159 relations: A Theory of Justice, Abraham, Adl, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Anatole France, Andrew von Hirsch, Argument from morality, Basic needs, Bias, Bible, Biosocial criminology, Book of Genesis, C. S. Lewis, C.H. Beck, Cardinal virtues, Chandran Kukathas, Charity (virtue), Christianity, City-state, Civil law (common law), Classical liberalism, Codification (law), Coercion, Columbia University Press, Compassion, Consequentialism, Contract, Conviction, Crime, Criminal justice, Criminal law, Culture, Damages, Defendant, Denunciation (penology), Destiny, Deterrence (legal), Disgorgement, Distribution (economics), Distributive justice, Divine providence, Economic inequality, Economic Justice, Egalitarianism, Emory University, Environmental justice, Equal opportunity, Equality before the law, Equality of outcome, Eric Heinze, ..., Ethics, Euthyphro, Euthyphro dilemma, Evolution, Evolution of morality, Evolutionary ethics, Eye for an eye, False dilemma, Fine (penalty), From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs, Generosity, Global justice, God, Good and evil, Gospel of Matthew, Hugo Adam Bedau, Human rights, Immanuel Kant, Incapacitation (penology), Individual and group rights, Inequity aversion, Injunction, Injustice, Institution, International Court of Justice, International Criminal Court, Intuition, Islam, Israelites, Jesus, John Locke, John Rawls, John Stuart Mill, Judaism, Judge, Just war theory, Just-world hypothesis, Karl Marx, Law of Moses, Left-libertarianism, Legitimacy (political), Marxism, Mercy, Meritocracy, Morality, Napoleonic Code, Nation, Natural and legal rights, Navigator, Need, New Revised Standard Version, New Testament, Occupational injustice, Open justice, Organizational justice, Oxford University Press, Pareto efficiency, Patriarch, Philosopher king, Philosophy of law, Plato, Poetic justice, Political freedom, Politician, Polity (publisher), Power (social and political), Prison, Procedural law, Property, Psalms, Punishment, Punitive damages, Quality of life, Rationality, Rehabilitation (penology), Reincarnation, Republic (Plato), Respect, Restorative justice, Retributive justice, Revenge, Right to property, Robert Nozick, Routledge, Rule according to higher law, Rule of law, Sentence (law), Sentience, Serge Guinchard, Shoplifting, Slavery, Social contract, Social justice, Social status, Sociology of law, Socrates, Spatial justice, Statutory interpretation, Theft, Thrasymachus, United Nations, University of California Press, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Michigan Press, Utilitarianism, Veil of ignorance, Verdict, Wealth, Wiley-Blackwell. Expand index (109 more) » « Shrink index
A Theory of Justice is a work of political philosophy and ethics by John Rawls, in which the author attempts to solve the problem of distributive justice (the socially just distribution of goods in a society) by utilising a variant of the familiar device of the social contract.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Adl (عدل) is an Arabic word meaning 'justice', and is also one of the names of God in Islam.
Anarchy, State, and Utopia is a 1974 book by the American political philosopher Robert Nozick.
italic (born italic,; 16 April 1844 – 12 October 1924) was a French poet, journalist, and successful novelist with several best-sellers.
Andreas von Hirsch is a legal philosopher and penal theorist and the founding Director of the Centre for Penal Theory and Penal Ethics at the Institute of Criminology, Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge.
The argument from morality is an argument for the existence of God.
The basic needs approach is one of the major approaches to the measurement of absolute poverty in developing countries.
Bias is disproportionate weight in favour of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both biological factors and environmental factors.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
Verlag C.H.BECK oHG, doing business as Publishers C.H. Beck (Verlag C. H. Beck), is a German publisher with its headquarters in Munich and a branch office in Frankfurt.
Four cardinal virtues were recognized in classical antiquity and in traditional Christian theology.
Chandran Kukathas (born 12 September 1957) is a Malaysian-born Australian political theorist and the author of several books.
In Christian theology charity, Latin caritas, is understood by Thomas Aquinas as "the friendship of man for God", which "unites us to God".
