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Professor Arthur Herbert Dodd (1891 - 21 May 1975) was an academic historian who taught and published widely, specialising in the politics of the Tudor and Stuart periods, Welsh history, and the history of the Industrial Revolution.
The A470, also referred to as the Cardiff to Glan Conwy Trunk Road, is a long road in Wales that connects Cardiff on the south coast to Llandudno on the north coast.
The A55, also known as the North Wales Expressway (Welsh: Gwibffordd Gogledd Cymru) is a major road in Britain.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Aberdyfi (Mouth of the River Dyfi), or Aberdovey (the Anglicised spelling) is a village and community on the north side of the estuary of the River Dyfi in Gwynedd, on the west coast of Wales.
Aberffraw (Aberffro) is a small village and community on the south west coast of the Isle of Anglesey (Ynys Môn), in Wales, by the west bank of the Afon Ffraw (Ffraw River).
Abergavenny (Y Fenni, archaically Abergafenni meaning "Mouth of the River Gavenny") is a market town in Monmouthshire, Wales.
Aberystwyth (Mouth of the Ystwyth) is a historic market town, administrative centre, and holiday resort within Ceredigion, West Wales, often colloquially known as Aber.
Aberystwyth University (Prifysgol Aberystwyth) is a public research university in Aberystwyth, Wales.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
In Wales, an Act of the National Assembly for Wales (Deddf Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) (informally, an Act of the Assembly) is primary legislation that can be made by the National Assembly for Wales under part 4 of the Government of Wales Act 2006.
Adam Sedgwick (22 March 1785 – 27 January 1873) was a British priest and geologist, one of the founders of modern geology.
The additional member system (AMS), also known as mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) outside the United Kingdom, is a mixed electoral system with one tier of single-member district representatives, and another tier of "additional members" elected to make the overall election results more proportional.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
The al-Manar Centre (sometimes referred to as 2 Glynrhondda Street) is a Salafi mosque in the Cathays district of Cardiff, Wales.
Alfred George Janes (30 June 1911 – 3 February 1999) was a Welsh artist, who worked in Swansea and Croydon.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
All Saints' Church stands in the former coal mining village of Gresford in Wrexham County Borough, Wales.
The Alosinae, or the shads, ITIS are a subfamily of fishes in the herring family Clupeidae.
Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
Alun Hugh Cairns (born 30 July 1970) is a Welsh Conservative politician, who became Secretary of State for Wales on 19 March 2016.
Alun Davies Owen (24 November 1925 – 6 December 1994) was a Welsh screenwriter and actor predominantly active in television.
Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales, formerly the National Museums and Galleries of Wales, is a Welsh Government sponsored body that comprises seven museums in Wales.
Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio.
Anarawd ap Rhodri (died) was a King of Gwynedd and referenced as "King of the Britons" in the Annales Cambriae.
Andrew Vicari (born Andrea Antonio Giovanni Vaccari, 20 April 1932 – 3 October 2016) was a Welsh painter working in France, who established a career painting portraits of prominent people.
Aneirin or Neirin was an early Medieval Brythonic poet.
Angharad is a feminine given name in the Welsh language, having a long association with Welsh royalty, history and myth.
Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island situated on the north coast of Wales with an area of.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The Anglo-Scottish border between England and Scotland runs for 96 miles (154 km) between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west.
The Anglo-Welsh Cup, was a cross-border rugby union knock-out cup competition that featured the 12 Premiership Rugby clubs and the four Welsh regions.
Annales Cambriae (Latin for The Annals of Wales) is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles compiled or derived from diverse sources at St David's in Dyfed, Wales.
Dame Anne Elizabeth Jane Evans, (born 20 August 1941) is an international British operatic soprano.
Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins (born 31 December 1937), better known as Anthony Hopkins, is a Welsh actor, widely considered to be one of the world's greatest living actors.
The Apostolic Church is a Christian denomination that came from the Pentecostal movement.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
Aran Fawddwy is a mountain in southern Snowdonia, Wales, United Kingdom.
Arctic char or Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a cold-water fish in the family Salmonidae, native to alpine lakes and arctic and subarctic coastal waters.
An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) is an area of countryside in England, Wales or Northern Ireland which has been designated for conservation due to its significant landscape value.
Armes Prydein (The Prophecy of Britain) is an early 10th-century Welsh prophetic poem from the Book of Taliesin.
The Ashmolean Museum (in full the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology) on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's first university museum.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the Bronze Age period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia, France, Britain and Ireland.
Augustus Edwin John (4 January 1878 – 31 October 1961) was a Welsh painter, draughtsman, and etcher.
Æthelbald (also spelled Ethelbald, or Aethelbald) (died 757) was the King of Mercia, in what is now the English Midlands from 716 until he was killed in 757.
Badfinger were a British rock band that, in their most successful lineup, consisted of Pete Ham, Mike Gibbins, Tom Evans, and Joey Molland.
Llyn Tegid (Llyn Tegid), known in English as Bala Lake, is a lake in Gwynedd, Wales.
Bangor University (Prifysgol Bangor) is a university in Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
Bangor is a city in Gwynedd, northwest Wales.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Bank of Scotland plc (Bank o Scotland, Banca na h-Alba) is a commercial and clearing bank based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
The Bank of Wales (Welsh: Banc Cymru) is a trading name used by Bank of Scotland plc, a subsidiary of Lloyds Banking Group.
Bara Brith, sometimes known as "speckled bread" (the literal meaning of the original Welsh-language name), is a yeast bread either enriched with dried fruit or made with self-raising flour (no yeast).
A bardic name is a pseudonym used in Wales, Cornwall or Brittany by poets and other artists, especially those involved in the eisteddfod movement.
Barn (Welsh for "Opinion") is a monthly Welsh language current affairs magazine.
Barry (Y Barri) is a town in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales, on the north coast of the Bristol Channel approximately south-southwest of Cardiff.
The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the second-largest living shark, after the whale shark, and one of three plankton-eating shark species, along with the whale shark and megamouth shark.
The Battle of Badon (Latin: Bellum in monte Badonis or Mons Badonicus, Cad Mynydd Baddon, all literally meaning "Battle of Mount Badon" or "Battle of Badon Hill") was a battle thought to have occurred between Celtic Britons and Anglo-Saxons in the late 5th or early 6th century.
The Battle of Bosworth Field (or Battle of Bosworth) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century.
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Cymru Wales is a division of the BBC, and the national broadcaster for Wales.
The BBC National Orchestra of Wales (BBC NOW) (Cerddorfa Genedlaethol Gymreig y BBC) is a Welsh symphony orchestra and one of the BBC's five professional orchestras.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BBC One Wales is a television channel operated by BBC Cymru Wales.
BBC Radio Cymru is BBC Cymru Wales' Welsh-language national radio network.
BBC Radio Wales is BBC Cymru Wales's national English language radio station.
BBC Sport is a department of the BBC North division providing national sports coverage for BBC Television, radio and online.
BBC Two is the second flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.
The Beaufort scale is an empirical measure that relates wind speed to observed conditions at sea or on land.
Beaumaris Castle (Castell Biwmares), located in the town of the same name on the Isle of Anglesey in Wales, was built as part of Edward I's campaign to conquer the north of Wales after 1282.
The Beeching cuts (also Beeching Axe) were a reduction of route network and restructuring of the railways in Great Britain, according to a plan outlined in two reports, The Reshaping of British Railways (1963) and The Development of the Major Railway Trunk Routes (1965), written by Dr Richard Beeching and published by the British Railways Board.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bersham (Y Bers) is a small Welsh village in the suburbs of the county borough of Wrexham that lies next to the River Clywedog.
Berwick-upon-Tweed (Sooth Berwick, Bearaig a Deas) is a town in the county of Northumberland.
The Berwyn range (Welsh: Y Berwyn or Mynydd y Berwyn) is an isolated and sparsely populated area of moorland in the northeast of Wales, roughly bounded by Llangollen in the northeast, Corwen in the northwest, Bala in the southwest, and Oswestry in the southeast.
Betws-y-Coed ("Prayer house in the wood") is a village and community in the Conwy valley in Conwy County Borough, Wales.
Bevin Boys were young British men conscripted to work in the coal mines of the United Kingdom, between December 1943 and March 1948.
Bible translations into Welsh have existed since at least the 15th century, but the most widely used translation of the Bible into Welsh for several centuries was the 1588 translation by William Morgan, as revised in 1620.
Big Pit National Coal Museum (Pwll Mawr Amgueddfa Lofaol Cymru) is an industrial heritage museum in Blaenavon, Torfaen, South Wales.
A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Black Book of Carmarthen (known in Welsh as "Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin") is thought to be the earliest surviving manuscript written solely in Welsh.
Black British are British citizens of Black origins or heritage, including those of African-Caribbean (sometimes called "Afro-Caribbean") background, and may include people with mixed ancestry.
Blaenau Ffestiniog is a historic mining town in Wales.
Blaenau Gwent (pronounced) is a county borough in Wales, sharing its name with a parliamentary constituency.
