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Sextus Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet of the Augustan age.

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Prose is a form of language that exhibits a grammatical structure and a natural flow of speech rather than a rhythmic structure (as in traditional poetry).

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The Book of Psalms, Tehillim in Hebrew (or meaning "Praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible.

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The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play that suggests two or more meanings, by exploiting multiple meanings of words, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.

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A pyrrhic (πυρρίχιος pyrrichios, from πυρρίχη pyrrichē) is a metrical foot used in formal poetry.

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The qaṣīdaᵗ (also spelled qaṣīdah; is originally an Arabic word Arabic: قصيدة, plural qasā'id, قــصــائـد; that was passed to some other languages such as Persian: قصیده or چكامه, chakameh, in Turkish: kaside) it is an ancient Arabic word and form of writing poem that was passed to other cultures after the Arab Muslim expansion.

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In philosophy, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.

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A quatrain is a type of stanza, or a complete poem, consisting of four lines.

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Rainer Maria Rilke

René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926)—better known as Rainer Maria Rilke—was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist, "widely recognized as one of the most lyrically intense German-language poets", on the Poetry Foundation website.

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The Ramayana (रामायणम्) is a Sanskrit epic poem ascribed to the Hindu sage and Sanskrit poet Valmiki.

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Rapping (or emceeing, MCing, spitting bars, or rhyming) is "spoken or chanted rhyming lyrics".

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A refrain (from Vulgar Latin refringere, "to repeat", and later from Old French refraindre) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the "chorus" of a song.

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Regulated verse

Regulated verse -- also known as Jintishi -- is a development within Classical Chinese poetry of the shi main formal type.

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, or, is a Japanese form of popular collaborative linked verse poetry.

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A rhapsode (ῥαψῳδός, rhapsōdos) or, in modern usage, rhapsodist, refers to a classical Greek professional performer of epic poetry in the fifth and fourth centuries BC (and perhaps earlier).

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Rhetoric (pronounced) is the art of discourse, an art that aims to improve the capability of writers or speakers to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Rhetorical device

In rhetoric, a rhetorical device or resource of language is a technique that an author or speaker uses to convey to the listener or reader a meaning with the goal of persuading him or her towards considering a topic from a different perspective, using sentences designed to encourage or provoke a rational argument from an emotional display of a given perspective or action.

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A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.

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Rhyme scheme

A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhymes at the end of each line of a poem or song.

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Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".

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Robert Burns

Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796) (also known as Robbie Burns, Rabbie Burns, Scotland's favourite son, the Ploughman Poet, Robden of Solway Firth, the Bard of Ayrshire and in Scotland as The Bard) was a Scottish poet and lyricist.

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Robert Frost

Robert Lee Frost (March26, 1874January29, 1963) was an American poet.

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Robert Henryson

Robert Henryson (Middle Scots: Robert Henrysoun) was a poet who flourished in Scotland in the period c. 1460–1500.

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Robert Pinsky

Robert Pinsky (born October 20, 1940) is an American poet, essayist, literary critic, and translator.

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Robinson Jeffers

John Robinson Jeffers (January 10, 1887 – January 20, 1962) was an American poet, known for his work about the central California coast.

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Roland Barthes

Roland Gérard Barthes (12 November 1915 – 26 March 1980) was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician.

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Roman de la Rose

The Roman de la Rose ("Romance of the Rose"), is a medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romantic poetry

Romantic poetry is the poetry of Romanticism, a philosophical, literary, artistic and cultural era which reacted against the prevailing Enlightenment ideals of the day in favor more natural, emotional, and personal artistic themes.

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Rubāʿī (رباعی rubāʿī, "quatrain") is a poetry style.

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Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mawlānā/Mevlânâ (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.

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Russian language

Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sabir people

The Sabir people or Savirs (sbr; Σάβιροι) inhabited the south-western Caspian Depression of Strabo's Sauromatae (though they are not to be confused with the Sarmatians) prior to the arrival of the Caucasian Avars from Abarshahr (Khorasan).

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Sanskrit literature

Literature in Sanskrit begins with the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the mid-2nd millennium BCE, and continues with the oral tradition of the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to Late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries CE).

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Sappho (Attic Greek Σαπφώ, Aeolic Greek Ψάπφω, Psappho) was a Greek lyric poet, born on the island of Lesbos.

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Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government or society itself, into improvement.

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Satires (Juvenal)

The Satires are a collection of satirical poems by the Latin author Juvenal written in the late 1st and early 2nd centuries AD.

