451 relations: Acrostic, Adam Mickiewicz, Aeneid, Aesop, Aesop's Fables, Aesthetics, Aga Khan III, Al-Andalus, Alexander Pope, Alexander Pushkin, Alexandrine, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Allegory, Allegory in the Middle Ages, Alliteration, Alliterative verse, Allusion, Aloysius Bertrand, Ambiguity, Ambrose Bierce, Anapaest, Anapestic tetrameter, Ancient Rome, Andrew Marvell, Anne Carson, Anthropomorphism, Antiphon, Antistrophe, Antonio Machado, Arabic, Arabic poetry, Aristotle, Art, Arthur Rimbaud, Asemic writing, Assonance, Asuka period, Athens, Avestan, Ayutthaya Kingdom, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani literature, Ballad, Balts, Bard, Ben Jonson, Bengali poetry, Bianwen, Biblical poetry, Biernat of Lublin, ..., Big Bang, Burton Watson, Cadence (poetry), Caesura, Call and response (music), Calligraphy, Cantar de Mio Cid, Canto, Carol Ann Duffy, Catachresis, Catalan language, Chant royal, Character (arts), Charles Baudelaire, Charlotte Turner Smith, Chen Zi'ang, Chidiock Tichborne, Chinese opera, Chinese poetry, Choriamb, Christine de Pizan, Christopher Kasparek, Classic of Poetry, Classical Chinese poetry, Classical language, Claude McKay, Clerihew, Colonialism, Comedy, Concept, Concrete poetry, Context-free grammar, Contrast (linguistics), Couplet, Culture, Cuneiform script, Dactyl (poetry), Dactylic hexameter, Dante Alighieri, Derek Walcott, Dialect, Do not go gentle into that good night, Doggerel, Double dactyl, Drama, Du Fu, Dylan Thomas, E. E. Cummings, East Asia, Edgar Allan Poe, Edmund Spenser, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Elegiac, Elegy, Elision, Elizabeth Bishop, Enclosed rhyme, English language, Epic of Gilgamesh, Epic of King Gesar, Epic of Sundiata, Epic poetry, Epode, Essay, Eugene Onegin, Eureka: A Prose Poem, Extrapolation, Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani, Farhad, Félix María de Samaniego, Feeling, Ferdowsi, Fernando de Rojas, Flash fiction, Foot (prosody), Four tones (Middle Chinese), Free verse, French language, Funeral, Galician language, Gathas, Genre, Geoffrey Chaucer, Geoffrey Hartman, Gerard Manley Hopkins, German language, Ghazal, Giannina Braschi, Globalization, Glossary of poetry terms, Grammar, Greek language, Greek literature, Greek tragedy, Griot, Gushi (poetry), Hafez, Haiku, Harold Bloom, Hebrew language, Hendecasyllable, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Hermeneutics, Hero, Hesiod, Hexameter, Hieros gamos, High Middle Ages, History of poetry, Hokku, Homer, Horace, Horror fiction, Human interest story, Iamb (poetry), Iambic pentameter, Iambic tetrameter, Ignacy Krasicki, Iliad, Imagery, Improvisation, Inanna, Incantation, Indian epic poetry, Internal rhyme, Intonation (linguistics), Iran, Iraq, Irony, Islamic Golden Age, Isochrony, Italian Renaissance, Ivan Krylov, Jan Kochanowski, Japanese language, Japanese poetry, Jean de La Fontaine, Jean Racine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Berryman, John Donne, John Dryden, John Keats, John Milton, John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, Jorge Manrique, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Juan Ruiz, Jueju, Juvenal, Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Kalevala, Kenning, Khosrow and Shirin, Kigo, Kireji, Lament, Language, Late Middle Ages, Latin, Latin poetry, Layla and Majnun, Leonese dialect, Lewis Carroll, Li Bai, Limerick (poetry), Line (poetry), Line break (poetry), List of poetry groups and movements, Literacy, Literary consonance, Literary genre, Literary theory, Literature, Long poem, Louis Gallet, Luís de Camões, Lyric poetry, Mac Flecknoe, Mahabharata, Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage, Marianne Moore, Marie de France, Marilynne Robinson, Masnavi, Matsuo Bashō, Meaning (linguistics), Memory, Mesopotamia, Metaphor, Metonymy, Metre (music), Metre (poetry), Michael Drayton, Middle Chinese, Mind, Mirza Alakbar Sabir, Modernism, Modernist poetry, Mora (linguistics), Moral, Mourning, Music, Mythology, Narrative, National epic, Negative capability, New Formalism, Nibelungenlied, Niger–Congo languages, Nizami Ganjavi, Nobel Prize, Noh, Octavio Paz, Odyssey, Ogden Nash, Oku no Hosomichi, Old English, Omeros, On (Japanese prosody), Onomatopoeia, Oral poetry, Oral tradition, Os Lusíadas, Ottava rima, Outline of poetry, Ovid, Oxford Book of Modern Verse 1892–1935, Pada (foot), Pali, Papyrus, Paradise Lost, Parallelism (rhetoric), Perception, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Performance poetry, Persian literature, Person, Petrarch, Petrarchan sonnet, Phaedrus (fabulist), Phèdre, Phonaesthetics, Piers Plowman, Pindar, Poet laureate, Poetic diction, Poetics, Poetics (Aristotle), Poetry of Turkey, Poetry reading, Poetry slam, Poiesis, Poland, Polish Academy of Sciences, Polish Scientific Publishers PWN, Politics, Portugal, Postmodernism, Printing, Propertius, Prose, Prose poetry, Psalms, Pun, Pyramid Texts, Pyrrhic, Qasida, Qualia, Quatrain, Rainer Maria Rilke, Ramayana, Rapping, Refrain, Regulated verse, Renaissance, Renku, Rhapsode, Rhetoric, Rhetorical device, Rhyme, Rhyme scheme, Rhythm, Robert Burns, Robert Frost, Robert Henryson, Robert Pinsky, Robinson Jeffers, Roland Barthes, Roman de la Rose, Romance languages, Romantic poetry, Rubaʿi, Rumi, Russian language, Sanskrit, Sappho, Satire, Satires (Juvenal), Scansion, Science fiction, Shahnameh, Shakespeare's sonnets, Shen Yue, Shi (poetry), Simile, Skald, Slavs, Sohrab, Song, Sonnet, Sound symbolism, Spanish language, Speech, Spoken word, Spondee, Sprung rhythm, Stanza, Stéphane Mallarmé, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, Story of Sinuhe, Stress (linguistics), Strophe, Stylistics, Sufism, Sumer, Sumerian