Blaenavon Industrial Landscape, in and around Blaenavon, Torfaen, Wales, was inscribed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000.
The Blue Flag is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) that a beach, marina or sustainable boating tourism operator meets its stringent standards.
Bonnie Tyler (born Gaynor Hopkins; 8 June 1951) is a Welsh singer, known for her distinctive husky voice.
The Book of Aneirin (Llyfr Aneirin) is a late 13th century Welsh manuscript containing Old and Middle Welsh poetry attributed to the late 6th century Northern Brythonic poet, Aneirin.
The Book of Taliesin (Llyfr Taliesin) is one of the most famous of Middle Welsh manuscripts, dating from the first half of the 14th century though many of the fifty-six poems it preserves are taken to originate in the 10th century or before.
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.
Brecknockshire (Sir Frycheiniog), also known as the County of Brecknock, Breconshire, or the County of Brecon is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales, and a former administrative county.
The Brecon Beacons (Bannau Brycheiniog) is a mountain range in South Wales. In a narrow sense, the name refers to the range of Old Red Sandstone peaks which lie to the south of Brecon. Sometimes referred to as "the central Beacons" they include South Wales' highest mountain, Pen y Fan. The range forms the central section of the Brecon Beacons National Park (Parc Cenedlaethol Bannau Brycheiniog), a designation which also encompasses ranges both to the east and the west of "the central Beacons". This much wider area is also commonly referred to as "the Brecon Beacons", and it includes the Black Mountains to the east as well as the similarly named but quite distinct Black Mountain to the west. The highest peaks include Fan Brycheiniog to the west and Pen y Fan in the central part. They share the same basic geology as the central range, and so exhibit many similar features, such as the north-facing escarpment and glacial features such as lakes and cwms (cirques) below the escarpment. They all fall within the border of the national park.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
Bridgend (Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr (Pen-y-bont), meaning "the end (or head) of the bridge on the Ogmore") is a town in Bridgend County Borough in Wales, west of the capital Cardiff and east of Swansea.
The Bristol Channel (Môr Hafren) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from Devon and Somerset in South West England.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
British Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian British people or Asian Britons) are persons of South Asian descent who reside in the United Kingdom.
The British Cartographic Society (BCS) is an association of individuals and organisations dedicated to exploring and developing the world of maps.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bryn Celli Ddu is a prehistoric site on the Welsh island of Anglesey located near Llanddaniel Fab.
Sir Bryn Terfel Jones, (born 9 November 1965) is a Welsh bass-baritone opera and concert singer.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Budgie are a Welsh rock band from Cardiff.
Buellt or Builth was a cantref in medieval Wales, located west of the River Wye.
Bullet for My Valentine, often abbreviated as BFMV, are a Welsh heavy metal band from Bridgend, formed in 1998.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
Cad Goddeu (The Battle of the Trees) is a medieval Welsh poem preserved in the 14th-century manuscript known as the Book of Taliesin.
Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd (c. 1100 – 1172) was the third son of Gruffudd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd, and brother of Owain Gwynedd.
Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634A difference in the interpretation of Bede's dates has led to the question of whether Cadwallon was killed in 634 or the year earlier, 633. Cadwallon died in the year after the Battle of Hatfield Chase, which Bede reports as occurring in October 633; but if Bede's years are believed to have actually started in September, as some historians have argued, then Hatfield Chase would have occurred in 632, and therefore Cadwallon would have died in 633. Other historians have argued against this view of Bede's chronology, however, favoring the dates as he gives them.) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle.
Caernarfon is a royal town, community, and port in Gwynedd, Wales, with a population of 9,615.
Caernarfon Castle (Castell Caernarfon), often anglicized as Carnarvon Castle, is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales cared for by Cadw, the Welsh Government's historic environment service.
Caerwent is a village and community in Monmouthshire, Wales.
Calan Gaeaf is the name of the first day of winter in Wales, observed on 1 November.
Calan Mai ("Calend (first day) of May") or Calan Haf ("Calend of Summer") is a May Day holiday of Wales held on 1 May.
Camber, also Kamber, was the legendary first king of Cambria, according to the Geoffrey of Monmouth in the first part of his influential 12th-century pseudohistory Historia Regum Britanniae.
Cambria is a name for Wales, being the Latinised form of the Welsh name for the country, Cymru.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Cambrian Airways was an airline based in the United Kingdom which ran operations from Cardiff Airport and Liverpool Airport between 1935 and 1974.
The Cambrian Archaeological Association (Cymdeithas Hynafiaethau Cymru) was founded in 1846 to examine, preserve and illustrate the ancient monuments and remains of the history, language, manners, customs, arts and industries of Wales and the Welsh Marches and to educate the public in such matters.
The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.
The Cambrian Mountains (Mynyddoedd Cambria, in a narrower sense: Elenydd) are a series of mountain ranges in Wales.
The Cambrian News is a weekly newspaper distributed in Wales.
The Cambrian Pottery was founded in 1764 by William Coles in Swansea, Glamorganshire, Wales.
Cambrian Railways owned of track over a large area of mid-Wales.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Cantre'r Gwaelod, also known as Cantref Gwaelod or Cantref y Gwaelod (The Lowland Hundred), is a legendary ancient sunken kingdom said to have occupied a tract of fertile land lying between Ramsey Island and Bardsey Island in what is now Cardigan Bay to the west of Wales.
Capel Celyn was a rural community to the north west of Bala in Gwynedd, north Wales, in the Afon Tryweryn valley.
Capital Cymru is a local, bilingual radio station owned and operated by Global Radio as part of the Capital radio network.
A capital good is a durable good (one that does not quickly wear out) that is used in the production of goods or services.
Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of, and largest city in, Wales, and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom.
Cardiff Airport (Maes Awyr Caerdydd) is the busiest airport in Wales and has been under the ownership of the Welsh Government since March 2013, operating at an arm's length as a commercial business.
Cardiff Bay (Bae Caerdydd) is the area of water created by the Cardiff Barrage in south Cardiff, the capital of Wales.
The Cardiff Blitz refers to the bombing of Cardiff, Wales during World War II.
Cardiff Blues (Gleision Caerdydd) are one of the four professional Welsh regional rugby union teams.
Cardiff Central railway station (Caerdydd Canolog) is a major railway station on the South Wales Main Line in Cardiff, United Kingdom and one of two hubs of the city's urban rail network.
Cardiff city centre (Canol Dinas Caerdydd) is the city centre and central business district of Cardiff, Wales.
Cardiff City Football Club (Clwb Pêl-droed Dinas Caerdydd) is a professional association football club based in the city of Cardiff, Wales, that competes in the Premier League, the top tier of the English football league system.
Cardiff Docks is a port in southern Cardiff, Wales.
Cardiff Metropolitan University (Prifysgol Metropolitan Caerdydd), formerly University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC), is a university situated in Cardiff, Wales.
Cardiff University (Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a public research university in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.
Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin, "Merlin's fort") is the county town of Carmarthenshire in Wales.
Carmarthen (Welsh: Caerfyrddin) was the name of a parliamentary constituency in Wales which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom between 1542 and 1997.
Carreg Lafar is a contemporary traditional Welsh folk band.
Carwyn Howell Jones (born 21 March 1967) is a Welsh politician, currently First Minister of Wales.
The Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd is a UNESCO-designated World Heritage Site located in Gwynedd, Wales.
Catatonia were an alternative rock band from Wales who gained popularity in the mid- to late 1990s.
Cathays (Y Waun Ddyfal) is a district and community in the centre of Cardiff, capital of Wales.
Catherine Zeta-Jones, CBE (born 25 September 1969) is a Welsh actress.
The Catholic Church in the United Kingdom is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope.
Cawl is a Welsh dish.
Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Indo-European language of the Celtic branch spoken by the Celtiberians in an area of the Iberian Peninsula lying between the headwaters of the Douro, Tagus, Júcar and Turia rivers and the Ebro river.
Celtic art is associated with the peoples known as Celts; those who spoke the Celtic languages in Europe from pre-history through to the modern period, as well as the art of ancient peoples whose language is uncertain, but have cultural and stylistic similarities with speakers of Celtic languages.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
A number of law codes have in the past been in use in the various Celtic nations since the Middle Ages.
The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.
The Celtic Revival (also referred to as the Celtic Twilight or Celtomania) was a variety of movements and trends in the 19th and 20th centuries that saw a renewed interest in aspects of Celtic culture.
The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Cerdd Dant (or penillion) is the art of vocal improvisation over a given melody in Welsh musical tradition.
Ceredigion is a county in the Mid Wales area of Wales and previously was a minor kingdom.
Ceri Giraldus Richards, CBE (6 June 1903 – 9 November 1971) was a British painter, print-maker and maker of reliefs.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
Charlotte Maria Church (born Charlotte Maria Reed, 21 February 1986) is a Welsh singer-songwriter, actress, television presenter and political activist.