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Scansion or a system of scansion (verb: to scan) is the act of determining and (usually) graphically representing the metrical character of a line of verse.

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Science fiction

Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginative content such as futuristic settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes and extraterrestrial life.

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The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.

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Shakespeare's sonnets

Shakespeare's Sonnets is the title of a collection of 154 sonnets accredited to William Shakespeare which cover themes such as the passage of time, love, beauty and mortality.

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Shen Yue

Shen Yue (441–513), courtesy name Xiuwen (休文), was a poet, statesman, and historian born in Huzhou, Zhejiang.

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Shi (poetry)

Shi and shih are romanizations of the character 詩 or 诗, the Chinese word for all poetry generally and across all languages.

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simile: * A 'simile' is a figure of speech that directly compares two things through the explicit use of connecting words (such as like, as, so, than, or various verbs such as resemble).

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The term skald (or skáld) meaning ‘poet’, is generally used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age and Middle Ages.

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The Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group living in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia, who speak the Indo-European Slavic languages, and share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds.

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Sohrāb or Suhrāb (سهراب) is a character from the Shahnameh, or the Tales of Kings by Ferdowsi in the tragedy of Rostam and Sohrab.

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A song is an artistic form of expression based on sound, generally considered a single (and often standalone) work of music with distinct and fixed pitches, pattern, and form.

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A sonnet is a poetic form which originated in Italy; Giacomo Da Lentini is credited with its invention.

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Sound symbolism

In linguistics, sound symbolism, phonesthesia or phonosemantics is the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes carry meaning in and of themselves.

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Spanish language

Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.

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Speech is the vocalized form of human communication.

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In poetry, a spondee is a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables, as determined by syllable weight in classical meters, or two stressed syllables, as determined by stress in modern meters.

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Sprung rhythm

Sprung rhythm is a poetic rhythm designed to imitate the rhythm of natural speech.

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In poetry, a stanza is a grouped set of lines within a poem, usually set off from other stanzas by a blank line or indentation.

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Stéphane Mallarmé

Stéphane Mallarmé (18 March 1842 – 9 September 1898), whose real name was Étienne Mallarmé, was a French poet and critic.

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Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

"Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" is a poem written in 1922 by Robert Frost, and published in 1923 in his New Hampshire volume.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence.

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A strophe is a poetic term originally referring to the first part of the ode in Ancient Greek tragedy, followed by the antistrophe and epode.

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Stylistics (field of study)

Stylistics is the study and interpretation of texts in regard to their linguistic and tonal style.

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Sufism (تصوف, Ta'sawwuf), according to its adherents, is the inner mystical dimension of Islam.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Sumerian language

Sumerian ("native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer, a language isolate which was spoken in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).

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Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.

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A symbol is an object that represents, stands for or suggests an idea, visual image, belief, action or material entity.

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Tamil language

Tamil also spelt Thamizh is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.

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The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ, or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach) or Mikra is the canon of the Hebrew Bible.

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A tercet is composed of three lines of poetry, forming a stanza or a complete poem.

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Terza rima

Terza rima is a rhyming verse stanza form that consists of an interlocking three-line rhyme scheme.

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In poetry, a tetrameter is a line of four metrical feet.

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The Canterbury Tales

The Canterbury Tales (Middle English: Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer.

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The Norton Anthology of Poetry

The Norton Anthology of Poetry is one of several literary anthologies published by W.W. Norton and Company.

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The Ode Less Travelled

The Ode Less Travelled: Unlocking the Poet Within is a book by author, actor, comedian, and director Stephen Fry about writing poetry.

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The Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse

The Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse is a poetry anthology edited by Philip Larkin.

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The Raven

"The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe.

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The Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.

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Thomas Gray

Thomas Gray (26 December 1716 – 30 July 1771) was an English poet, letter-writer, classical scholar and professor at Cambridge University.

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Thomas Shadwell

Thomas Shadwell (c. 1642 – 19 November 1692) was an English poet and playwright who was appointed poet laureate in 1689.

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Thomas Wyatt (poet)

Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503 – 11 October 1542) was a 16th-century English ambassador and lyrical poet.

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To His Coy Mistress

"To His Coy Mistress" is a metaphysical poem written by the English author and politician Andrew Marvell (1621–1678) either during or just before the English Interregnum (1649–60).

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Tomás de Iriarte y Oropesa

Tomás de Iriarte (or Yriarte) y Oropesa (Puerto de la Cruz, La Orotava, island of Tenerife, 18 September 1750 — Madrid, 17 September 1791), was a Spanish neoclassical poet.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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A Tory holds a political philosophy (Toryism) based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism.

