98 relations: Adenylyl cyclase, Agonist, Amobarbital, Amphetamine, Antidepressant, Antihypertensive drug, Antipsychotic, Aphrodisiac, Aspartic acid, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Aurobindo Pharma, Barbiturate, Berlin, Binding site, Biological half-life, Blood plasma, Brand, Bronchodilator, Capsule (pharmacy), Central nervous system, Chemical synthesis, Club drug, Controlled substance, Controlled Substances Act, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, CYP2D6, Depressant, Dexamyl, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Dopamine transporter, Dosage form, Drug action, Drug interaction, Drug metabolism, Effective dose (pharmacology), Enantiomer, Euphoria, Flavin-containing monooxygenase, G protein–coupled receptor, Generic drug, GlaxoSmithKline, Hydrate, In vitro, Indication (medicine), International nonproprietary name, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Isomer, Lazăr Edeleanu, Levoamphetamine, ..., Ligand (biochemistry), Lisdexamfetamine, List of pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United Kingdom, Mallinckrodt, Mesylate, Metabolite, Modafinil, Modified-release dosage, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase A, Monoaminergic, N-Methylphenethylamine, Narcolepsy, Nootropic, Norepinephrine transporter, Obesity, Off-label use, Oral administration, Orally disintegrating tablet, PH, Phenethylamine, Physical dependence, Prodrug, Psychological dependence, Racemic mixture, Recreational drug use, Reuptake, Reverse transport, Saccharic acid, Sedative, Serotonin transporter, Smith, Kline & French, Stimulant, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Substituted amphetamine, Sulfate, Synaptic vesicle, TAAR1, Tarnak Farm incident, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Trace amine, Treatment-resistant depression, UCB (company), United States Adopted Name, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2, World War II, Zinc sulfate (medical use). Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone or sodium amytal) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Aurobindo Pharma Limited is a pharmaceutical manufacturing company headquartered in HITEC City, Hyderabad, India.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of dosage forms—techniques used to enclose medicines—in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Club drugs, also called rave drugs, or party drugs are a loosely defined category of recreational drugs which are associated with discothèques in the 1970s and nightclubs, dance clubs, electronic dance music parties, and raves in the 1980s to the 2010s.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Dexamyl (or Drinamyl in the UK) is the brand name of a combination drug composed of amobarbital (previously called amylbarbitone) and dextroamphetamine.
Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), also known as dopamine beta-monooxygenase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DBH gene.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.
The action of drugs on the human body is called pharmacodynamics, and what the body does with the drug is called pharmacokinetics.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
An effective dose (ED) in pharmacology is the dose or amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response or desired effect in some fraction of the subjects taking it.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
The flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) protein family specializes in the oxidation of xeno-substrates in order to facilitate the excretion of these compounds from living organisms.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
In medicine, an indication is a valid reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Lazăr Edeleanu (1 September 1861, Bucharest – 7 April 1941) was a Romanian chemist of Jewish origin.
Levoamphetamine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant known to increase wakefulness and concentration in association with decreased appetite and fatigue.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Lisdexamfetamine (contracted from L-'''lys'''ine-'''dex'''tro'''amphetamine''') is a substituted amphetamine and an inactive prodrug of the central nervous system (CNS) stimulant dextroamphetamine that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating disorder.
This is a list of manufacturers and suppliers of pharmaceuticals with operations in the United Kingdom.
Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, based in Staines-upon-Thames, England, with its U.S. headquarters in St. Louis, Missouri, produces specialty pharmaceutical products, including generic drugs and imaging agents.
In chemistry, a mesylate is any salt or ester of methanesulfonic acid (CH3SO3H).
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Modified-release dosage is a mechanism that (in contrast to immediate-release dosage) delivers a drug with a delay after its administration (delayed-release dosage) or for a prolonged period of time (extended-release dosage) or to a specific target in the body (targeted-release dosage).
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Monoaminergic means "working on monoamine neurotransmitters", which include serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and histamine.
N-Methylphenethylamine (NMPEA) is a naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulator in humans that is derived from the trace amine, phenethylamine (PEA).
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
An orally disintegrating tablet or orally dissolving tablet (ODT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited range of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved in the opposite direction to that of their typical movement by the transporter.
Saccharic acid, also called glucaric acid, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H10O8.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Smith, Kline & French (SKF) was an American pharmaceutical company.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
The Tarnak Farm incident refers to the killing of four Canadian soldiers and the injury of eight others from the 3rd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Battle Group (3PPCLIBG) on the night of April 17, 2002, near Kandahar, Afghanistan.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (טבע תעשיות פרמצבטיות בע"מ) is an Israeli multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Petah Tikva, Israel.
Trace amines are an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists – and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators – that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters.
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or treatment-refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) that do not respond adequately to appropriate courses of at least two antidepressants.
UCB (Union Chimique Belge) is a multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zinc sulfate is used medically as a dietary supplement.
(S)-1-phenylpropan-2-amine, (dextro)-Amphetamine, (dextro)-amphetamine, ATC code N06BA02, ATCvet code QN06BA02, Amsustain, D amphetamine, D amphetamines, D-Amphetamine, D-amphetamine, D-amphetamines, Dephadren, Dexacaps, Dexadrine, Dexamfetamine, Dexamphetamine, Dexamphetamines, Dexedrine, Dexedrine Spansule, Dexidrine, Dexies, DextroStat, Dextroamfetamine, Dextroamp, Dextroamph, Dextroampheatmine, Dextroamphet, Dextroamphetamine adipate, Dextroamphetamine effects, Dextroamphetamine saccharate, Dextroamphetamine sulfate, Dextroamphetamine tannate, Dextrostat, Metamina, ProCentra, Sympamin, Zenzedi.