Chester (Caer) is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chicken tikka masala is a dish of chunks of roasted marinated chicken (chicken tikka) in a spiced curry sauce.
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Christopher David Williams (7 January 1873–1934) was a Welsh artist.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
The Church in Wales (Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) is the Anglican church in Wales, composed of six dioceses.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The City and County of Swansea Council (Cyngor Dinas a Sir Abertawe) is the governing body for one of the Principal Areas of Wales covering Swansea, Gower and the surrounding area.
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities:, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland.
In the history of Rome, the Latin term civitas (plural civitates), according to Cicero in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the cives, or citizens, united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati).
Clogging is a type of folk dance in which the dancer's footwear is used percussively by striking the heel, the toe, or both against a floor or each other to create audible rhythms, usually to the downbeat with the heel keeping the rhythm.
Sir Bertram Clough Williams-Ellis, CBE, MC (28 May 1883 – 9 April 1978) was a British architect known chiefly as the creator of the Italianate village of Portmeirion in North Wales.
The Clwydian Range (Bryniau Clwyd) is a series of hills and mountains in north east Wales that runs from Llandegla in the south to Prestatyn in the north, with the highest point being the popular Moel Famau.
The Clywedog reservoir (Llyn Clywedog) is a reservoir near Llanidloes, Wales.
The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more persons, faction, states, political parties, militaries etc.
A cockle is a small, edible, marine bivalve mollusc.
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
The standard circulating coinage of the United Kingdom is denominated in pounds sterling (symbol "£"), and, since the introduction of the two-pound coin in 1994 (to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Bank of England 1694–1994), ranges in value from one penny to two pounds.
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Colin Ray Jackson, CBE (born 18 February 1967) is a British former sprint and hurdling athlete who specialised in the 110 metres hurdles.
Colwyn Bay Football Club (Clwb Pel-Droed Bae Colwyn) is a football club based in Old Colwyn in north Wales.
A comedian or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience by making them laugh.
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The common periwinkle or winkle (Littorina littorea) is a species of small edible whelk or sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc that has gills and an operculum, and is classified within the family Littorinidae, the periwinkles.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Conquest of Wales by Edward I, sometimes referred to as the Edwardian Conquest of Wales,Examples of historians using the term include Professor J.E. Lloyd, regarded as the founder of the modern academic study of Welsh history, in his History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, first published in 1911, and Professor R.R. Davies, the leading modern scholar of the period, in his works including The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063–1415, published 2000.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin for: "Constitution of Antoninus") (also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution) was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given theoretical Roman citizenship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Contemporary dance is a genre of dance performance that developed during the mid twentieth century and has since grown to become one of the dominant genres for formally trained dancers throughout the world, with particularly strong popularity in the U.S. and Europe.
The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles and Brittany.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Conwy ((south), (north); traditionally known in English as Conway) is a walled market town and community in Conwy County Borough on the north coast of Wales.
Conwy Castle (Castell Conwy, Conway Castle) is a medieval fortification in Conwy, on the north coast of Wales.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of approximately 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
The Cornish people or Cornish (Kernowyon) are an ethnic group native to, or associated with Cornwall: and a recognised national minority in the United Kingdom, which can trace its roots to the ancient Britons who inhabited southern and central Great Britain before the Roman conquest.
The Cornovii were a Celtic people of Iron Age and Roman Britain, who lived principally in the modern English counties of Cheshire, Shropshire, north Staffordshire, north Herefordshire and eastern parts of the Welsh counties of Flintshire, Powys and Wrexham.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
A county court is a court based in or with a jurisdiction covering one or more counties, which are administrative divisions (subnational entities) within a country, not to be confused with the medieval system of county courts held by the High Sheriff of each county.
County Durham (locally) is a county in North East England.
The Court of Appeal (COA, formally "Her Majesty's Court of Appeal in England") is the highest court within the Senior Courts of England and Wales, and second only to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
The Courts of England and Wales, supported administratively by Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service, are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales.
Crib Goch is described as a ‘knife-edged’ arête in the Snowdonia National Park in Gwynedd, Wales.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
The Cross of Saint George (Георгиевский Крест) is a state decoration of the Russian Federation.
The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal, one of the constituent parts of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.
The crwth, also called a crowd or rote, is a bowed lyre, a type of stringed instrument, associated particularly with Welsh music and with medieval folk music of England, now archaic but once widely played in Europe.
The cuisine of the United States reflects its history.
Wales is a country in Western Europe that has a distinctive culture including its own language, customs, holidays and music.
Culverhouse Cross (Croes Cwrlwys) is a district straddling the boundary between Cardiff and the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales.
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.
Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.
A curator (from cura, meaning "to take care") is a manager or overseer.
Cycling competitions at the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics were held from August 9 to August 23 at the Laoshan Velodrome (track events), Laoshan Mountain Bike Course, Laoshan BMX Field and the Beijing Cycling Road Course.
The Cyfarthfa Ironworks was a major 18th century and 19th century ironworks located in Cyfarthfa, on the north-western edge of Merthyr Tydfil, in South West Wales.
Cyfraith Hywel (Laws of Hywel), also known as Welsh law (Leges Walliæ), was the system of law practised in medieval Wales before its final conquest by England.
Sir Cyril Fred Fox (16 December 1882 – 15 January 1967) was an English archaeologist.
The cywydd (plural cywyddau) is one of the most important metrical forms in Welsh traditional poetry (cerdd dafod).
The D'Hondt method or the Jefferson method is a highest averages method for allocating seats, and is thus a type of party-list proportional representation.
Dafydd ap Gruffydd (or Dafydd ap Gruffudd, angl. David, son of Gruffydd) (11 July (?) 1238 – 3 October 1283) was Prince of Wales from 11 December 1282 until his execution on 3 October 1283 by King Edward I of England.
Dafydd ap Gwilym (c. 1315/1320 – c. 1350/1370) is regarded as one of the leading Welsh poets and amongst the great poets of Europe in the Middle Ages.
Dafydd Elis-Thomas, Baron Elis-Thomas, PC (born 18 October 1946) is a Welsh politician, representing the Dwyfor Meirionnydd constituency in the National Assembly for Wales.
The Daily News, historically a successor of The Inquirer and The Inquirer and Commercial News, was an afternoon daily English language newspaper published in Perth, Western Australia from 1882 to 1990, though its origin is traceable from 1840.
Dale Fort is a mid-19th century coastal artillery fort at Dale Head, a rocky promontory near Dale, Pembrokeshire, to the west of Milford Haven in Wales.
Dance moves or dance steps (more complex dance moves are called dance patterns, dance figures, dance movements, or dance variations) are usually isolated, defined, and organized so that beginning dancers can learn and use them independently of each other.
Daniel Owen (20 October 1836 – 22 October 1895) was a Welsh novelist, generally regarded as the foremost Welsh-language novelist of the 19th century, and as the first significant novelist to write in Welsh.
Walter David Jones CH, CBE (known as David Jones, 1 November 1895 – 28 October 1974) was both a painter and one of the first-generation British modernist poets.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The Deceangli or Deceangi (Welsh: Tegeingl) were one of the Celtic tribes living in Britain, prior to the Roman invasion of the island.
Decimalisation is the process of converting a currency from its previous non-decimal denominations to a decimal system (i.e., a system based on one basic unit of currency and one or more sub-units, such that the number of sub-units in one basic unit is a power of 10, most commonly 100).
Deheubarth (lit. "Right-hand Part", thus "the South") was a regional name for the realms of south Wales, particularly as opposed to Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia).
The Demetae were a Celtic people of Iron Age Britain who inhabited modern Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire in south-west Wales, and gave their name to the county of Dyfed.
Demographic transition (DT) is the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.
The Deputy First Minister for Wales (Dirprwy Brif Weinidog Cymru) is the deputy leader of the Welsh Government, the devolved administration for Wales.
In the United Kingdom, devolution (fèin-riaghlaidh, datganoli; Irish: Dílárú) refers to the statutory granting of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the London Assembly and to their associated executive bodies the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government, the Northern Ireland Executive and in England, the Greater London Authority and combined authorities.
Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television signals, including the sound channel, using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier television technology, analog television, in which the video and audio are carried by analog signals.
The digital television transition, also called the digital switchover, the analog switch-off (ASO), or the analog shutdown, is the process in which older analog television broadcasting is converted to and replaced by digital television.
Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT) is a technology for broadcast television in which land-based (terrestrial) television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format.
The Dinorwic Slate Quarry is a large former slate quarry, now home to the Welsh National Slate Museum, located between the villages of Llanberis and Dinorwig in North Wales.
Doctor Who is a British science-fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963.
Doggerel is poetry that is irregular in rhythm and in rhyme, often deliberately for burlesque or comic effect.
Doggerland is the name of a land mass now beneath the southern North Sea that connected Great Britain to continental Europe.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
Donald Daniel Houston (6 November 1923 – 13 October 1991) was a Welsh actor whose first two films—The Blue Lagoon (1949) with Jean Simmons, and A Run for Your Money (1949) with Alec Guinness—were highly successful.
