274 relations: Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Air & Space/Smithsonian, Air traffic control, Al Jazeera, Alcanivorax, Amberjack, American Petroleum Institute, Amoco, Anadarko Petroleum, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Associated Press, Austin Stark, Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Back to Work Coalition, Barack Obama, Barrier island, BDO Global, Benthic zone, Biomarker (medicine), Bioremediation, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg L.P., Blowout (well drilling), Blowout preventer, Bluefin tuna, Bob Dudley, Boom (containment), Boston Herald, BP, British Columbia Coast, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement, Callinectes sapidus, Cameron International, Canadian Business, Carcinogen, Cardiac arrest, Cardiotoxicity, Carl Barbier, CBS News, Cement bond log, Central Time Zone, Centrifugal water–oil separator, Cetacea, Charlie Crist, Chicago Tribune, Clean Water Act, CNBC, CNN, Cold seep, ..., Computerworld, Congressional Research Service, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, Corexit, Crustacean, Daniel Kaniewski, David Cameron, Deep-water coral, Deepwater Horizon, Deepwater Horizon (film), Deepwater Horizon oil spill response, Democracy Now!, Development Driller III, Dioxin, Discoverer Enterprise, Dispersant, DNV GL, Dolphin, Doug Suttles, Drilling fluid, Drilling rig, Drilling riser, Drillship, Dynamic positioning, Earthjustice, Emulsion, Endocrine disruptor, Environmental Health Perspectives, Environmental Science & Technology, Eric Holder, Estuary, Exclusive economic zone, Exploded-view drawing, Exxon Valdez oil spill, Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Aviation Regulations, Film School Rejects, Flag of convenience, Flow Rate Technical Group, Food chain, Freedom of Information Act (United States), Frontline (U.S. TV series), Genetically modified organism, Geophysical Research Letters, Georgia Institute of Technology, Government Accountability Office, Government Accountability Project, Grand Isle, Louisiana, Gross negligence, GSF Development Driller II, Gulf Coast of the United States, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf Park Estates, Mississippi, GuLF Study, Halliburton, Hornbeck Offshore Services LLC v. Salazar, Houston Chronicle, HuffPost, Hyundai Heavy Industries, Incident commander, Intracoastal Waterway, Ixtoc I oil spill, Jean-Michel Cousteau, JSTOR, Jury trial, Kemp's ridley sea turtle, Kenneth Feinberg, Lake Pontchartrain, Lifeboat (shipboard), Lisa P. Jackson, List of industrial disasters, List of oil spills, Los Angeles Times, Louisiana, Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Louisiana pancake batfish, Macondo Prospect, Manslaughter, Marcia McNutt, Mark Wahlberg, Marsh, Marshall Islands, Martin Leach-Cross Feldman, Matthew Simmons, Methane, Methane clathrate, Miami Herald, Microorganism, Minerals Management Service, Misdemeanor, Mississippi Canyon, Mississippi River Delta, Mitsui, Mitsui Oil Exploration, Mollusca, Monterey Bay Aquarium, MSNBC, Multidistrict litigation, Mutation, NASA, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Sciences, National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, National Energy Board, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, National Geographic Society, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Park Service, National Wild Turkey Federation, National Wildlife Federation, Natural Resources Defense Council, Nature (journal), Newsweek, NHST Media Group, Nicolas Cage, Northern Canada, Office of Natural Resources Revenue, Offshore oil and gas in California, Offshore oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico (United States), Oil dispersants, Oil Pollution Act of 1990, Oil spill, Oklahoma, Organization for International Investment, Oxygen, PBS, Pelican, Pensacola Beach, Florida, People & Planet, Peter Berg, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, PLOS One, Polychaete, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Rand Paul, Relief well, Remand (court procedure), Remotely operated vehicle, Research and Development Institute of Ecology and the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, RIA Novosti, Richard Garwin, Riki Ott, Robert Gordon University, Salt marsh, Sandia National Laboratories, Sarah S. Vance, Science (journal), Scientific American, Sea turtle, Seabed, Skimmer (machine), Sorbent, Stanford Law Review, Stanford University, Steven Chu, Stillbirth, Supreme Court of the United States, Tampa Bay, Tarball (oil), Terra (satellite), Thad Allen, The Advocate (Louisiana), The Boston Globe, The Charlotte Observer, The Christian Science Monitor, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The McClatchy Company, The Nation, The New York Times, The New Yorker, The Newsroom (U.S. TV series), The Runner (2015 film), The Sun News, The Times-Picayune, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, The Washington Times, The Weekly Standard, Thermonuclear weapon, Timeline of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, TMT (Today Makes Tomorrow), Ton, Tony Hayward, Top kill, Toronto Star, Toxicity, Toxin, Transocean, U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, United States Attorney General, United States Coast Guard, United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Department of Homeland Security, United States Department of Justice, United States Department of State, United States Department of the Interior, United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States federal judge, United States House Committee on Energy and Commerce, University of California, Santa Barbara, University of Florida, Upstream (newspaper), USA Today, Volatile organic compound, Washington, D.C., WCCO-TV, We Just Decided To, Wellhead, WFLA-TV, WGNO, Whitehouse.gov, Wilma Subra, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Zooplankton. 