language, Surrealism, Symbol, Tamil language, Tanakh, Ted Berrigan, Tercet, Terminology, Terza rima, Tetrameter, Thai language, The Canterbury Tales, The Death of the Author, The New Oxford Book of English Verse 1250–1950, The New York Review of Books, The Norton Anthology of Poetry, The Ode Less Travelled, The Oxford Book of English Verse, The Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse, The Raven, The Song of Hiawatha, Thomas Gray, Thomas Shadwell, Thomas Wyatt (poet), To His Coy Mistress, Tomás de Iriarte y Oropesa, Tone (linguistics), Tory, Tragedy, Translation, Trochaic octameter, Trochaic tetrameter, Trochee, Universe, Urdu, Urdu poetry, Vahshi Bafqi, Valmiki, Vedas, Vedic and Sanskrit literature, Vedic meter, Vedic period, Venpa, Verse (poetry), Verse drama and dramatic verse, Verse paragraph, Villanelle, Virgil, Virginia Woolf, Vis and Rāmin, Vishnu Sharma, Vladimir Nabokov, Vowel length, W. B. Yeats, W. H. Auden, Waka (poetry), Walt Whitman, Warsaw, Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Wendy Cope, West–östlicher Divan, Western canon, Wilfred Owen, Willard R. Espy, William Carlos Williams, William Cullen Bryant, William Langland, William Shakespeare, Word play, X. J. Kennedy, Yasna, Yevgeny Baratynsky, Yuefu, Zoroastrianism, 6th century in poetry. Expand index (401 more) » « Shrink index
An acrostic is a poem (or other form of writing) in which the first letter (or syllable, or word) of each line (or paragraph, or other recurring feature in the text) spells out a word, message or the alphabet.
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Aesop (Αἴσωπος,; c. 620 – 564 BCE) was a Greek fabulist and storyteller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables.
Aesop's Fables, or the Aesopica, is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave and storyteller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 564 BCE.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Sir Sultan Muhammed Shah, Aga Khan III (2 November 187711 July 1957) was the 48th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili religion.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexandrine is a name used for several distinct types of verse line with related metrical structures, most of which are ultimately derived from the classical French alexandrine.
Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Allegory in the Middle Ages was a vital element in the synthesis of biblical and classical traditions into what would become recognizable as medieval culture.
Alliteration is a figure of speech and a stylistic literary device which is identified by the repeated sound of the first or second letter in a series of words, or the repetition of the same letter sounds in stressed syllables of a phrase.
In prosody, alliterative verse is a form of verse that uses alliteration as the principal ornamental device to help indicate the underlying metrical structure, as opposed to other devices such as rhyme.
Allusion is a figure of speech, in which one refers covertly or indirectly to an object or circumstance from an external context.
Louis Jacques Napoléon Bertrand, better known by his pen name Aloysius Bertrand (20 April 1807 — 29 April 1841), was a French Romantic poet, playwright and journalist.
Ambiguity is a type of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible.
Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – circa 1914) was an American short story writer, journalist, poet, and Civil War veteran.
An anapaest (also spelled anapæst or anapest, also called antidactylus) is a metrical foot used in formal poetry.
Anapestic tetrameter is a poetic meter that has four anapestic metrical feet per line.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrew Marvell (31 March 1621 – 16 August 1678) was an English metaphysical poet, satirist and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678.
Anne Carson (born June 21, 1950) is a Canadian poet, essayist, translator, and professor of Classics.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
An antiphon (Greek ἀντίφωνον, ἀντί "opposite" and φωνή "voice") is a short chant in Christian ritual, sung as a refrain.
Antistrophe (ἀντιστροφή, "a turning back") is the portion of an ode sung by the chorus in its returning movement from west to east, in response to the strophe, which was sung from east to west.
Antonio Machado, in full Antonio Cipriano José María y Francisco de Santa Ana Machado y Ruiz (26 July 1875 – 22 February 1939), was a Spanish poet and one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as the Generation of '98.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic poetry (الشعر العربي ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet who is known for his influence on modern literature and arts, which prefigured surrealism.
Asemic writing is a wordless open semantic form of writing.
Assonance is a resemblance in the sounds of words or syllables either between their vowels (e.g., meat, bean) or between their consonants (e.g., keep, cape).
The was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710 (or 592 to 645), although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
The Ayutthaya Kingdom (อยุธยา,; also spelled Ayudhya or Ayodhaya) was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767.
Azerbaijani literature (Azərbaycan ədəbiyyatı) refers to the literature written in Azerbaijani, a Turkic language, which currently is the official state language of the Republic of Azerbaijan and is the first-language of most people in Iranian Azerbaijan.
A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music.
The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.
Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.