The Dowlais Ironworks was a major ironworks and steelworks located at Dowlais near Merthyr Tydfil, in Wales.
Draba aizoides is a species of Draba, known as yellow whitlow-grass.
Dragons (Dreigiau) are one of the four professional rugby union regional teams in Wales.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Duffy (born 23 June 1984 as Amy Anne Duffy) is a Welsh singer, songwriter and actress.
Dydd Santes Dwynwen (Welsh for St Dwynwen's Day) is considered to be the Welsh equivalent to Valentine's Day and is celebrated on 25 January every year.
Dyfed is a preserved county of Wales. It was created on 1 April 1974, as an amalgamation of the three pre-existing counties of Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. It was abolished twenty-two years later, on 1 April 1996, when the three original counties were reinstated, Cardiganshire being renamed Ceredigion the following day. The name "Dyfed" is retained for certain ceremonial and other purposes. It is a mostly rural county in southwestern Wales with a coastline on the Irish Sea and the Bristol Channel.
Dyfed–Powys Police (Heddlu Dyfed–Powys) is the territorial police force responsible for policing Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion and Pembrokeshire (which make up the former administrative area of Dyfed) and the unitary authority of Powys (covering Brecknockshire, Radnorshire and Montgomeryshire), in Wales.
Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 – 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion"; the 'play for voices' Under Milk Wood; and stories and radio broadcasts such as A Child's Christmas in Wales and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog.
The early 1980s recession was a severe global economic recession that affected much of the developed world in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Air Kilroe Limited, trading as Eastern Airways, is a British airline whose head office is at Humberside Airport near the village of Kirmington, North Lincolnshire, England.
The Edict of Milan (Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327.
Edward Lhuyd (occasionally written as Llwyd in recent times, in accordance with Modern Welsh orthography) (1660 – 30 June 1709) was a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary.
An eel is any ray-finned fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and about 800 species.
In Welsh culture, an eisteddfod (plural eisteddfodau) is a Welsh festival of literature, music and performance.
Eleanor de Montfort, Princess of Wales and Lady of Snowdon (1252 – 19 June 1282) was an English noble.
Elisedd ap Gwylog (died c. 755), also known as Elise, was king of Powys in eastern Wales.
The British Embassy Washington (commonly known in the United States as the Embassy of the United Kingdom, Washington, D.C.) is the British sovereign's diplomatic mission to the United States of America, representing the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom's interests.
George Emlyn Williams, CBE (26 November 1905 – 25 September 1987), known as Emlyn Williams, was a Welsh writer, dramatist and actor.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development defines the employment rate as the employment-to-population ratio.
Emyr Humphreys (born 15 April 1919) is a leading Welsh novelist, poet and author.
The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, published in January 2008, is a single-volume-publication encyclopaedia about Wales.
The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
The England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) is the governing body of cricket in England and Wales.
The England cricket team represents England and Wales (and, until 1992, also Scotland) in international cricket.
The England–Wales border, sometimes the Wales–England border or the Anglo-Welsh border, is the border between England and Wales, two constituent countries of the United Kingdom.
The English Football League (EFL) is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales.
The English football league system, also known as the football pyramid, is a series of interconnected leagues for men's association football clubs in England, with six teams from Wales and one from Guernsey also competing.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.
Enzo Maccarinelli (born 20 August 1980) is a Welsh former professional boxer who competed from 1999 to 2016.
Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (22 February 1882 – 17 November 1940) was an English sculptor, typeface designer, and printmaker, who was associated with the Arts and Crafts movement.
Escheat is a common law doctrine that transfers the real property of a person who died without heirs to the Crown or state.
The European Land Information Service provides direct access to official land registers in Europe.
The European pine marten (Martes martes), known most commonly as the pine marten in Anglophone Europe, and less commonly also known as pineten, baum marten, or sweet marten, is an animal native to Northern Europe belonging to the mustelid family, which also includes mink, otter, badger, wolverine, and weasel.
The European polecat (Mustela putorius) – also known as the common ferret, black or forest polecat, or fitch (as well as some other names) – is a species of mustelid native to western Eurasia and north Morocco.
The European Rugby Challenge Cup is an annual European rugby union competition organised by European Professional Club Rugby.
The European Rugby Champions Cup (known as the Heineken Champions Cup for sponsorship reasons) is an annual rugby union tournament organised by European Professional Club Rugby (EPCR).
Evan John Roberts (8 June 1878 – 29 January 1951), was a leading figure of the 1904–1905 Welsh Revival who suffered many setbacks in his later life.
An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country.
The Fairtrade certification initiative was created to form a new method for economic trade.
An oath of fealty, from the Latin fidelitas (faithfulness), is a pledge of allegiance of one person to another.
Feeder are a Welsh rock band formed in Newport, Wales.
The feral goat is the domestic goat (Capra hircus) when it has become established in the wild.
Fernhill is a Welsh folk band, formed in 1996.
A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
'The five royal tribes of Wales' and 'The fifteen tribes of Gwynedd' refer to a class of genealogical lists which were compiled by Welsh bards in the mid-15th century.
The First Minister of Wales (Prif Weinidog Cymru) is the leader of the Welsh Government, Wales' devolved administration, which was established in 1999.
Fish and chips is a hot dish of English origin consisting of fried battered fish and hot potato chips.
Fishguard (Abergwaun, meaning "Mouth of the River Gwaun") is a coastal town in Pembrokeshire, south-west Wales, with a population of 3,419 recorded in the 2011 Census.
The flag of Wales (Baner Cymru or Y Ddraig Goch, meaning the red dragon) consists of a red dragon passant on a green and white field.
Flintshire (Sir y Fflint) is a principal area of Wales, known as a county.
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Sir Frank William Brangwyn (12 May 1867 – 11 June 1956) was an Anglo-Welsh artist, painter, water colourist, engraver, illustrator and progressive designer.
Freddie Welsh (born Frederick Hall Thomas, 5 March 1886 – 29 July 1927) was a Welsh World lightweight boxing champion.
The Free Wales Army (Byddin Rhyddid Cymru) was a paramilitary Welsh nationalist organisation, formed at Lampeter in Ceredigion by William Julian Cayo-Evans in 1963.
Funeral for a Friend were a Welsh post-hardcore band from Bridgend, formed in 2001.
Gagea serotina, synonym Lloydia serotina, is an Arctic–alpine flowering plant of the lily family.
Gannets are seabirds comprising the genus Morus, in the family Sulidae, closely related to boobies.
Gareth Frank Bale (born 16 July 1989) is a Welsh professional footballer who plays as a winger for Spanish club Real Madrid and the Wales national team.
Gary Andrew Speed, MBE (8 September 1969 – 27 November 2011) was a Welsh professional footballer and manager.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau (English, "Mary's Festival of the Candles") is a Welsh name of Candlemas, celebrated on 2 February.
A Gŵyl Mabsant (Welsh for "Feast of the Patron"), also known as the Patronal Festival or Wake of a parish,Baring-Gould, Sabine & al.
Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.
A geological period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Sir Geraint Llewellyn Evans (16 February 1922 – 19 September 1992) was a Welsh bass-baritone noted for operatic roles including Figaro in Le nozze di Figaro, Papageno in Die Zauberflöte, and the title roles in Falstaff and Wozzeck.
Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis; Gerallt Gymro; Gerald de Barri) was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gildas (Breton: Gweltaz; c. 500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons.
Gimli is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glamorgan, or sometimes Glamorganshire, (Morgannwg or Sir Forgannwg) is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county of Wales.
Glamorgan County Cricket Club (Criced Morgannwg) is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales.
The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust is an Archaeological Trust organisation established in 1975 as part of the Welsh Archaeological Trusts.
Glywysing was, from the sub-Roman period to the Early Middle Ages, a petty kingdom in south-east Wales.
The GO Wales project (Graduate Opportunities Wales) was an employability and business support project in Wales.
The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Golwg (Welsh for "View") is a Welsh-language magazine established in 1988.
Gomer Press (Welsh: Gwasg Gomer) is a family printing and publishing company based in Llandysul, west Wales.
Gorky's Zygotic Mynci were a psychedelic folk and alternative rock band which formed in Carmarthen, Wales in 1991.
Sir William Goscombe John (21 February 1860 – 15 December 1952) was a Welsh sculptor.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Government of Wales Act 1998 (c. 38) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Government of Wales Act 2006 (c 32) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reforms the National Assembly for Wales and allows further powers to be granted to it more easily.
Gower (Gŵyr) or the Gower Peninsula (Penrhyn Gŵyr) is in South Wales.
The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperon, such as a family member) when they had come of age (about 21 years old).
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Great Britain or Team GB is the team that sends athletes from the United Kingdom (UK), all but three of its overseas territories, and the three Crown dependencies, to the Olympic Games.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Western main line is a main line railway in England, that runs westwards from London Paddington to.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Gresford (Gresffordd) is a village and a local government community, the lowest tier of local government, part of Wrexham County Borough in Wales.