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Civil law is a branch of the law.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
In law, a conviction is the verdict that usually results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of a crime.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
In law, damages are an award, typically of money, to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury.
A defendant is a person accused of committing a crime in criminal prosecution or a person against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case.
Denunciation in the context of sentencing philosophy is the disapproval of an act by society that is expressed by the imposition of a sentence.
Destiny, sometimes referred to as fate (from Latin fatum – destiny), is a predetermined course of events.
Deterrence is the use of punishment as a threat which is considered as a means to prevent people from offending or to reduce the probability and/or level of offending.
Disgorgement is defined by Black's Law Dictionary as "the act of giving up something (such as profits illegally obtained) on demand or by legal compulsion." Disgorgement is a remedy or penalty used in U.S. securities law; for example, disgorgement of short-swing profits is the remedy prescribed by § 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
In economics, distribution is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production (such as labour, land, and capital).
Distributive justice concerns the nature of a social justice allocation of goods.
In theology, divine providence, or just providence, is God's intervention in the universe.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Justice in economics is a subcategory of welfare economics with models frequently representing the ethical-social requirements of a given theory, whether "in the large", as of a just social order, or "in the small", as in the equity of "how institutions distribute specific benefits and burdens".
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Emory University is a private research university in the Druid Hills neighborhood of the city of Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
Environmental justice emerged as a concept in the United States in the early 1980s.
Equal opportunity arises from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.
Equality before the law, also known as: equality under the law, equality in the eyes of the law, or legal equality, is the principle that each independent being must be treated equally by the law (principle of isonomy) and that all are subject to the same laws of justice (due process).
Equality of outcome, equality of condition, or equality of results is a political concept which is central to some political ideologies and is used regularly in political discourse, often in contrast to the term equality of opportunity.
Eric Heinze is Professor of Law and Humanities at the School of Law Queen Mary, University of London.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Euthyphro (translit; c. 399–395 BC), by Plato, is a Socratic dialogue whose events occur in the weeks before the trial of Socrates (399 BC), for which Socrates and Euthyphro attempt to establish a definitive meaning for the word piety (virtue).
The Euthyphro dilemma is found in Plato's dialogue Euthyphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro, "Is the pious (τὸ ὅσιον) loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods?" (10a) The dilemma has had a major effect on the philosophical theism of the monotheistic religions, but in a modified form: "Is what is morally good commanded by God because it is morally good, or is it morally good because it is commanded by God?" Ever since Plato's original discussion, this question has presented a problem for some theists, though others have thought it a false dilemma, and it continues to be an object of theological and philosophical discussion today.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolution of morality refers to the emergence of human moral behavior over the course of human evolution.
Evolutionary ethics is a field of inquiry that explores how evolutionary theory might bear on our understanding of ethics or morality.
"Only one eye for one eye", also known as "An eye for an eye" or "A tooth for a tooth"), or the law of retaliation, is the principle that a person who has injured another person is to be penalized to a similar degree, and the person inflicting such punishment should be the injured party. In softer interpretations, it means the victim receives the value of the injury in compensation. The intent behind the principle was to restrict compensation to the value of the loss. The principle is sometimes referred using the Latin term lex talionis or the law of talion. The English word talion (from the Latin talio) means a retaliation authorized by law, in which the punishment corresponds in kind and degree to the injury.
A false dilemma is a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed to be an "either/or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional option.
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" is a slogan popularised by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program.
Generosity (also called largess) is the virtue of being unattached to material possessions, often symbolized by the giving of gifts.
Global justice is an issue in political philosophy arising from the concern about unfairness.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
In religion, ethics, philosophy, and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
Hugo Adam Bedau (September 23, 1926 – August 13, 2012) was the Austin B. Fletcher Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus, at Tufts University, and is best known for his work on capital punishment.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Incapacitation in the context of criminal sentencing philosophy is the effect of a sentence in positively preventing (rather than merely deterring) future offending.
Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.
Inequity aversion (IA) is the preference for fairness and resistance to incidental inequalities.
An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts.
Injustice is a quality relating to unfairness or undeserved outcomes.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges.