Bengali poetry is a form that originated in Pāli and other Prakrit socio-cultural traditions.
Bianwen is a technical term referring to a literary form that is believed to be some of the earliest examples of vernacular and prosimetric narratives in Chinese literature.
The ancient Hebrews perceived that there were poetical portions in their sacred texts, as shown by their entitling as songs or chants passages such as Exodus 15:1-19 and Numbers 21:17-20; a song or chant is, according to the primary meaning of the term, poetry.
Biernat of Lublin (Polish: Biernat z Lublina, Latin Bernardus Lublinius, ca. 1465 – after 1529) was a Polish poet, fabulist, translator and physician.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Burton Dewitt Watson (June 13, 1925April 1, 2017) was an American scholar best known for his numerous translations of Chinese and Japanese literature into English.
In poetry, cadence describes the fall in pitch of the intonation of the voice, and its modulated inflection with the rise and fall of its sound.
An example of a caesura in modern western music notation. A caesura (. caesuras or caesurae; Latin for "cutting"), also written cæsura and cesura, is a break in a verse where one phrase ends and the following phrase begins.
In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually written in different parts of the music, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or in response to the first.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
El Cantar de mio Cid, literally "The Song of my Cid" (or El Poema de mio Cid), also known in English as The Poem of the Cid, is the oldest preserved Castilian epic poem (epopeya).
The canto is a principal form of division in medieval and modern long poetry.
Dame Carol Ann Duffy HonFBA HonFRSE (born 23 December 1955) is a Scottish poet and playwright.
Catachresis (from Greek κατάχρησις, "abuse"), originally meaning a semantic misuse or error—e.g., using "militate" for "mitigate", "chronic" for "severe", "anachronism" for "anomaly", "alibi" for "excuse", etc.—is also the name given to many different types of figures of speech in which a word or phrase is being applied in a way that significantly departs from conventional (or traditional) usage.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
The Chant Royal is a poetic form that is a variation of the ballad form and consists of five eleven-line stanzas with a rhyme scheme a-b-a-b-c-c-d-d-e-d-E and a five-line envoi rhyming d-d-e-d-E or a seven-line envoi c-c-d-d-e-d-E. To add to the complexity, no rhyming word is used twiceJones, William Caswell.
A character (sometimes known as a fictional character) is a person or other being in a narrative (such as a novel, play, television series, film, or video game).
Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.
Charlotte Turner Smith (4 May 1749 – 28 October 1806) was an English Romantic poet and novelist.
Chen Zi'ang (661 (or 656)–702), courtesy name Boyu (伯玉), was a Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty.
Chidiock Tichborne (after 24 August 1562 – 20 September 1586), erroneously referred to as Charles, was an English conspirator and poet.
Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.
Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language.
In Greek and Latin poetry, a choriamb is a metron (prosodic foot) consisting of four syllables in the pattern long-short-short-long (— ‿ ‿ —), that is, a trochee alternating with an iamb.
Christine de Pizan (also seen as de Pisan;; 1364 – c. 1430) was an Italian late medieval author.
Christopher Kasparek (born 1945) is a Scottish-born writer of Polish descent who has translated works by numerous authors, including Ignacy Krasicki, Bolesław Prus, Florian Znaniecki, Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Marian Rejewski, and Władysław Kozaczuk, as well as the Polish-Lithuanian Constitution of 3 May 1791.
The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.
Attributed to Han Gan, ''Huiyebai (Night-Shining White Steed)'', about 750 CE (Tang Dynasty). Classical Chinese poetry is traditional Chinese poetry written in Classical Chinese and typified by certain traditional forms, or modes; traditional genres; and connections with particular historical periods, such as the poetry of the Tang Dynasty.
A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.
Festus Claudius "Claude" McKay (September 15, 1889 – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and poet, who was a seminal figure in the Harlem Renaissance.
A clerihew is a whimsical, four-line biographical poem invented by Edmund Clerihew Bentley.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
In a modern sense, comedy (from the κωμῳδία, kōmōidía) refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment.
Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.
Concrete, pattern, or shape poetry is an arrangement of linguistic elements in which the typographical effect is more important in conveying meaning than verbal significance.
In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a certain type of formal grammar: a set of production rules that describe all possible strings in a given formal language.
In semantics, contrast is a relationship between two discourse segments.
A couplet is a pair of successive lines of metre in poetry.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
A dactyl (δάκτυλος, dáktylos, “finger”) is a foot in poetic meter.
Dactylic hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter" and "the meter of epic") is a form of meter or rhythmic scheme in poetry.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
Sir Derek Alton Walcott, KCSL, OBE, OCC (23 January 1930 – 17 March 2017) was a Saint Lucian poet and playwright.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
"Do not go gentle into that good night" is a poem in the form of a villanelle, and the most famous work of Welsh poet Dylan Thomas (1914–1953).
Doggerel is poetry that is irregular in rhythm and in rhyme, often deliberately for burlesque or comic effect.
The double dactyl is a verse form invented by Anthony Hecht and Paul Pascal in 1951.
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play performed in a theatre, or on radio or television.
Du Fu (Wade–Giles: Tu Fu;; 712 – 770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty.
Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 – 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion"; the 'play for voices' Under Milk Wood; and stories and radio broadcasts such as A Child's Christmas in Wales and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog.
Edward Estlin "E.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.
Edmund Spenser (1552/1553 – 13 January 1599) was an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of the premier craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse, and is often considered one of the greatest poets in the English language.
The adjective elegiac has two possible meanings.
In English literature, an elegy is a poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
Elizabeth Bishop (February 8, 1911 – October 6, 1979) was an American poet and short-story writer.