The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.
Griffith Jones (early 1684 – 8 April 1761) was a Welsh minister of the Church of England and a promoter of Methodism.
In economics, gross value added (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy.
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (died 5 August 1063) was the King of Wales from 1055 to 1063.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Gwasg Carreg Gwalch is a publishing company based in Llanrwst, Wales.
Gwendolen Mary John (22 June 1876 – 18 September 1939) was a Welsh artist who worked in France for most of her career.
Gwenllian of Wales or Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn (June 1282 – 7 June 1337) was the only child of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the last native Prince of Wales.
Gwent Police (Heddlu Gwent) is a territorial police force in Wales, responsible for policing the local authority areas of Blaenau Gwent, Caerphilly, Monmouthshire, Newport and Torfaen.
Gwyn Thomas (6 July 1913 – 13 April 1981) was a Welsh writer, dramatist, Punch-columnist, radio broadcaster and raconteur, who has been called "the true voice of the English-speaking valleys".
Gwynedd is a county in Wales, sharing borders with Powys, Conwy, Anglesey over the Menai Strait, and Ceredigion over the River Dyfi.
Dame Gwyneth Jones, (born 7 November 1936) is a Welsh operatic dramatic soprano.
Gwynfor Richard Evans (1 September 1912 – 21 April 2005) was a Welsh politician, lawyer and author.
The gwyniad (Coregonus pennantii) is a freshwater whitefish native to Bala Lake (Llyn Tegid) in northern Wales.
The term hake refers to fish in either of.
Halcrow Group Limited was a multinational engineering consultancy company, based in the United Kingdom Halcrow was one of the UK's largest consultancies, with origins stretching back to 1868.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Hansard is the traditional name of the transcripts of Parliamentary Debates in Britain and many Commonwealth countries.
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Sir Harry Donald Secombe, CBE (8 September 1921 – 11 April 2001) was a Welsh comedian, actor and singer.
Hawarden Bridge (Pont Penarlâg) is a railway bridge over the River Dee, near Shotton, Flintshire, Wales.
The hazel dormouse or common dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) is a small mammal and the only living species in the genus Muscardinus.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
The hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) is a bird of prey.
Yr Hen Ogledd, in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain in the Early Middle Ages.
"Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" is the national anthem of Wales.
Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Her Majesty's Courts Service (HMCS) was an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) and was responsible for the administration of the civil, family and criminal courts in England and Wales.
A heraldic badge, emblem, impresa, device, or personal device worn as a badge indicates allegiance to, or the property of, an individual or family.
The Hereford Gospels (Hereford, Hereford Cathedral Library, MS P. I. 2) is an 8th-century illuminated manuscript gospel book in insular script (minuscule), with large illuminated initials in the Insular style.
A heritage coast is a strip of coastline in England and Wales, the extent of which is defined by agreement between the relevant statutory national agency and the relevant local authority.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
The High Court of Justice is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.
For a specific subregion breakdowns of Hinduism in the United Kingdom, see: Hinduism in England, Hinduism in Scotland, Hinduism in Wales and Hinduism in Northern Ireland Hinduism has had a presence in the United Kingdom since the early 19th century, as at the time India was part of the British Empire.
The History of the Britons (Historia Brittonum) is a purported history of the indigenous British (Brittonic) people that was written around 828 and survives in numerous recensions that date from after the 11th century.
Historia regum Britanniae (The History of the Kings of Britain), originally called De gestis Britonum (On the Deeds of the Britons), is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
Holyhead (Caergybi, "Cybi's fort") is a town in Wales and a major Irish Sea port serving Ireland.
Holywell (Treffynnon) is the fifth largest town in Flintshire, Wales.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Honno is a Welsh women's press, based in Aberystwyth, which is run as an independent co-operative.
The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (Anrhydeddus Gymdeithas y Cymmrodorion), often called simply the Cymmrodorion, is a London-based Welsh learned society, with membership open to all.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Dinefwr was a royal house of Wales and refers to the descendants of Cadell ap Rhodri King of Seisyllwg, son of Rhodri the Great.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
Howard Winstone, MBE (15 April 1939 – 30 September 2000) was a Welsh world champion boxer, born in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good) or Hywel ap Cadell (c.880 – 950) was a King of Deheubarth who eventually came to rule most of Wales.
Ian James Rush, (born 20 October 1961) is a Welsh former professional footballer who played as a forward.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ieuan Wyn Jones (born 22 May 1949) is a Welsh politician who was the Deputy First Minister in the Welsh Assembly Government from 2007 to 2011.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent.
An industrial park (also known as industrial estate, trading estate) is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Insular art, also known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of Ireland and Britain.
Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
Ioan Gruffudd (born 6 October 1973) is a Welsh actor.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Islam is the second largest religion in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with results from the United Kingdom Census 2011 giving the UK Muslim population in 2011 as 2,786,635, 4.4% of the total population.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
ITV is a British commercial TV network.
James Sheridan Knowles (12 May 1784 – 30 November 1862) was an Irish dramatist and actor.
William James Wilde (15 May 1892 – 10 March 1969) was a Welsh professional boxer and world boxing champion.
Joseph William Calzaghe, (born 23 March 1972) is a Welsh former professional boxer who competed from 1993 to 2008.
Joseph Louis Barrow (May 13, 1914 – April 12, 1981), best known as Joe Louis and nicknamed the "Brown Bomber", was an American professional boxer who competed from 1934 to 1951.
William John Charles, CBE (27 December 1931 – 21 February 2004) was a Welsh international footballer who played for Leeds United and Juventus during his 25-year playing career.
John Davies (25 April 1938 – 16 February 2015) was a Welsh historian, and a television and radio broadcaster.
Dr John Davies, Mallwyd (c. 1567 – 1644) was one of Wales's leading scholars of the late Renaissance.
John Rhys-Davies (born 5 May 1944) is a Welsh actor and voice actor known for his portrayal of Gimli in ''The Lord of the Rings'' trilogy and the charismatic excavator Sallah in the ''Indiana Jones'' films.
John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages.
John Benjamin Toshack MBE (born 22 March 1949) is a Welsh former professional football player and current manager of Iranian club Tractor Sazi of the Persian Gulf Pro League.
John "Iron-Mad" Wilkinson (1728 – 14 July 1808) was an English industrialist who pioneered the manufacture of cast iron and the use of cast-iron goods during the Industrial Revolution.
Leonard Jones (17 February 1919 – 29 November 2004), generally known as Jonah Jones, was born in County Durham, north east England, but known as a Welsh sculptor, writer and artist-craftsman.
Jonathan Dimbleby (born 31 July 1944) is a British presenter of current affairs and political radio and television programmes, an author and historian.
Sir Julian Stephen Alfred Hodge (15 October 1904 – 17 July 2004) was a London-born entrepreneur and banker who lived in Wales for most of his life, from the age of five.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
The Justice of Chester was the chief judicial authority for the county palatine of Chester, from the establishment of the county until the abolition of the Great Sessions in Wales and the palatine judicature in 1830.
The Justiciar of North Wales was a legal office concerned with the government of the three counties in north-west Wales during the medieval period.
The Justiciar of South Wales, sometimes referred to as the Justiciar of West Wales was a royal official of the Principality of Wales during the medieval period.
Katherine Maria Jenkins (born 29 June 1980) is a Welsh lyric mezzo-soprano singer and songwriter.
James Keir Hardie (15 August 185626 September 1915) was a Scottish socialist, politician, and trade unionist.
Kenneth Owen Morgan, Baron Morgan, (born 16 May 1934) is a Welsh historian and author, known especially for his writings on modern British history and politics and on Welsh history.
Kids in Glass Houses were a Welsh rock band from Pontycymmer.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
Gwent (Guent) was a medieval Welsh kingdom, lying between the Rivers Wye and Usk.
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd (Medieval Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet) was one of several successor states to the Roman Empire that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain.
The kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae, the black-legged kittiwake (R. tridactyla) and the red-legged kittiwake (R. brevirostris).
Sir John "Kyffin" Williams, KBE, RA (9 May 1918 – 1 September 2006) was a Welsh landscape painter who lived at Pwllfanogl, Llanfairpwll, on the Island of Anglesey.
Labour and Co-operative Party (often abbreviated Labour Co-op; Llafur a’r Blaid Gydweithredol) is a description used by candidates in United Kingdom elections who stand on behalf of both the Labour Party and the Co-operative Party.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Lady Charlotte Elizabeth Guest (née Bertie; 19 May 1812 – 15 January 1895), later Lady Charlotte Schreiber, was an English aristocrat who is best known as the first publisher in modern print format of The Mabinogion which is the earliest prose literature of Britain.
Lammas Day (Anglo-Saxon hlaf-mas, "loaf-mass"), is a holiday celebrated in some English-speaking countries in the Northern Hemisphere, usually between 1 August and 1 September.
Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
The two official languages of Wales are Welsh and English.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Laver is an edible, littoral alga (seaweed).
