132 relations: Abbreviation, Abugida, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Anga Lipi, Anusvara, Approximant consonant, Arabic numerals, Aramaic alphabet, ASCII, Aspirated consonant, Assamese alphabet, Assamese language, Avagraha, Bangla Academy, Bangladesh, Bengal, Bengali alphabet, Bengali Braille, Bengali language, Bengali numerals, Bengali phonology, Bengalis, Bishnupriya Manipuri language, Brahmi script, Brahmic scripts, Bureau of Indian Standards, Chakma language, Chandrabindu, Collation, Consonant cluster, Crore, Cyrillic script, Decimal separator, Dental consonant, Devanagari, Dhaka, Diacritic, Dot (diacritic), East India Company, Eastern Nagari script, Font, Fricative consonant, Glottal consonant, Government of West Bengal, Grapheme, Gupta script, Guttural, History of Bengal, Homograph, ..., India, Inherent vowel, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, International Phonetic Alphabet, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, ITRANS, Jujutsu, Khasi language, Kokborok, Kolkata, Labial consonant, Lakh, Latin script, Letter case, List of writing systems, Maithili language, Meitei language, Middle kingdoms of India, Munier Choudhury, Nasal consonant, Nasalization, National Library at Kolkata romanisation, Numerical digit, Nuqta, Open-mid back rounded vowel, Open-mid front unrounded vowel, Pala Empire, Palatal approximant, Palatal consonant, Palate, Palato-alveolar consonant, Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi, Phoenician alphabet, Postalveolar consonant, Proto-Sinaitic script, R-colored vowel, Retroflex approximant, Retroflex consonant, Retroflex flap, Ring (diacritic), Robert B. Wray, Romanisation of Bengali, Romanization, Sandhi, Sanskrit, Santali language, Schwa, Semivowel, Sibilant, Siddhaṃ script, Sound change, Spelling reform, Standardization, Stop consonant, Sylheti language, Tatsama, Tibetan alphabet, Tirhuta, Tsunami, Typographic ligature, Unicode, University of Dhaka, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Virama, Visarga, Voice (phonetics), Voiced dental fricative, Voiced postalveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless bilabial fricative, Voiceless bilabial stop, Voiceless dental and alveolar stops, Voiceless labiodental fricative, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, West Bengal, Writing system, 100,000, 1000 (number). Expand index (82 more) » « Shrink index
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Anga Lipi (অঙ্গ লিপি) is a historical writing system or script of the Anga area of India.It is believed to have been originated from Mithilakshara or the Tirhuta script used to write Maithili.
Anusvara (Sanskrit: अनुस्वारः) is the diacritic used to mark a type of nasal sound used in a number of Indic scripts.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
The Assamese script is a writing system of the Assamese language.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
Avagraha (Symbol: ऽ) symbol used to indicate prodelision of an अ in many Indian languages as shown below.
The Bangla Academy is Bangladesh's national language authority, established in 1955.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) or Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি, bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and, together with the Assamese alphabet, is the fifth most widely used writing system in the world.
Bengali Braille is used for the Bengali.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bengali–Assamese numerals (সংখ্যা shôngkha, সংখ্যা xoiŋkha) are the numeral system used in Bengali, Sylheti, Assamese, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Chakma, Hajong and Meithei languages.
The Bengali phonology is, like that of its neighbouring Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, characterised by a wide variety of diphthongs and inherent back vowel (both and) instead of the schwa used by almost all other branches of the Indo-Aryan language family.
Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.
The Bishnupuriya or Bishnupriya Manipuri (BPM) (বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Indian states of Assam, Tripura and others, as well as in the Sylhet region of Bangladesh, Burma, and other countries.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the national Standards Body of India working under the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Government of India.
Chakma language (autonym: 𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄳𑄦 𑄞𑄌𑄴, script) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Chakma and Daingnet people.
Chandrabindu (meaning "moon-dot" in Sanskrit, alternatively spelled candrabindu, chandravindu, candravindu, or chôndrobindu) is a diacritic sign with the form of a dot inside the lower half of a circle.
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
A crore (abbreviated cr) or koti denotes ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation) and is equal to 100 lakh in the Indian numbering system as 1,00,00,000 with the local style of digit group separators (a lakh is equal to one hundred thousand and is written as 1,00,000).
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Eastern Nagari script, Assamese script, Bengali script, Assamese-Bengali script or Purbi script is the basis of the Assamese alphabet and the Bengali alphabet.