Enclosed rhyme (or enclosing rhyme) is the rhyme scheme "abba" (that is, where the first and fourth lines, and the second and third lines rhyme).
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
The Epic of King Gesar ("King Gesar"; Гэсэр Хаан, Geser Khagan, "King Geser", Гесар-хан or Кесар), also spelled Geser (especially in Mongolian contexts) or Kesar, is an epic cycle, believed to date from the 12th century, that relates the heroic deeds of the culture hero Gesar, the fearless lord of the legendary kingdom of Ling.
The Sundiata Keita or Epic of Sundiata (also referred to as the Sundiata Epic or Sunjata Epic) is an epic poem of the Malinke people and tells the story of the hero Sundiata Keita (died 1255), the founder of the Mali Empire.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Epode, in verse, is the third part of an ode, which followed the strophe and the antistrophe, and completed the movement.
An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a paper, an article, a pamphlet, and a short story.
Eugene Onegin (pre-reform Russian: Евгеній Онѣгинъ; post-reform r) is a novel in verse written by Alexander Pushkin.
Eureka (1848) is a lengthy non-fiction work by American author Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849) which he subtitled "A Prose Poem", though it has also been subtitled as "An Essay on the Material and Spiritual Universe".
In mathematics, extrapolation is the process of estimating, beyond the original observation range, the value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another variable.
Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani, also spelled as Fakhraddin Asaad Gorgani (فخرالدين اسعد گرگاني), was an 11th-century Persian poet.
Farhad (فرهاد), from Middle Persian Farhād), has been a Persian name for men since the Parthians, first recorded for Arsacid kings circa 170 BC (almost 800 years before Islam). A few famous people with this name.
Félix María de Samaniego (October 12, 1745 – August 11, 1801), was a Spanish neoclassical fabulist.
Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.
Abu ʾl-Qasim Firdowsi Tusi (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.
Fernando de Rojas (La Puebla de Montalbán, Toledo, Spain, c. 1465/73 – Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain, April 1541) was a Spanish author and dramatist, known for his only surviving work, La Celestina (originally titled Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea), first published in 1499.
Flash fiction is fictional work of extreme brevity that still offers character and plot development.
The foot is the basic repeating rhythmic unit that forms part of a line of verse in most Western traditions of poetry, including English accentual-syllabic verse and the quantitative meter of classical ancient Greek and Latin poetry.
The four tones of Chinese poetry and dialectology are four traditional tone classes of Chinese words.
Free verse is an open form of poetry.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
The Gathas (are 17 Avestan hymns believed to have been composed by Zarathusthra (Zoroaster) himself. They form the core of the Zoroastrian liturgy (the Yasna). They are arranged in five different modes or metres. The Avestan term gāθā ("hymn", but also "mode, metre") is cognate with Sanskrit gāthā (गाथा), both from the Indo-Iranian root **gaH- "to sing".
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Geoffrey H. Hartman (August 11, 1929 – March 14, 2016) was a German-born American literary theorist, sometimes identified with the Yale School of deconstruction, although he cannot be categorised by a single school or method.
Gerard Manley Hopkins (28 July 1844 – 8 June 1889) was an English poet and Jesuit priest, whose posthumous fame established him among the leading Victorian poets.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The ghazal (غزَل, غزل, غزل), a type of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry.
Giannina Braschi (born February 5, 1953) is a Puerto Rican writer.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
This is a glossary of poetry.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek literature dates from ancient Greek literature, beginning in 800 BC, to the modern Greek literature of today.
Greek tragedy is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece and Asia Minor.
A griot, jali or jeli (djeli or djéli in French spelling) is a West African historian, storyteller, praise singer, poet and/or musician.
Gushi is one of the main poetry forms defined in Classical Chinese poetry, literally meaning "old (or ancient) poetry" or "old (or ancient) style poetry": gushi is a technical term for certain historically exemplary poems, together with later poetry composed in this formal style.
Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥāfeẓ-e Shīrāzī (خواجه شمسالدین محمد حافظ شیرازی), known by his pen name Hafez (حافظ Ḥāfeẓ 'the memorizer; the (safe) keeper'; 1315-1390) and as "Hafiz", was a Persian poet who "lauded the joys of love and wine but also targeted religious hypocrisy." His collected works are regarded as a pinnacle of Persian literature and are often found in the homes of people in the Persian speaking world, who learn his poems by heart and still use them as proverbs and sayings.
(plural haiku) is a very short Japan poem with seventeen syllables and three verses.
Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American literary critic and Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University.
In poetry, a hendecasyllable is a line of eleven syllables.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
A hero (masculine) or heroine (feminine) is a real person or a main character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength; the original hero type of classical epics did such things for the sake of glory and honor.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
Hexameter is a metrical line of verses consisting of six feet.
Hieros gamos or Hierogamy (Greek ἱερὸς γάμος, ἱερογαμία "holy marriage") is a sexual ritual that plays out a marriage between a god and a goddess, especially when enacted in a symbolic ritual where human participants represent the deities.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
Poetry as an art form predates written text.
is the opening stanza of a Japanese orthodox collaborative linked poem, renga, or of its later derivative, renku (haikai no renga).
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
Horror is a genre of speculative fiction which is intended to, or has the capacity to frighten, scare, disgust, or startle its readers or viewers by inducing feelings of horror and terror.
In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person, or people, or a pet in an emotional way.
An iamb or iambus is a metrical foot used in various types of poetry.
Iambic pentameter is a type of metrical line used in traditional English poetry and verse drama.
Iambic tetrameter is a meter in poetry.