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nghymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England and the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration introduced.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
League 1 (for sponsorship reasons currently known as the Betfred League 1), is a professional rugby league competition based in England.
Leanne Wood (born 13 December 1971) is a Welsh politician and the leader of Plaid Cymru.
The leek is a vegetable, a cultivar of Allium ampeloprasum, the broadleaf wild leek.
Leek soup is a soup based on potatoes, leeks, broth (usually chicken), and heavy cream.
In Wales, a Legislative Competence Order (LCO; pronounced 'elco') was a piece of constitutional legislation in the form of an Order in Council.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The Lichfield Gospels (recently more often referred to as the St Chad Gospels, but also known as the Book of Chad, the Gospels of St Chad, the St Teilo Gospels, the Llandeilo Gospels, and variations on these) is an 8th century Insular Gospel Book housed in Lichfield Cathedral.
Life on Mars is a British television series broadcast on BBC One between 9 January 2006 and 10 April 2007.
Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods.
Limpets are aquatic snails with a shell that is broadly conical in shape and a strong, muscular foot.
The British Ambassador to the United States is in charge of the British Embassy, Washington, D.C., the United Kingdom's diplomatic mission to the United States.
This is a list of islands of Wales, the mainland of which is part of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Welsh islands by area.
The governing bodies of sports in Wales perform an organisational, regulatory or sanctioning function at a national level in Wales, some tracing their history to the 19th Century.
An unusual unit of measurement is a unit of measurement that does not form part of a coherent system of measurement; especially in that its exact quantity may not be well known or that it may be an inconvenient multiple or fraction of base units in such systems.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
The Liverpool Post was a newspaper published by Trinity Mirror in Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Llandaff (Llandaf); from llan 'church' and Taf, is a district, community and coterminous electoral ward in the north of Cardiff, capital of Wales.
Llandudno is a seaside resort, town and community in Conwy County Borough, Wales, located on the Creuddyn peninsula, which protrudes into the Irish Sea.
Llangollen is a small town and community in Denbighshire, north-east Wales, situated on the River Dee and on the edge of the Berwyn mountains.
The Llangollen International Musical Eisteddfod is a music festival which takes place every year during the second week of July in Llangollen, North Wales.
Llanishen (Welsh Llanisien llan church + Isien Saint Isan) is a district and community in the north of Cardiff, the capital city of Wales.
Llantrisant ("Parish of the Three Saints") is a town in the county borough of Rhondda Cynon Taf, within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan, Wales, lying on the River Ely and the Afon Clun.
Llanvaches or Llanfaches is a village and community parish within the boundaries of the city of Newport, Wales.
The Llŷn Peninsula (Penrhyn Llŷn or italic) extends into the Irish Sea from north west Wales, south west of the Isle of Anglesey.
Lloegyr is the medieval Welsh name for a region of Britain.
Liberal David Lloyd George formed a coalition government in the United Kingdom in December 1916, and was appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by King George V. It replaced the earlier wartime coalition under H. H. Asquith, which had been held responsible for losses during the Great War.
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (c. 1223 – 11 December 1282), sometimes written as Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, also known as Llywelyn the Last (lit), was Prince of Wales (Princeps Wallie; Tywysog Cymru) from 1258 until his death at Cilmeri in 1282.
Llywelyn Bren (died 1318), or Llywelyn ap Gruffudd ap Rhys or Llywelyn of the Woods (English), was a nobleman who led a revolt in Wales during the reign of King Edward II of England in 1316.
Llywelyn the Great (Llywelyn Fawr), full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, (c. 117311 April 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales.
Paddington, also known as London Paddington, is a Central London railway terminus and London Underground station complex, located on Praed Street in the Paddington area.
Lostprophets were a Welsh rock band from Pontypridd, Wales formed in 1997.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
In parliamentary systems of government, the loyal opposition is the opposition parties in the legislature.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
The M4 is a motorway which runs between London and South Wales in the United Kingdom.
The Mabinogion are the earliest prose stories of the literature of Britain.
Machynlleth, sometimes referred to colloquially as Mach, is a market town, community and electoral ward in Powys, Wales and within the historic boundaries of Montgomeryshire (Sir Drefaldwyn).
Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae.
Madog ap Llywelyn (died after 1312) was the leader of the Welsh revolt of 1294–95 against English rule.
In England and Wales, a magistrates' court is a lower court which holds trials for summary offences and preliminary hearings for more serious ones.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Magnus Maximus (Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus, Macsen Wledig) (August 28, 388) was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388.
The Mametz Wood Memorial commemorates an engagement of the 38th (Welsh) Division of the British Army during the First Battle of the Somme in France in 1916.
Man are a rock band from South Wales whose style is a mixture of West Coast psychedelia, progressive rock and blues.
Manic Street Preachers are a Welsh rock band, formed in 1986 in Blackwood, Caerphilly and consisting of James Dean Bradfield (lead vocals, lead guitar), Nicky Wire (bass guitar, lyrics) and Sean Moore (drums, percussion, soundscapes).
The Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) is a medium-sized shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae.
A Marcher Lord was a noble appointed by the King of England to guard the border (known as the Welsh Marches) between England and Wales.
Maredudd ab Owain (died) was a 10th-century king in Wales of the High Middle Ages.
Dame Margaret Berenice Price, DBE (13 April 194128 January 2011) was a Welsh soprano.
Marina Lambrini Diamandis (born 10 October 1985), known professionally as Marina and the Diamonds, is a Welsh singer and songwriter.
Mark James Williams, (born 21 March 1975) is a Welsh professional snooker player who is a three-time and the current World Champion, winning in 2000, 2003 and 2018.
Mary Hopkin (born 3 May 1950), credited on some recordings as Mary Visconti (from her marriage to Tony Visconti), is a Welsh folk singer best known for her 1968 UK number one single "Those Were the Days".
Mathrafal near Welshpool, in Powys, Mid Wales, was the seat of the Kings and Princes of Powys probably from the 9th century until its destruction in 1212 by Llywelyn ap Iorwerth (Llywelyn the Great) of Gwynedd.
The Matter of Britain is the body of Medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and sometimes Brittany, and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur.
Matthew Rhys Evans (born 8 November 1974), known professionally as Matthew Rhys, is a Welsh actor.
Matthew Stevens (born 11 September 1977) is a Welsh professional snooker player.
A Measure of the National Assembly for Wales (informally, an Assembly Measure) is primary legislation in Wales that is a category lower than an Act of Parliament.
Media Wales Ltd. is a publishing company based in Cardiff, Wales.
Medieval Welsh literature is the literature written in the Welsh language during the Middle Ages.
Meic Stevens (born March 13, 1942) is a Welsh singer-songwriter often referred to as "the Welsh Dylan", who has been compared with Syd Barrett.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
The National Assembly for Wales is composed of 60 members known as Assembly Members or AMs (in Welsh: Aelodau'r Cynulliad or ACau).
Merched y Wawr (Daughters of the Dawn) is a voluntary, non-political, organisation for women in Wales.
Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
The Merlin (Falco columbarius) is a small species of falcon from the Northern Hemisphere, with numerous subspecies throughout North America and Eurasia.
Merthyr Town Football Club (Clwb Pêl-droed Tref Merthyr) is a Welsh semi-professional football club based in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales.
Merthyr Tydfil (Merthyr Tudful) is a large town in Wales, with a population of about 63,546, situated approximately north of Cardiff.
Merthyr Tydfil was a parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Merthyr Tydfil in Glamorgan.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
The Met Office (officially the Meteorological Office) is the United Kingdom's national weather service.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Methuen Publishing Ltd is an English publishing house.
Michael Christopher Sheen, OBE (born 5 February 1969) is a Welsh actor.
Mid Wales (Canolbarth Cymru or simply Y Canolbarth "The Midlands") is the name given to the central region of Wales.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Milford Haven (Aberdaugleddau, meaning "mouth of the two Rivers Cleddau") is a town and community in Pembrokeshire, Wales.
Mining in Wales provided a significant source of income to the economy of Wales throughout the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.
Monoglottism (Greek μόνοσ monos, "alone, solitary", + γλώττα glotta, "tongue, language") or, more commonly, monolingualism or unilingualism, is the condition of being able to speak only a single language, as opposed to multilingualism.
Montgomery (Trefaldwyn; meaning "the town of Baldwin") is a town in the Welsh Marches, administratively in the Welsh county of Powys.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mudiad Amddiffyn Cymru (Movement for the Defence of Wales), abbreviated as MAC, was a paramilitary Welsh nationalist organisation, which was responsible for a number of bombing incidents between 1963 and 1969.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
Mystery plays and miracle plays (they are distinguished as two different forms although the terms are often used interchangeably) are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
The Nantgarw Pottery was a noted pottery, located in Nantgarw on the eastern bank of the Glamorganshire Canal, north of Cardiff in the River Taff valley, Glamorganshire, Wales.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Narcissus is a genus of predominantly spring perennial plants of the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family.
The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.
National Assembly for Wales constituencies and electoral regions were first used for the 1999 elections.