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The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is the head of the United States federal government's Environmental Protection Agency, and is thus responsible for enforcing the nation's Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, as well as numerous other environmental statutes.
Air & Space/Smithsonian magazine is a bimonthly magazine put out by the National Air and Space Museum.
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Alcanivorax borkumensis is an alkane-degrading marine bacterium which naturally propagates and becomes predominant in crude-oil-containing seawater when nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients are supplemented.
Amberjack is an Atlantic and Pacific fish of the Carangidae family (genus Seriola).
The American Petroleum Institute (API) is the largest U.S. trade association for the oil and natural gas industry.
Amoco Corporation, originally Standard Oil Company (Indiana), is a global chemical and oil company that was founded in 1889 around a refinery located in Whiting, Indiana, United States.
Anadarko Petroleum Corporation is an American petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company headquartered in two skyscrapers in The Woodlands, Texas: the Allison Tower and the Hackett Tower, both named after former CEOs of the company.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Austin Stark (born May 31, 1979) is an American film producer, writer, and director.
The Autonomous University of Aguascalientes (in Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, UAA) is a Mexican public university based in the city of Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, and has several campuses that are located across the state.
The Back to Work Coalition is a group of twelve offshore oil and gas industry stakeholders and trade associations that have banded together to oppose the federal and regulatory policies placed on the industry following the Deepwater Horizon oil well explosion of April 2010.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barrier islands are coastal landforms and a type of dune system that are exceptionally flat or lumpy areas of sand that form by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast.
For other uses, see BDO (disambiguation). BDO or Binder Dijker Otte is an international network of public accounting, tax, consulting and business advisory firms which perform professional services under the name of BDO.
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
In medicine, a biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
A blowout is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from an oil well or gas well after pressure control systems have failed.
A blowout preventer (BOP) is a large, specialized valve or similar mechanical device, used to seal, control and monitor oil and gas wells to prevent blowouts, the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from a well.
Bluefin tuna is a common name used to refer to several species of tuna of the genus Thunnus.
Robert Warren Dudley (born September 14, 1955) is the group chief executive of BP.
A containment boom is a temporary floating barrier used to contain an oil spill.
The Boston Herald is an American daily newspaper whose primary market is Boston, Massachusetts and its surrounding area.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
The British Columbia Coast or BC Coast is Canada's western continental coastline on the North Pacific Ocean.
The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, established in 2010 by Secretarial Order.
The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) is an agency under the United States Department of the Interior.
Callinectes sapidus (from the Greek calli-.
Cameron International Corporation (formerly Cooper Cameron Corporation, CCC) is a Schlumberger company and a global provider of pressure control, processing, flow control and compression systems as well as project management and aftermarket services for the oil and gas and process industries.
Canadian Business is the longest-publishing business magazine based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and founded in 1927.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cardiotoxicity is the occurrence of heart electrophysiology dysfunction or muscle damage.
Carl Joseph Barbier (born 1944) is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
A cement bond log documents has an evaluation of the integrity of cement work performed on an oil well.