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
The just-world hypothesis or just-world fallacy is the cognitive bias (or assumption) that a person's actions are inherently inclined to bring morally fair and fitting consequences to that person, to the end of all noble actions being eventually rewarded and all evil actions eventually punished.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Law of Moses, also called the Mosaic Law or in תֹּורַת מֹשֶׁה, Torat Moshe, refers primarily to the Torah or first five books of the Hebrew Bible.
Left-libertarianism (or left-wing libertarianism) names several related, but distinct approaches to political and social theory which stress both individual freedom and social equality.
In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mercy (Middle English, from Anglo-French merci, from Medieval Latin merced-, merces, from Latin, "price paid, wages", from merc-, merxi "merchandise") is a broad term that refers to benevolence, forgiveness, and kindness in a variety of ethical, religious, social, and legal contexts.
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation.
A need is something that is necessary for an organism to live a healthy life.
The New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 1989 by National Council of Churches.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Occupational injustice derives from the concept of occupational justice, which originated in 1997 with social scientists Anne Wilcock of Australia and Elizabeth Townsend of Canada Stadnyk, Robin L., Townsend, Elizabeth A, & Wilcock, Ann A. (2010).
Open justice is a legal principle describing legal processes characterized by openness and transparency.
Greenberg (1987) introduced the concept of organizational justice with regard to how an employee judges the behaviour of the organization and the employee's resulting attitude and behaviour.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pareto efficiency or Pareto optimality is a state of allocation of resources from which it is impossible to reallocate so as to make any one individual or preference criterion better off without making at least one individual or preference criterion worse off.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
According to Plato, a philosopher king is a ruler who possesses both a love of knowledge, as well as intelligence, reliability, and a willingness to live a simple life.
Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence that seeks to answer basic questions about law and legal systems, such as "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal validity?", "What is the relationship between law and morality?", and many other similar questions.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Poetic justice is a literary device in which ultimately virtue is rewarded and viciousness is punished.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Polity is a publisher in the social sciences and humanities.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
Procedural law, adjective law, or rules of court comprises the rules by which a court hears and determines what happens in civil, lawsuit, criminal or administrative proceedings.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
A punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behaviour that is deemed undesirable or unacceptable.
Punitive damages, or exemplary damages, are damages intended to reform or deter the defendant and others from engaging in conduct similar to that which formed the basis of the lawsuit.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
Rehabilitation is the re-integration into society of a convicted person and the main objective of modern penal policy, to counter habitual offending, also known as criminal recidivism.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
Respect is a positive feeling or action shown towards someone or something considered important, or held in high esteem or regard; it conveys a sense of admiration for good or valuable qualities; and it is also the process of honoring someone by exhibiting care, concern, or consideration for their needs or feelings.
Restorative justice is an approach to justice in which the response to a crime is to organize a mediation between the victim and the offender, and sometimes with representatives of a wider community as well.
Retributive justice is a theory of justice that holds that the best response to a crime is a punishment proportional to the offense, inflicted because the offender deserves the punishment.
Revenge is a form of justice enacted in the absence or defiance of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
A sentence is a decree of punishment of the court in criminal procedure.
Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive or experience subjectively.
Serge Guinchard (born May 9, 1946) is a French jurist who formerly taught at the Law School of Dakar and Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 and most recently at Panthéon-Assas University, where he is now Professor emeritus.
Shoplifting (also known as boosting and five-finger discount), is the unnoticed theft of goods from an open retail establishment.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.
The sociology of law (or legal sociology) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Spatial justice links together social justice and space, most notably in the works of geographers David Harvey and Edward W. Soja.
Statutory interpretation is the process by which courts interpret and apply legislation.
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.
Thrasymachus (Θρασύμαχος Thrasýmachos; c. 459 – c. 400 BC) was a sophist of ancient Greece best known as a character in Plato's Republic.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
The "veil of ignorance" is a method of determining the morality of political issues proposed in 1971 by American philosopher John Rawls in his "original position" political philosophy.
In law, a verdict is the formal finding of fact made by a jury on matters or questions submitted to the jury by a judge.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.