The 2007 National Assembly election was held on Thursday 3 May 2007 to elect members to the National Assembly for Wales.
The National Assembly for Wales election 2011 was an election for the National Assembly.
The National Assembly for Wales election 2016 was held on Thursday 5 May 2016, to elect members of the National Assembly for Wales (AMs).
National Dance Company Wales (NDCWales), formerly Diversions, is the national dance company of Wales.
The National Eisteddfod of Wales (Welsh: Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Cymru) is the most important of several eisteddfodau that are held annually, mostly in Wales.
The National Health Service Act 1946 came into effect on 5 July 1948 and created the National Health Service in England and Wales.
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, and an additional of manuscript material.
The National Library of Wales (Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru), Aberystwyth, is the national legal deposit library of Wales and is one of the Welsh Government sponsored bodies.
National Museum Cardiff (Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd) is a museum and art gallery in Cardiff, Wales.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
The National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) is a trade union for coal miners in Great Britain, formed in 1945 from the Miners' Federation of Great Britain (MFGB).
The National Youth Orchestra of Wales (Cerddorfa Genedlaethol Ieuenctid Cymru), founded in 1945, has the distinction of being the first national youth orchestra in the world and is Europe's longest-standing national youth orchestra.
Nennius — or Nemnius or Nemnivus — was a Welsh monk of the 9th century.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Neolithic Europe is the period when Neolithic technology was present in Europe, roughly between 7000 BCE (the approximate time of the first farming societies in Greece) and c. 1700 BCE (the beginning of the Bronze Age in northwest Europe).
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
New Quay (Cei Newydd) is a seaside town in Ceredigion, Wales with a resident population of around 1,200 people, reducing to 1,082 at the 2011 census.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newport County Association Football Club (Clwb Pêl-droed Sir Casnewydd) is a professional association football club based in the city of Newport, South Wales.
Newport (Casnewydd) is a cathedral and university city and unitary authority area in south east Wales.
NHS Wales (GIG Cymru) is the official corporate name of the Welsh National Health Service (Gwasanaeth Iechyd Gwladol Cymru), a publicly funded healthcare system which is the responsibility of the Welsh Government.
Nicole Denise Cooke, MBE (born 13 April 1983) is a Welsh former professional road bicycle racer and Commonwealth, Olympic and World road race champion.
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current that extends the Gulf Stream north-eastward.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
North Wales (Gogledd Cymru) is an unofficial region of Wales.
North Wales Crusaders R.L.F.C. (Croesgadwyr Gogledd Cymru Rygbi'r Gynghrair) is a professional rugby league club based in Wrexham, Wales.
North Wales Police (Heddlu Gogledd Cymru) is the territorial police force responsible for policing North Wales.
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Offa was King of Mercia, a kingdom of Anglo-Saxon England, from 757 until his death in July 796.
Offa's Dyke (Clawdd Offa) is a large linear earthwork that roughly follows the current border between England and Wales.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
The Office of Rail and Road (ORR) is a non-ministerial government department responsible for the economic and safety regulation of Britain's railways, and the economic monitoring of Highways England.
The Office of the Secretary of State for Wales, (Swyddfa Ysgrifennydd Gwladol Cymru), informally known as the Wales Office, (Swyddfa Cymru), is a United Kingdom government department.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
One Wales (Cymru'n Un) was the coalition agreement for the National Assembly for Wales between Labour and Plaid Cymru agreed to by Rhodri Morgan, First Minister of Wales and leader of Welsh Labour, and Ieuan Wyn Jones, leader of Plaid Cymru, on 27 June 2007.
Ordnance Survey (OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain.
The Ordovices were one of the Celtic tribes living in Great Britain before the Roman invasion.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
The Ospreys (Y Gweilch), formerly the Neath-Swansea Ospreyshttp://www.walesonline.co.uk/rugbynation/rugby-news/tm_objectid.
Oswestry (Croesoswallt) is a large market town and civil parish in Shropshire, England, close to the Welsh border.
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Wales: Wales – country that is part of the United Kingdom, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west.
Overton or Overton-on-Dee (Owrtyn) is a small town, Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust and a local government community, the lowest tier of local government, part of Wrexham County Borough in Wales.
Owain Glyndŵr (c. 1359 – c. 1415), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, was a Welsh ruler and the last native Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) but to many, viewed as an unofficial king.
Owain ap Gruffudd (23 or 28 November 1170) was King of Gwynedd, North Wales, from 1137 until his death in 1170, succeeding his father Gruffudd ap Cynan.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
Palaeos.com is a web site on biology, paleontology, phylogeny and geology and which covers the history of Earth.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Parc Cwm long cairn (carn hir Parc Cwm), also known as Parc le Breos burial chamber (siambr gladdu Parc le Breos), is a partly restored Neolithic chambered tomb, identified in 1937 as a Severn-Cotswold type of chambered long barrow.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Parys Mountain (Mynydd Parys) – is located south of the town of Amlwch in north east Anglesey, Wales.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Paul Julian Whitehouse (born 17 May 1958) is a British actor, writer and comedian.
Pembroke Dock (Doc Penfro) is a town in Pembrokeshire, South West Wales, northwest of Pembroke on the banks of the River Cleddau.
Pembrokeshire Coast National Park (Parc Cenedlaethol Arfordir Penfro) is a national park along the Pembrokeshire coast in west Wales.
Pen y Fan is the highest peak in south Wales, situated in the Brecon Beacons National Park.
Penarth is a town in the Vale of Glamorgan (Bro Morgannwg), Wales, approximately southwest of Cardiff city centre on the north shore of the Severn Estuary at the southern end of Cardiff Bay.
The Penmachno Document was a letters patent drawn up at Penmachno in Gwynedd and signed on 19 December 1294 by Madog ap Llywelyn at the height of his revolt against English rule in Wales.
The Penrhyn Slate Quarry is a slate quarry located near Bethesda in north Wales.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Pentre Ifan is the name of an ancient manor in the civil parish of Nevern, Pembrokeshire, Wales.
Penydarren Ironworks was the fourth of the great ironworks established at Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales.
Percy Jones (26 December 1892 – 25 December 1922) was a Welsh boxer, the first Welshman to win a world boxing title when he took the World Flyweight Championship from Bill Ladbury in 1914.
Perfeddwlad or Y Berfeddwlad (Welsh for 'Midlands') was the name during the 12th century for the territories in Wales lying between the River Conwy and the River Dee.
Peter Prendergast (27 October 1946 – 14 January 2007) was a Welsh landscape painter.
Professor Philip James Stradling Williams (11 January 1939 – 10 June 2003) was a Welsh politician for Plaid Cymru and scientist.
Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
The Pillar of Eliseg — also known as Elise's Pillar or Croes Elisedd in Welsh — stands near Valle Crucis Abbey, Denbighshire, Wales.
Pistyll Rhaeadr (meaning "spring of the waterfall") is a waterfall, located a few miles from the village of Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant in Powys, Wales, twelve miles west of Oswestry.
Plaid Cymru (officially Plaid Cymru – Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating for Welsh independence from the United Kingdom within the European Union.
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
Plynlimon (anglicised from Pumlumon in Welsh, meaning "five peaks") is the highest point of the Cambrian Mountains in Wales, and the highest point in Mid Wales.
Poetry Wales is a triannual poetry magazine published in Bridgend, Wales.
Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom (UK).
Pont Abraham services is a motorway service station located at junction 49, the western terminus of the M4 motorway in Wales.
The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct (Traphont Ddŵr Pontcysyllte) is a navigable aqueduct that carries the Llangollen Canal across the River Dee in north east Wales.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales).
Portmeirion is a tourist village in Gwynedd, North Wales.
Portmeirion is a British pottery company based in Stoke-on-Trent.
A post-industrial economy refers to a period of growth within an industrialized economy or nation in which the relative importance of manufacturing reduces and that of services, information, and research grows.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Power pop is a rock music subgenre that draws its inspiration from 1960s British and American rock music.
Powys is a principal area, a county and one of the preserved counties of Wales.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
The Presbyterian Church of Wales (Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru), also known as Calvinistic Methodist Church (Yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd Galfinaidd), is a denomination of Protestant Christianity in Wales.
The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales is the Speaker of the National Assembly for Wales, elected by the Members of the National Assembly for Wales to chair their meetings (plenary sessions); to maintain order; and to protect the rights of Members.
Press Gazette, formerly known as UK Press Gazette (UKPG), is a British media trade magazine dedicated to journalism and the press.
In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation, are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislative and executive branches of government.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
The Prince of Wales's feathers is the heraldic badge of the Prince of Wales.
The Principality of Wales (Tywysogaeth Cymru) existed between 1216 and 1536, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales during its height between 1267 and 1277.
A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress.
The prisons in Wales are run by Her Majesty's Prison Service, which is in turn a part of HM Prison and Probation Service (HMPPS) which is an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice responsible for the correctional services in England and Wales.