The North American Central Time Zone (CT) is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
A centrifugal water–oil separator, centrifugal oil–water separator or centrifugal liquid–liquid separator is a device designed to separate oil and water by centrifugation.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Charles Joseph Crist Jr. (born July 24, 1956) is an American attorney and politician serving as the U.S. Representative for since 2017.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.
CNBC is an American basic cable, internet and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of NBCUniversal, with both being ultimately owned by Comcast.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.
Computerworld is a publication website and digital magazine for information technology (IT) and business technology professionals.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) is a research institute where scientists study the use of data from geostationary and polar orbit weather satellites to improve forecasts of weather (including tropical cyclones and severe storms. CIMSS was formed through a Memorandum of Understanding between the University of Wisconsin–Madison, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). CIMSS parent organization, the Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) is a primary developer and operator of environmental satellite technologies. It is one of 16 NOAA Cooperative Institutes (CIs).
Corexit (often styled COREXIT) is a product line of oil dispersants used during oil spill response operations.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Daniel J. Kaniewski is the Deputy Administrator for National Preparedness at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
The habitat of deep-water corals, also known as cold-water corals, extends to deeper, darker parts of the oceans than tropical corals, ranging from near the surface to the abyss, beyond where water temperatures may be as cold as.
Deepwater Horizon was an ultra-deepwater, dynamically positioned, semi-submersible offshore drilling rig owned by Transocean.
Deepwater Horizon is a 2016 American disaster film based on the ''Deepwater Horizon'' explosion and oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
A variety of techniques were used to address fundamental strategies for addressing the spilled oil, which were: to contain oil on the surface, dispersal, and removal.
Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.
Development Driller III is a fifth generation, Vanuatu-flagged dynamic positioning semi-submersible ultra-deepwater drilling rig owned by Transocean and operated under lease agreements by various petroleum exploration and production companies worldwide.
Dioxin may refer to.
Discoverer Enterprise is a fifth generation deepwater double hulled dynamically positioned drillship (ASTANO FPSO design) owned and operated by Transocean Offshore Deepwater Drilling Inc., capable of operating in moderate environments and water depths up to 3,049 m (10,000 ft) using an, 15,000 psi blowout preventer (BOP), and a outside diameter (OD) marine riser.
A dispersant or a dispersing agent or a plasticizer or a superplasticizer is either a non-surface active polymer or a surface-active substance added to a suspension, usually a colloid, to improve the separation of particles and to prevent settling or clumping.
DNV GL is an international accredited registrar and classification society headquartered in Høvik, Norway.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
Doug Suttles is President and Chief Executive Officer of Encana Corporation.
In geotechnical engineering, drilling fluid is used to aid the drilling of boreholes into the earth.
A drilling rig is a machine that creates holes in the earth subsurface.
A drilling riser is a conduit that provides a temporary extension of a subsea oil well to a surface drilling facility.
A drillship is a merchant vessel designed for use in exploratory offshore drilling of new oil and gas wells or for scientific drilling purposes.
Dynamic positioning (DP) is a computer-controlled system to automatically maintain a vessel's position and heading by using its own propellers and thrusters.
Earthjustice (originally Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund) is a non-profit public interest organization based in the United States dedicated to litigating environmental issues.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
Environmental Science & Technology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1967 by the American Chemical Society.
Eric Himpton Holder Jr. (born January 21, 1951) is an American attorney who served as the 82nd Attorney General of the United States from 2009 to 2015.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
An exploded view drawing is a diagram, picture, schematic or technical drawing of an object, that shows the relationship or order of assembly of various parts.
The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef at 12:04 am local time and spilled of crude oil over the next few days.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
The Federal Aviation Regulations, or FARs, are rules prescribed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) governing all aviation activities in the United States.
Film School Rejects is an English-language blog devoted to movie reviews, interviews, film industry news, and feature commentary.
Flag of convenience (FOC) is a business practice whereby a ship's owners register a merchant ship in a ship register of a country other than that of the ship's owners, and the ship flies the civil ensign of that country, called the flag state.