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Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing.

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Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.

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Trochaic octameter

Trochaic octameter is a poetic meter that has eight trochaic metrical feet per line.

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In poetic meter, a trochee or choree, choreus, is a metrical foot consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one in English, or a heavy syllable followed by a light one in Latin or Greek.

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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:;, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a standardised register of the Hindustani language.

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Urdu poetry

Urdu poetry (اُردُو شاعرى) is a rich tradition of poetry and has many different forms.

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Vahshi Bafqi

Kamal al-din (or Shams al-Din Mohammad) known by his pen name Vahshi Bafghi (Persian: وحشی بافقی; born 1532 - died 1583) was a Persian poet of the Safavid period.

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Valmiki (Sanskrit;; Vālmīki) is celebrated as the harbinger-poet in Sanskrit literature.

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The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India.

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Vedic meter

The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters.

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Vedic period

The Vedic period (or Vedic age) (ca. 1500–500 BCE) was the period in Indian history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed.

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Venpa (வெண்பா in Tamil) is a form of classical Tamil poetry.

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Verse (poetry)

In the countable sense, a verse is formally a single metrical line in a poetic composition.

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Verse drama and dramatic verse

Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general term is poetic drama.

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Verse paragraph

Verse paragraphs are stanzas with no regular number of lines or groups of lines that make up units of sense.

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A villanelle (also known as villanesque)Kastner 1903 p. 279 is a nineteen-line poetic form consisting of five tercets followed by a quatrain.

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Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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Virginia Woolf

Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941) was an English writer and one of the foremost modernists of the twentieth century.

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Vis and Rāmin

Vis and Rāmin (ويس و رامين., Vis o Rāmin) is an ancient Persian love story.

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Vishnu Sharma

Vishnu Sharma (Sanskrit: विष्णुशर्मन् / विष्णुशर्मा) was an Indian scholar and author who is believed to have written the Panchatantra collection of fables.

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Vladimir Nabokov

Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков,, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; c2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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W. B. Yeats

William Butler Yeats (13 June 186528 January 1939) was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th century literature.

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W. H. Auden

Wystan Hugh AudenThe name Wystan derives from the 9th-century St Wystan, who was murdered by Beorhtfrith, the son of Beorhtwulf, king of Mercia, after Wystan objected to Beorhtfrith's plan to marry Wystan's mother.

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Waka (poetry)

is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature.

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Walt Whitman

Walter "Walt" Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist and journalist.

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Wendy Cope

Wendy Cope, OBE (born 21 July 1945) is a contemporary English poet.

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West–östlicher Divan

West-östlicher Diwan (West–Eastern Diwan, original title: West-östlicher Divan) is a diwan, or collection of lyrical poems, by the German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

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Western canon

The term "Western canon" denotes a body of books and, more broadly, music and art that have been traditionally accepted by Western scholars as the most important and influential in shaping Western culture.

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Willard R. Espy

Willard Richardson Espy (December 11, 1910 – February 20, 1999) was a US editor, philologist, writer, poet, and local historian.

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William Carlos Williams

William Carlos Williams (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963) was an American poet closely associated with modernism and imagism.

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William Cullen Bryant

William Cullen Bryant (November 3, 1794 – June 12, 1878) was an American romantic poet, journalist, and long-time editor of the New York Evening Post.

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William Langland

William Langland (c. 1332 – c. 1386) is the conjectured author of the 14th-century English dream-vision Piers Plowman.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616) was an English:poet,:playwright, actor and an Italophile, who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Word play

Word play or wordplay is a literary technique and a form of wit in which the words that are used become the main subject of the work, primarily for the purpose of intended effect or amusement.

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X. J. Kennedy


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Yasna is the Avestan language name of Zoroastrianism's principal act of worship, and also the name of the primary liturgical collection of Avesta texts, recited during that yasna ceremony.

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Yevgeny Baratynsky

Yevgeny Abramovich Baratynsky (a; July 11, 1844) was lauded by Alexander Pushkin as the finest Russian elegiac poet.

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Yuefu are Chinese poems composed in a folk song style.

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Zoroaster (or, from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 (Zaraθuštra); زرتشت Zartosht, زردشت Zardosht), or as Zarathushtra Spitama, was the founder of Zoroastrianism.

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Zoroastrianism or Mazdaism is the religion ascribed to the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster, whose Supreme Being was Ahura Mazda.

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6th century in poetry

Pre-Islamic poetry at its height as the Arabic language emerges as a literary language.

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7th century BC in poetry

No description.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poetry

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