Ignacy Krasicki (3 February 173514 March 1801), from 1766 Prince-Bishop of Warmia (in German, Ermland) and from 1795 Archbishop of Gniezno (thus, Primate of Poland), was Poland's leading Enlightenment poet"Ignacy Krasicki", Encyklopedia Polski (Encyclopedia of Poland), p. 325.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Imagery, in a literary text, is an author's use of vivid and descriptive language to add depth to their work.
Improvisation is creating or performing something spontaneously or making something from whatever is available.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
An incantation, enchantment, or magic spell is a set of words, spoken or unspoken, which are considered by its user to invoke some magical effect.
Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá) or Kappiyam (Tamil language: காப்பியம், kāppiyam).
In poetry, internal rhyme, or middle rhyme, is rhyme that occurs within a single line of verse, or between internal phrases across multiple lines.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Irony, in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (Ива́н Андре́евич Крыло́в; February 13, 1769 – November 21, 1844) is Russia's best-known fabulist and probably the most epigrammatic of all Russian authors.
Jan Kochanowski (1530 – 22 August 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Japanese poetry is poetry of or typical of Japan, or written, spoken, or chanted in the Japanese language, which includes Old Japanese, Early Middle Japanese, Late Middle Japanese, and Modern Japanese, and some poetry in Japan which was written in the Chinese language or ryūka from the Okinawa Islands: it is possible to make a more accurate distinction between Japanese poetry written in Japan or by Japanese people in other languages versus that written in the Japanese language by speaking of Japanese-language poetry.
Jean de La Fontaine (8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century.
Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 163921 April 1699), was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France (along with Molière and Corneille), and an important literary figure in the Western tradition.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
John Allyn McAlpin Berryman (born John Allyn Smith, Jr.; October 25, 1914 – January 7, 1972) was an American poet and scholar, born in McAlester, Oklahoma.
John Donne (22 January 1572 – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
John Wilmot (1 April 1647 – 26 July 1680) was an English poet and courtier of King Charles II's Restoration court.
Jorge Manrique (Paredes de Nava, Palencia, or Segura de la Sierra, Jaén, c. 1440 Santa María del Campo, Cuenca – 24 April 1479) was a major Castilian poet, whose main work, the Coplas a la muerte de su padre (Verses on the death of Don Rodrigo Manrique, his Father), is still read today.
Juan Ramón Jiménez Mantecón (23 December 1881 – 29 May 1958) was a Spanish poet, a prolific writer who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1956 "for his lyrical poetry, which in the Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity".
Juan Ruiz, known as the Archpriest of Hita (Arcipreste de Hita), was a medieval Castilian poet.
Jueju, or Chinese quatrain, is a type of jintishi ("modern form poetry") that grew popular among Chinese poets in the Tang Dynasty (618–907), although traceable to earlier origins.
Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, known in English as Juvenal, was a Roman poet active in the late first and early second century AD.
was a Japanese waka poet and aristocrat of the late Asuka period.
The Kalevala (Finnish Kalevala) is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology.
A kenning (Old Norse pronunciation:, Modern Icelandic pronunciation) is a type of circumlocution, in the form of a compound that employs figurative language in place of a more concrete single-word noun.
Khosrow and Shirin (خسرو و شیرین), is the title of a famous Persian tragic romance by the poet Nizami Ganjavi (1141–1209) who also wrote Layla and Majnun.
(plural kigo) is a word or phrase associated with a particular season, used in traditional forms of Japanese poetry.
is the term for a special category of words used in certain types of Japanese traditional poetry.
A lament or lamentation is a passionate expression of grief, often in music, poetry, or song form.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The history of Latin poetry can be understood as the adaptation of Greek models.
Layla and Majnun (مجنون ليلى.), also Leili o Majnun (ليلى و مجنون), is a narrative poem composed in 584/1188 by the Persian poet Neẓāmi Ganjavi based on a semi-historical Arab story about the 7th century Bedouin poet Qays ibn Al-Mulawwah and his ladylove Layla bint Mahdi (or Layla al-Aamiriya).
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.
Li Bai (701–762), also known as Li Bo, Li Po and Li Taibai, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights.
A limerick is a form of verse, often humorous and sometimes obscene, in five-line, predominantly anapestic meter with a strict rhyme scheme of AABBA, in which the first, second and fifth line rhyme, while the third and fourth lines are shorter and share a different rhyme.
A line is a unit of language into which a poem or play is divided, which operates on principles which are distinct from and not necessarily coincident with grammatical structures, such as the sentence or single clauses in sentences.
A line break in poetry is the termination of the line of a poem, and the beginning of a new line.
Poetry groups and movements or schools may be self-identified by the poets that form them or defined by critics who see unifying characteristics of a body of work by more than one poet.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Consonance is a stylistic literary device identified by the repetition of identical or similar consonants in neighbouring words whose vowel sounds are different (e.g. coming home, hot foot).
A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
The long poem is a literary genre including all poetry of considerable length.
Louis Gallet (14 February 1835 in Valence, Drôme – 16 October 1898) was a French writer of operatic libretti, plays, romances, memoirs, pamphlets, and innumerable articles, who is remembered above all for his adaptations of fiction—and Scripture— to provide librettos of cantatas and opera, notably by composers Georges Bizet, Camille Saint-Saëns and Jules Massenet.
Luís Vaz de Camões (sometimes rendered in English as Camoens or Camoëns (e.g. by Byron in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers),; c. 1524 or 1525 – 10 June 1580), is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Mac Flecknoe (full title: Mac Flecknoe; or, A satyr upon the True-Blew-Protestant Poet, T.S.Cox, Michael, editor, The Concise Oxford Chronology of English Literature, Oxford University Press, 2004) is a verse mock-heroic satire written by John Dryden.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage (15 September 1765 – 21 December 1805) was a Portuguese Neoclassic poet, writing at the beginning of his career under the pen name Elmano Sadino.