The Flow Rate Technical Group is a group of scientists and engineers from the United States federal government, universities, and research institutions created May 19, 2010, for an official scientific-based estimate of the flow of oil in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA),, is a federal freedom of information law that allows for the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the United States government.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.
The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly referred to as Georgia Tech, is a public research university and institute of technology in Atlanta, Georgia.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
The Government Accountability Project (GAP) is a whistleblower protection and advocacy organization in the United States.
Grand Isle (Grande-Île) is a town in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, United States, located on a barrier island of the same name in the Gulf of Mexico.
Gross negligence is the "lack of slight diligence or care" or "a conscious, voluntary act or omission in reckless disregard of a legal duty and of the consequences to another party." In some jurisdictions a person injured as a result of gross negligence may be able to recover punitive damages from the person who caused the injury or loss.
GSF Development Driller II is a fifth generation, Vanuatu-flagged dynamic positioning semi-submersible ultra-deepwater drilling rig owned and operated by Transocean.
The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.
Gulf Islands National Seashore offers recreation opportunities and preserves natural and historic resources along the Gulf of Mexico barrier islands of Florida and Mississippi.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Gulf Park Estates is a census-designated place (CDP) located south of Ocean Springs in Jackson County, Mississippi.
The GuLF Study, or Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study, is a five-year research project examining the human-health consequences of the ''Deepwater Horizon'' oil spill in April 2010.
Halliburton is an American multinational corporation.
Hornbeck Offshore Services v. Salazar is an ongoing case in United States federal court.
The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (or HHI) is the world's largest shipbuilding company.
The incident commander is the person responsible for all aspects of an emergency response; including quickly developing incident objectives, managing all incident operations, application of resources as well as responsibility for all persons involved.
The Intracoastal Waterway (ICW) is a inland waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States, running from Boston, Massachusetts, southward along the Atlantic Seaboard and around the southern tip of Florida, then following the Gulf Coast to Brownsville, Texas.
Ixtoc I was an exploratory oil well being drilled by the semi-submersible drilling rig Sedco 135 in the Bay of Campeche of the Gulf of Mexico, about northwest of Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche in waters deep.
Jean-Michel Cousteau (born 6 May 1938) is a French oceanographic explorer, environmentalist, educator, and film producer.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact.
Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii), or the Atlantic ridley sea turtle, is the rarest species of sea turtle and is critically endangered.
Kenneth Roy Feinberg (born October 23, 1945) is an American attorney, specializing in mediation and alternative dispute resolution.
Lake Pontchartrain (Lac Pontchartrain) is a brackish estuary located in southeastern Louisiana in the United States.
A lifeboat is a small, rigid or inflatable boat carried for emergency evacuation in the event of a disaster aboard a ship.
Lisa Perez JacksonPhillips, Kate.
This article lists notable industrial disasters, which are disasters caused by industrial companies, either by accident, negligence or incompetence.
This is a reverse-chronological list of oil spills that have occurred throughout the world and spill(s) that are currently ongoing.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals (DHH) is a state agency of Louisiana, headquartered in Baton Rouge.
Louisiana pancake batfish, Halieutichthys intermedius, belongs to the family Ogcocephalidae of batfish.
The Macondo Prospect (Mississippi Canyon Block 252, abbreviated MC252) is an oil and gas prospect in the United States Exclusive Economic Zone of the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Louisiana.
Manslaughter is a common law legal term for homicide considered by law as less culpable than murder.
Marcia Kemper McNutt (born February 19, 1952) is an American geophysicist and the 22nd president of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of the United States.
Mark Robert Michael Wahlberg (born June 5, 1971) is an American actor, producer, businessman, former model, rapper, and songwriter.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ), is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.
Martin Leach-Cross Feldman (born January 28, 1934) is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana.
Matthew Roy Simmons (April 7, 1943 – August 8, 2010) was founder and chairman emeritus of Simmons & Company International, and was a prominent figure in the field of peak oil.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.
The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by the McClatchy Company and headquartered in Doral, Florida, a city in western Miami-Dade County and the Miami metropolitan area, several miles west of downtown Miami.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The Minerals Management Service (MMS) was an agency of the United States Department of the Interior that managed the nation's natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the outer continental shelf (OCS).