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The Government of West Bengal also known as the State Government of West Bengal, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of West Bengal and its 23 districts.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The Gupta script (sometimes referred to as Gupta Brahmi Script or Late Brahmi Script)Sharma, Ram.
Guttural speech sounds are those with a primary place of articulation near the back of the oral cavity.
The history of Bengal includes modern-day Bangladesh and West Bengal in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta.
A homograph (from the ὁμός, homós, "same" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a word that shares the same written form as another word but has a different meaning.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An inherent vowel is part of an abugida (or alphasyllabary) script.
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar CIE (26 September 1820 – 29 July 1891), born Ishwar Chandra Bandyopadhyay (Ishshor Chôndro Bôndopaddhae; Bengali: ঈশ্বরচন্দ্র বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়), was a British Indian Bengali polymath and a key figure of the Bengal Renaissance.
The "Indian languages TRANSliteration" (ITRANS) is an ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts, particularly for Devanagari script.
Jujutsu (柔術, jūjutsu), also known in the West as Ju-Jitsu or Jiu-Jitsu, is a Japanese martial art and a method of close combat for defeating an armed and armored opponent in which one uses either a short weapon or none.
Khasi (Khasi: Ka Ktien Khasi) is an Austroasiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people.
Kok Borok is the native language of the Borok (Tripura) people of the Indian state of Tripura and neighbouring areas of Bangladesh.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
A lakh (abbreviated L; sometimes written Lac or Lacs) is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to one hundred thousand (100,000; scientific notation: 105).
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
This is a list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features.
Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.
Meitei (also Manipuri, Census of India, 2001, Meithei, Meetei, Meeʁteilon) is the predominant language and lingua franca in the southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India.
The Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE.
Munier Choudhury (27 November 192514 December 1971) was a Bangladeshi educationist, playwright, literary critic and political dissident.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
The National Library at Kolkata romanisation transliterationSee p 24-26 for table comparing Indic languages, and p 33-34 for Devanagari alphabet listing.
A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems.
Nuqtā (Hindi-Urdu नुक़्ता, نقطہ, from Arabic nuqta نقطة "dot," or "period."), also spelled Nuktā, is a term for a diacritic mark that was introduced in Devanāgari and some other Indian scripts to represent sounds not present in the original scripts.
The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.
Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi, popularly known as Bangla Akademi, is the official regulatory body of the Bengali language in West Bengal.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters.
Robert B. Wray cast a movable type font for printing Bengali script in 1778.
Romanisation of Bengali is the representation of written Bengali language in the Latin script.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Santali (Ol Chiki:; Eastern Nagari: সাঁওতালি) is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austroasiatic languages, related to Ho and Mundari, spoken mainly in the Indian states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
, also known in its later evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā, is a script used for writing Sanskrit from c. 550 – c. 1200.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
A spelling reform is a deliberate, often officially sanctioned or mandated change to spelling rules of a language.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in the Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam.
Tatsama (Sanskrit;, lit. 'same as that') are Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indo-Aryan languages like Bengali, Marathi, Oriya, Hindi, Gujarati, and Sinhala and in Dravidian languages like Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu, and Tamil.
The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida used to write the Tibetic languages such as Tibetan, as well as Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Ladakhi, and sometimes Balti.
Tirhuta or Mithilakshar is the script used for the Maithili language originating in the Mithila region of Bihar, India and the eastern Terai region of Nepal.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The University of Dhaka (ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়, also known as Dhaka University or simply DU) is the oldest university in modern Bangladesh.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Virama (्) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, ்including Devanagari and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter.
Visarga (IAST) (विसर्गः) meaning "sending forth, discharge".
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
100,000 (one hundred thousand) is the natural number following 99,999 and preceding 100,001.
1000 or one thousand is the natural number following 999 and preceding 1001.
A (Bengali), A(Bengali), Aa (Bengali), Aa(Bengali), Bangla alphabet, Bangla lipi, Bangla script, Beng (script), Bengali (script), I (Bengali), I(Bengali), ISO 15924:Beng, Jôfôla, Onushshor, Phonetic Bengali Romanization, Ta (Bengali), অ, আ, ই, ঈ, উ, ঊ, ঋ, ঌ, এ, ঐ, ও, ঔ, গ, ঘ, ঙ, চ, ছ, জ, ঝ, ঞ, ট, ঠ, ড, ড়, ঢ, ঢ়, ণ, ত, থ, দ, ধ, ন, প, ফ, ব, ভ, ম, য, য়, র, ল, শ, ষ, স, হ, া, ি, ী, ু, ূ, ৃ, ৄ, ে, ৈ, ো, ৌ, ৎ.