Marianne Craig Moore (November 15, 1887 – February 5, 1972) was an American Modernist poet, critic, translator, and editor.
Marie de France (fl. 1160 to 1215) was a medieval poet who was probably born in France and lived in England during the late 12th century.
Marilynne Summers Robinson (born November 26, 1943) is an American novelist and essayist.
The Masnavi, or Masnavi-i Ma'navi (مثنوی معنوی), also written Mesnevi, Mathnawi, or Mathnavi, is an extensive poem written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi also known as Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi poet.
, born 松尾 金作, then, was the most famous poet of the Edo period in Japan.
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
In music, metre (Am. meter) refers to the regularly recurring patterns and accents such as bars and beats.
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
Michael Drayton (1563 – 23 December 1631) was an English poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mirza Alakbar Sabir (Mirzə Ələkbər Sabir.), born Alakbar Zeynalabdin oglu Tahirzadeh (30 May 1862, Shamakhy – 12 July 1911, Shamakhy) was an Azerbaijani satirical poet, public figure, philosopher and teacher.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Modernist poetry refers to poetry written, mainly in Europe and North America, between 1890 and 1950 in the tradition of modernist literature, but the dates of the term depend upon a number of factors, including the nation of origin, the particular school in question, and the biases of the critic setting the dates.
A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.
Mourning is, in the simplest sense, grief over someone's death.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.
A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy.
Negative capability was a phrase first used by Romantic poet John Keats in 1817 to characterise the capacity of the greatest writers (particularly Shakespeare) to pursue a vision of artistic beauty even when it leads them into intellectual confusion and uncertainty, as opposed to a preference for philosophical certainty over artistic beauty.
New Formalism is a late 20th- and early 21st-century movement in American poetry that has promoted a return to metrical and rhymed verse.
The Nibelungenlied (Middle High German: Der Nibelunge liet or Der Nibelunge nôt), translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem from around 1200 written in Middle High German.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
Nizami Ganjavi (translit) (1141–1209), Nizami Ganje'i, Nizami, or Nezāmi, whose formal name was Jamal ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī,Mo'in, Muhammad(2006), "Tahlil-i Haft Paykar-i Nezami", Tehran.: p. 2: Some commentators have mentioned his name as “Ilyas the son of Yusuf the son of Zakki the son of Mua’yyad” while others have mentioned that Mu’ayyad is a title for Zakki. Mohammad Moin, rejects the first interpretation claiming that if it were to mean 'Zakki son of Muayyad' it should have been read as 'Zakki i Muayyad' where izafe (-i-) shows the son-parent relationship but here it is 'Zakki Muayyad' and Zakki ends in silence/stop and there is no izafe (-i-). Some may argue that izafe is dropped due to meter constraints but dropping parenthood izafe is very strange and rare. So it is possible that Muayyad was a sobriquet for Zaki or part of his name (like Muayyad al-Din Zaki). This is supported by the fact that later biographers also state Yusuf was the son of Mu’ayyad was a 12th-century Persian Sunni Muslim poet. Nezāmi is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. excerpt: Greatest romantic epic poet in Persian Literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic..... Nezami is admired in Persian-speaking lands for his originality and clarity of style, though his love of language for its own sake and of philosophical and scientific learning makes his work difficult for the average reader. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, the Kurdistan region and Tajikistan.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
, derived from the Sino-Japanese word for "skill" or "talent", is a major form of classical Japanese musical drama that has been performed since the 14th century.
Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican poet and diplomat.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Frederic Ogden Nash (August 19, 1902 – May 19, 1971) was an American poet well known for his light verse, of which he wrote over 500 pieces.
, translated alternately as The Narrow Road to the Deep North and The Narrow Road to the Interior, is a major work of haibun by the Japanese poet Matsuo Bashō, considered one of the major texts of Japanese literature of the Edo period.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Omeros is an epic poem by Caribbean writer Derek Walcott, first published in 1990.
The term On (rarely Onji) refers to counting phonetic sounds in Japanese poetry.
An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.
Oral poetry is poetry that is composed and transmitted without the aid of writing.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Os Lusíadas, usually translated as The Lusiads, is a Portuguese epic poem written by Luís Vaz de Camões (– 1580) and first published in 1572.
Ottava rima is a rhyming stanza form of Italian origin.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to poetry: Poetry – a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities, in addition to, or instead of, its apparent meaning.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
The Oxford Book of Modern Verse 1892–1935 was a poetry anthology edited by W. B. Yeats, and published in 1936 by Oxford University Press.
Pāda is the Sanskrit term for "foot" (cognate to English foot, Latin pes, Greek pous), with derived meanings "step, stride; footprint, trace; vestige, mark".
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674).
Parallelism is a rhetorical device that compounds words or phrases that have equivalent meanings so as to create a definite pattern.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.
Performance poetry is poetry that is specifically composed for or during a performance before an audience.
Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
The Petrarchan sonnet is a sonnet form not developed by Petrarch himself, but rather by a string of Renaissance poets.
Gaius Julius Phaedrus (Φαῖδρος; fl. first century AD), Roman fabulist, was a Latin author and versifier of Aesop's fables.
Phèdre (originally Phèdre et Hippolyte) is a French dramatic tragedy in five acts written in alexandrine verse by Jean Racine, first performed in 1677 at the theatre of the Hôtel de Bourgogne in Paris.
Phonaesthetics (from the φωνή phōnē, "voice-sound"; and αἰσθητική aisthētikē, "aesthetics") is a branch of phonetics concerned with "the possible connection between sound sequences and meaning", according to Raymond Hickey.