A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.
The Mississippi Canyon is an undersea canyon, part of the Mississippi Submarine Valley in the North-central Gulf of Mexico, south of Louisiana.
The Mississippi River Delta region is a 3-million-acre (12,000 km2) area of land that stretches from Vermilion Bay on the west, to the Chandeleur Islands in the Gulf of Mexico on the southeastern coast of Louisiana.
is one of the largest keiretsu in Japan and one of the largest corporate groups in the world.
(MOECO) is an oil exploration subsidiary of Mitsui & Co. that specializes in natural gas.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monterey Bay Aquarium is a nonprofit public aquarium in Monterey, California.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
In the United States, multidistrict litigation (MDL) refers to a special federal legal procedure designed to speed the process of handling complex cases, such as air disaster litigation or complex product liability suits.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling is a bipartisan presidential commission, established by Executive Order 13543 signed by Barack Obama on May 21, 2010, that is "tasked with providing recommendations on how the United States can prevent and mitigate the impact of any future spills that result from offshore drilling." It came about as a result of the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
The National Energy Board (Office national de l'énergie) is an independent economic regulatory agency created in 1959 by the Government of Canada to oversee "international and inter-provincial aspects of the oil, gas and electric utility industries".
The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) is an American government-backed agency for sustaining fish, wildlife, plants, and habitats.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) conducts research into the effects of the environment on human disease, as one of the 27 institutes and centers of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
The National Wild Turkey Federation is an international non-profit organization whose mission is 'the conservation of the wild turkey and the preservation of our hunting heritage.' It currently has more than 250,000 members in the United States, Canada, Mexico and 14 other countries.
The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) is the United States' largest private, nonprofit conservation education and advocacy organization, with over six million members and supporters, and 51 state and territorial affiliated organizations (including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands).
The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based, non-profit international environmental advocacy group, with its headquarters in New York City and offices in Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; Los Angeles; New Delhi, India; Chicago; Bozeman, Montana; and Beijing, China.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Norges Handels og Sjøfartstidende AS or NHST Media Group is a Norwegian media conglomerate that publishes a number of newspapers and online tools.
Nicolas Kim Coppola (born January 7, 1964), known professionally as Nicolas Cage, is an American actor, director and producer.
Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics.
The Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior, established by Secretarial Order.
Offshore oil and gas in California provides a significant portion of the state's petroleum production.
Offshore oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico is a major source of oil and natural gas in the United States.
An oil dispersant is a mixture of emulsifiers and solvents that helps break oil into small droplets following an oil spill.
The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA) (101 H.R.1465, P.L. 101-380) was passed by the 101st United States Congress and signed by President George H. W. Bush.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
Based in Washington, D.C., the Organization for International Investment (OFII) is a trade association representing the interests of US subsidiaries of overseas corporations.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae.
Pensacola Beach is an unincorporated community located on Santa Rosa Island, a barrier island, in Escambia County, Florida, United States.
People & Planet is a network of student campaign groups in the UK.
Peter Berg (born March 11, 1964) is an American director, producer, writer, and actor.
Plaquemines Parish (French: Paroisse de Plaquemine, Louisiana French: Paroisse des Plaquemines) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Randal Howard "Rand" Paul (born January 7, 1963) is an American politician and physician serving as the junior United States Senator from Kentucky since 2011, alongside Majority Leader Mitch McConnell.
Relief wells are used both in the natural gas and petroleum industry and in flood control.
The remand court procedure is used by higher courts to send cases back to lower courts for further action.
Remotely operated vehicles are vehicles which are controlled by an operator who is not in the vehicle.
The Research and Development Institute of Ecology and the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, LLC, or Research institute of Ecology, the abbreviation is the RSI — a company from Tyumen (Tyumen Oblast, Russia) specializes in development of innovation technologies in the field of environmental protection and nature conservation.
RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.
Richard Lawrence Garwin (born April 19, 1928) is an American physicist, widely known to be the author of the first hydrogen bomb design.