Piers Plowman (written 1370–90) or Visio Willelmi de Petro Ploughman (William's Vision of Piers Plowman) is a Middle English allegorical narrative poem by William Langland.
Pindar (Πίνδαρος Pindaros,; Pindarus; c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.
A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, typically expected to compose poems for special events and occasions.
Poetic diction is the term used to refer to the linguistic style, the vocabulary, and the metaphors used in the writing of poetry.
Poetics is the theory of literary forms and literary discourse.
Aristotle's Poetics (Περὶ ποιητικῆς; De Poetica; c. 335 BCDukore (1974, 31).) is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory in the West.
Poetry of the Republic of Turkey covers the "Turkish Poetry" beginning with 1911 with the national literature movement.
A poetry reading is a public oral recitation or performance of poetry.
A poetry slam is a competition in which poets perform spoken word poetry.
In philosophy, poiesis (from ποίησις) is "the activity in which a person brings something into being that did not exist before." Poiesis is etymologically derived from the ancient Greek term ποιεῖν, which means "to make".
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) is a Polish state-sponsored institution of higher learning.
Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN (Polish Scientific Publishers PWN; until 1991 Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe - National Scientific Publishers PWN, PWN) is a Polish book publisher, founded in 1951.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
Sextus Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet of the Augustan age.
Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.
Prose poetry is poetry written in prose instead of using verse but preserving poetic qualities such as heightened imagery, parataxis and emotional effects.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
The Pyramid Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old Kingdom.
A pyrrhic (πυρρίχιος pyrrichios, from πυρρίχη pyrrichē) is a metrical foot used in formal poetry.
The qaṣīdaᵗ (also spelled qaṣīdah; is originally an Arabic word Arabic: قصيدة, plural qaṣā'id, قــصــائـد; that was passed to some other languages such as Persian: قصیده or چكامه, chakameh, in Turkish: kaside) is an ancient Arabic word and form of writing poetry, often translated as ode, passed to other cultures after the Arab Muslim expansion.
In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.
A quatrain is a type of stanza, or a complete poem, consisting of four lines.
René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926), better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Rapping (or rhyming, spitting, emceeing, MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backbeat or musical accompaniment.
A refrain (from Vulgar Latin refringere, "to repeat", and later from Old French refraindre) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the "chorus" of a song.
Regulated verse – also known as Jintishi – is a development within Classical Chinese poetry of the shi main formal type.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
, or, is a Japanese form of popular collaborative linked verse poetry.
A rhapsode (ῥαψῳδός, "rhapsōidos") or, in modern usage, rhapsodist, refers to a classical Greek professional performer of epic poetry in the fifth and fourth centuries BC (and perhaps earlier).
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
In rhetoric, a rhetorical device, resource of language, or stylistic device is a technique that an author or speaker uses to convey to the listener or reader a meaning with the goal of persuading them towards considering a topic from a different perspective, using sentences designed to encourage or provoke an emotional display of a given perspective or action.
A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.
A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhymes at the end of each line of a poem or song.
Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".
Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.
Robert Lee Frost (March26, 1874January29, 1963) was an American poet.
Robert Henryson (Middle Scots: Robert Henrysoun) was a poet who flourished in Scotland in the period c. 1460–1500.
Robert Pinsky (born October 20, 1940) is an American poet, essayist, literary critic, and translator.
John Robinson Jeffers (January 10, 1887 – January 20, 1962) was an American poet, known for his work about the central California coast.
Roland Gérard Barthes (12 November 1915 – 26 March 1980) was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician.
Le Roman de la Rose (English: The Romance of the Rose) is a medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romantic poetry is the poetry of the Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century.
Rubāʿī (from رباعی rubāʿiyy, plural رباعيات rubāʿiyāt) is the term for a quatrain, a poem or a verse of a poem consisting of four lines.
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلالالدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلالالدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sappho (Aeolic Greek Ψαπφώ, Psappho; c. 630 – c. 570 BC) was an archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
The Satires are a collection of satirical poems by the Latin author Juvenal written in the early 2nd centuries AD.
Scansion (rhymes with mansion; verb: to scan), or a system of scansion, is the method or practice of determining and (usually) graphically representing the metrical pattern of a line of verse.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
Shakespeare's sonnets are poems that William Shakespeare wrote on a variety of themes.
Shen Yue (441–513), courtesy name Xiuwen (休文), was a poet, statesman, and historian born in Huzhou, Zhejiang.
Shi and shih are romanizations of the character 詩 or 诗, the Chinese word for all poetry generally and across all languages.
A simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two things.
The term skald, or skáld (Old Norse:, later;, meaning "poet"), is generally used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age and Middle Ages.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Sohrāb or Suhrāb (سُہراب) is a legendary warrior from the Shahnameh, or the Tales of Kings by Ferdowsi in the tragedy of Rostam and Sohrab.
A song, most broadly, is a single (and often standalone) work of music that is typically intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that often include the repetition of sections.
A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy; Giacomo da Lentini is credited with its invention.
In linguistics, sound symbolism, phonesthesia or phonosemantics is the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes carry meaning in and of themselves.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
Spoken word is a performance art that is word based.
A spondee (Latin: spondeus) is a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables, as determined by syllable weight in classical meters, or two stressed syllables in modern meters.
Sprung rhythm is a poetic rhythm designed to imitate the rhythm of natural speech.
In poetry, a stanza (from Italian stanza, "room") is a grouped set of lines within a poem, usually set off from other stanzas by a blank line or indentation.
Stéphane Mallarmé (18 March 1842 – 9 September 1898), whose real name was Étienne Mallarmé, was a French poet and critic.
"Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" is a poem written in 1922 by Robert Frost, and published in 1923 in his New Hampshire volume.
The Story of Sinuhe is considered one of the finest works of ancient Egyptian literature.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
A strophe is a poetic term originally referring to the first part of the ode in Ancient Greek tragedy, followed by the antistrophe and epode.
Stylistics, a branch of applied linguistics, is the study and interpretation of texts in regard to their linguistic and tonal style.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Ted Berrigan (November 15, 1934 – July 4, 1983) was an American poet.
A tercet is composed of three lines of poetry, forming a stanza or a complete poem.
Terminology is the study of terms and their use.
Terza rima is a rhyming verse stanza form that consists of an interlocking three-line rhyme scheme.
In poetry, a tetrameter is a line of four metrical feet.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.
"The Death of the Author" (French: La mort de l'auteur) is a 1967 essay by the French literary critic and theorist Roland Barthes (1915–80).
The New Oxford Book of English Verse 1250–1950 is a poetry anthology edited by Helen Gardner, and published in New York and London in 1972 by Clarendon Press.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The Norton Anthology of Poetry is one of several literary anthologies published by W.W. Norton and Company.
The Ode Less Travelled: Unlocking the Poet Within is a book by author, actor, comedian, and director Stephen Fry about writing poetry.
The Oxford Book of English Verse, 1250–1900 is an anthology of English poetry, edited by Arthur Quiller-Couch, that had a very substantial influence on popular taste and perception of poetry for at least a generation.
The Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse is a poetry anthology edited by Philip Larkin.
"The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe.
The Song of Hiawatha is an 1855 epic poem in trochaic tetrameter by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow that features Native American characters.
Thomas Gray (26 December 1716 – 30 July 1771) was an English poet, letter-writer, classical scholar, and professor at Pembroke College, Cambridge.
Thomas Shadwell (c. 1642 – 19 November 1692) was an English poet and playwright who was appointed poet laureate in 1689.
Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503 – 11 October 1542) was a 16th-century English politician, ambassador, and lyric poet credited with introducing the sonnet to English literature.
"To His Coy Mistress" is a metaphysical poem written by the English author and politician Andrew Marvell (1621–1678) either during or just before the English Interregnum (1649–60).
Tomás de Iriarte (or Yriarte) y Oropesa (Puerto de la Cruz, La Orotava, island of Tenerife, 18 September 1750 — Madrid, 17 September 1791), was a Spanish neoclassical poet.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Trochaic octameter is a poetic meter that has eight trochaic metrical feet per line.
Trochaic tetrameter is a meter in poetry.
In poetic metre, a trochee, choree, or choreus, is a metrical foot consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one, in English, or a heavy syllable followed by a light one in Latin or Greek.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Urdu poetry (اُردُو شاعرى) is a rich tradition of poetry and has many different forms.
Kamal al-din (or Shams al-Din Mohammad) known by his pen name Vahshi Bafghi (Persian: وحشی بافقی) (born 1532 – died 1583) was a Persian poet of the Safavid period.
Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, Vālmīki) is celebrated as the harbinger-poet in Sanskrit literature.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vedic and Sanskrit literature comprises the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the early-to-mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, and continues with the oral tradition of the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to Late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries CE).
Vedic Mantra refers to the poetic meter in the Vedic literature.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Venba (வெண்பா in Tamil) is a form of classical Tamil poetry.
In the countable sense, a verse is formally a single metrical line in a poetic composition.
Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general term is poetic drama.
Verse paragraphs are stanzas with no regular number of lines or groups of lines that make up units of sense.
A villanelle (also known as villanesque)Kastner 1903 p. 279 is a nineteen-line poetic form consisting of five tercets followed by a quatrain.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.
Vis and Rāmin (ويس و رامين., Vis o Rāmin) is an ancient Persian love story.
Vishnu Sharma (Sanskrit: विष्णुशर्मन् / विष्णुशर्मा) was an Indian scholar and author who is believed to have written the Panchatantra collection of fables.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
William Butler Yeats (13 June 186528 January 1939) was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature.
Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) was an English-American poet.
is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature.
Walter "Walt" Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, and journalist.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Władysław Tatarkiewicz (3 April 1886, Warsaw – 4 April 1980, Warsaw) was a Polish philosopher, historian of philosophy, historian of art, esthetician, and ethicist.
Wendy Cope, OBE (born 21 July 1945) is a contemporary English poet.
(West–Eastern Diwan) is a diwan, or collection of lyrical poems, by the German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".
Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (18 March 1893 – 4 November 1918) was an English poet and soldier.
Willard Richardson Espy (December 11, 1910February 20, 1999) was an American editor, philologist, writer, poet, and local historian.
William Carlos Williams (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963) was an American poet and physician closely associated with modernism and imagism.
William Cullen Bryant (November 3, 1794 – June 12, 1878) was an American romantic poet, journalist, and long-time editor of the New York Evening Post.
William Langland (Willielmus de Langland; 1332 – c. 1386) is the presumed author of a work of Middle English alliterative verse generally known as Piers Plowman, an allegory with a complex variety of religious themes.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Word play or wordplay (also: play-on-words) is a literary technique and a form of wit in which words used become the main subject of the work, primarily for the purpose of intended effect or amusement.
Yasna (𐬫𐬀𐬯𐬥𐬀) is the Avestan name of Zoroastrianism's principal act of worship.
Yevgeny Abramovich Baratynsky (a; 11 July 1844) was lauded by Alexander Pushkin as the finest Russian elegiac poet.
Yuefu are Chinese poems composed in a folk song style.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Pre-Islamic poetry at its height as the Arabic language emerges as a literary language.
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