Riki Ott (born August 8, 1954) is a marine toxicologist and activist in Cordova, Alaska.
Robert Gordon University, commonly called RGU, is a public university in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.
A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.
The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.
Sarah S. Vance (born 1950) is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
An oil skimmer is a device that is designed to remove oil floating on a liquid surface.
A sorbent is a material used to absorb or adsorb liquids or gases.
The Stanford Law Review (SLR) is a legal journal produced independently by Stanford Law School students.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Steven Chu in atomic physics and laser spectroscopy, including the first observation of parity non-conservation in atoms, excitation and precision spectroscopy of positronium, and the optical confinement and cooling of atoms.
Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Tampa Bay is a large natural harbor and shallow estuary connected to the Gulf of Mexico on the west central coast of Florida, comprising Hillsborough Bay, McKay Bay, Old Tampa Bay, Middle Tampa Bay, and Lower Tampa Bay.
A tarball is a blob of petroleum which has been weathered after floating in the ocean.
Terra (EOS AM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in a Sun-synchronous orbit around the Earth.
Thad William Allen (born January 16, 1949) is a former United States Coast Guard admiral who served as the 23rd Commandant of the Coast Guard.
The Advocate is Louisiana's largest daily newspaper.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Charlotte Observer is a newspaper serving Charlotte and its metro area.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The McClatchy Company is a publicly traded American publishing company based in Sacramento, California.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Newsroom is an American television political drama series created and principally written by Aaron Sorkin that premiered on HBO on June 24, 2012, and concluded on December 14, 2014, consisting of 25 episodes over three seasons, with 52 to 73 minute long episodes.
The Runner is a 2015 American political drama film written and directed by Austin Stark at his directorial debut.
The Sun News is a daily newspaper published in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, in the United States.
The Times-Picayune is an American newspaper published in New Orleans, Louisiana, since January 25, 1837.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
The Weekly Standard is an American conservative opinion magazine published 48 times per year.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The following is a timeline of the ''Deepwater Horizon'' oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill or the Macondo blowout).
TMT (Today Makes Tomorrow) Group is a Taiwanese shipping company that in 2008 directly owned some 60 ships, with many more on order, including dry bulk, crude, cargo, LNG, automobile, and cement carriers.
The ton is a unit of measure.
Anthony Bryan Hayward (born 21 May 1957) is a British businessman and former chief executive of oil and energy company BP.
A top kill is a procedure used as a means of regaining control over an oil well that is experiencing an uncontrolled eruption of crude oil or natural gas (blowout).
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Transocean Ltd. is one of the world's largest offshore drilling contractors and is based in Vernier, Switzerland.
The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, generally referred to as the Chemical Safety Board or CSB, is an independent U.S. federal agency charged with investigating industrial chemical accidents.
The United States Attorney General (A.G.) is the head of the United States Department of Justice per, concerned with all legal affairs, and is the chief lawyer of the United States government.
The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (in case citations, 5th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following federal judicial districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a U.S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana (in case citations, E.D. La.) is a federal trial court based in New Orleans.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
In the United States, the title of federal judge means a judge (pursuant to Article Three of the United States Constitution) appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate pursuant to the Appointments Clause in Article II of the United States Constitution.
The Committee on Energy and Commerce is one of the oldest standing committees of the United States House of Representatives.
The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.
The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a campus in Gainesville, Florida.
Upstream is an independent oil and gas industry upstream sector weekly newspaper and a daily internet news site.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
WCCO-TV, virtual channel 4 (UHF digital channel 32), is a CBS owned-and-operated television station, licensed to Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States and serving the Twin Cities television market.
"We Just Decided To" is the first episode of the first season of the American television series The Newsroom.
A wellhead is the component at the surface of an oil or gas well that provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment.
WFLA-TV, virtual channel 8 (VHF digital channel 7), is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Tampa, Florida, United States and also serving the nearby city of St. Petersburg.
WGNO, virtual and UHF digital channel 26, is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.
whitehouse.gov is the official website of the White House and is owned by the United States government.
Wilma Subra (born 1943) is an American environmental scientist.
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI, acronym pronounced) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
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