The PRO14 (known as the Guinness PRO14 for sponsorship reasons) is an annual rugby union competition involving professional sides from Ireland, Italy, Scotland, South Africa and Wales.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.
Pseudohistory is a form of pseudoscholarship that attempts to distort or misrepresent the historical record, often using methods resembling those used in legitimate historical research.
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
Puffins are any of three small species of alcids (auks) in the bird genus Fratercula with a brightly coloured beak during the breeding season.
Ronald Stuart Thomas (29 March 1913 – 25 September 2000), published as R. S. Thomas, was a Welsh poet and Anglican priest who was noted for his nationalism, spirituality and deep dislike of the anglicisation of Wales.
Robert Williams Parry (6 March 1884 – 4 January 1956) was one of Wales's most notable 20th-century poets writing in Welsh.
Rachel Bromwich (30 July 1915 – 15 December 2010) was a British scholar.
Rachel Roberts (20 September 192726 November 1980) was a Welsh actress.
Radio Ceredigion is an Independent Local Radio station serving Ceredigion in Mid Wales.
Radio Hafren was a local commercial radio station in the United Kingdom, serving Mid Wales and the English border counties and broadcasting on 756 AM and 102.1 FM.
Radnor or Radnorshire (Sir Faesyfed) is a sparsely populated area, one of thirteen historic and former administrative counties of Wales.
A raven is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus.
Ray Reardon, (born 8 October 1932) is a Welsh retired snooker player who dominated the sport in the 1970s, winning six World Championships, and is remembered as one of the best players of the 20th century.
Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 – 26 January 1988) was a Welsh Marxist theorist, academic, novelist and critic.
The razorbill (Alca torda) is a colonial seabird that comes to land only to breed.
The Red Book of Hergest (Llyfr Coch Hergest, Jesus College, Oxford, MS 111) is a large vellum manuscript written shortly after 1382, which ranks as one of the most important medieval manuscripts written in the Welsh language.
The red kite (Milvus milvus) is a medium-large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards, and harriers.
The Red Lady of Paviland is a male Upper Paleolithic partial skeleton dyed in red ochre and buried in Britain 33,000 BP.
In biogeography and paleontology a relict is a population or taxon of organisms that was more widespread or more diverse in the past.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
Rhayader (Rhaeadr Gwy) is a market town, community and electoral ward in Powys, central Wales.
Rhodri Paul Gilbert (born 18 October 1968) is a Welsh comedian who was nominated in 2005 for the Perrier Best Newcomer Award.
Hywel Rhodri Morgan (29 September 1939 – 17 May 2017) was a Welsh Labour politician who was the First Minister of Wales and the Leader of Welsh Labour from 2000 to 2009.
Rhodri ap Merfyn (820–878), later known as Rhodri the Great (Rhodri Mawr), succeeded his father, Merfyn Frych, as King of Gwynedd in 844.
Rhondda, or the Rhondda Valley (Cwm Rhondda), is a former coal mining valley in Wales, formerly a local government district, consisting of 16 communities built around the River Rhondda.
Robert Rhydwenfro Williams, known as Rhydwen Williams, (29 August 1916 – 2 August 1997), was a Welsh poet, novelist and Baptist minister.
Rhys Ifans (born Rhys Owain Evans;Births, Marriages & Deaths Index of England & Wales, 1916–2005.; at ancestry.com 22 July 1967) is a Welsh actor and musician.
Rhys Lewis is a novel by Daniel Owen, written in the Welsh language and published in 1885.
The Ricemarch Psalter is an 11th-century Welsh illuminated psalter, in a late Insular style, that has been described as "Hiberno-Danish", instead of the usual "Hiberno-Saxon", as it reflects Viking influence.
Richard Burton, CBE (born Richard Walter Jenkins Jr.; 10 November 19255 August 1984) was a Welsh actor.
Richard Pennant, 1st Baron Penrhyn (1737 – 21 January 1808) was the owner of Penrhyn estate, on the outskirts of Bangor, North Wales, six sugar plantations in Jamaica and hundreds of enslaved African workers.
Richard Wilson (1 August 1714 – 15 May 1782) was an influential Welsh landscape painter, who worked in Britain and Italy.
The ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus) is a European member of the thrush family, Turdidae.
The River Dee (Afon Dyfrdwy, Deva Fluvius) is a river in the United Kingdom.
The River Severn (Afon Hafren, Sabrina) is a river in the United Kingdom.
The River Wye (Afon Gwy) is the fifth-longest river in the UK, stretching some from its source on Plynlimon in mid Wales to the Severn estuary.
Robbie Regan (born 30 August 1968 in Caerphilly, Wales) is a Welsh former professional boxer.
Roderick Impey Murchison, 1st Baronet KCB DCL FRS FRSE FLS PRGS PBA MRIA (22 February 1792 – 22 October 1871) was a Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian system.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.→.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romans are famous for their advanced engineering accomplishments, although some of their own inventions were improvements on older ideas, concepts and inventions.
Roman technology is the engineering practice which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible for over a millennium (753 BC–476 AD).
Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
Romano-British culture is the culture that arose in Britain under the Roman Empire following the Roman conquest in AD 43 and the creation of the province of Britannia.
Dame Rosemary Janet Mair Butler (née McGrath; born 21 January 1943) is a British politician who was Labour Member of the National Assembly for Wales for Newport West from 1999 until 2016.
The Royal Cambrian Academy of Art is a centre of excellence for art in Wales.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
Royal Charter was a steam clipper which was wrecked off the beach of Porth Alerth in Dulas Bay on the north-east coast of Anglesey on 26 October 1859.
The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom.
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland.
The Royal Welsh (R WELSH) (Y Cymry Brenhinol) is one of the new large infantry regiments of the British Army.
The Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama (Welsh: Coleg Brenhinol Cerdd a Drama Cymru) is a conservatoire located in Cardiff, Wales.
Ruabon (Rhiwabon) is a village and community in the county borough of Wrexham in Wales.
The Rugby Football League is the governing body for professional rugby league in England.
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
The Rugby League World Cup is an international rugby league tournament, contested by national teams of the Rugby League International Federation, which was first held in France in 1954, the first World Cup in either rugby code.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.
Ruthin (Rhuthun) is the county town of Denbighshire in north Wales.
Ryan Joseph Giggs, (né Wilson; born 29 November 1973) is a Welsh football coach and former player.
S4C (from the Welsh Sianel Pedwar Cymru, meaning "Channel 4 Wales") is a Welsh-language British public-service TV channel broadcast throughout the UK and Republic of Ireland.
A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.
Saint David (Dewi Sant; Davidus; 500 589) was a Welsh bishop of Mynyw (now St Davids) during the 6th century; he was later regarded as a saint.
Saint David's Day (Dydd Gŵyl Dewi) is the feast day of Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, and falls on 1 March, the date of Saint David's death in 589 AD.
Sallah Mohammed Faisel el-Kahir, better known simply as Sallah (صلاح), is a fictional character played by Welsh actor John Rhys-Davies in two of the four ''Indiana Jones'' films; Raiders of the Lost Ark and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Salvelinus is a genus of salmonid fish often called char or charr; some species are called "trout".
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Saunders Lewis (born John Saunders Lewis) (15 October 1893 – 1 September 1985) was a Welsh poet, dramatist, historian, literary critic, and political activist.
Saxifraga cespitosa, the tufted alpine saxifrage or tufted saxifrage, is a flower common to many arctic heights.
Saxifraga oppositifolia, the purple saxifrage or purple mountain saxifrage, is a species of edible plant that is very common all over the high Arctic and also some high mountainous areas further south, including northern Britain, the Alps and the Rocky Mountains.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
The Scarlets are one of the four professional Welsh regional rugby union teams and are based in Llanelli, Wales.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.
The Sea Empress oil spill occurred at the entrance to the Milford Haven Waterway in Pembrokeshire, Wales on 15 February 1996.
Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.
The Second Severn Crossing (Ail Groesfan Hafren) is the M4 motorway bridge over the River Severn between England and Wales, inaugurated on 5 June 1996 by HRH The Prince of Wales to supplement the traffic capacity of the Severn Bridge built in 1966.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Wales (Ysgrifennydd Gwladol Cymru) is the principal minister of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom with responsibilities for Wales.
Seisyllwg was a petty kingdom of medieval Wales.
Sempringham is a hamlet in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England.
The Seven Wonders of Wales (Saith Rhyfeddod Cymru) is a traditional list of notable landmarks in north Wales, commemorated in an anonymously written rhyme: The rhyme is usually supposed to have been written sometime in the late 18th or early 19th century by an English visitor to North Wales.
Sheep farming is important to the economy of Wales.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
Shirburn Castle is at the village of Shirburn, south of Thame, Oxfordshire.
Dame Shirley Veronica Bassey, (born 8 January 1937) is a Welsh singer whose career began in the mid-1950s, best known both for her powerful voice and for recording the theme songs to the James Bond films Goldfinger (1964), Diamonds Are Forever (1971), and Moonraker (1979).
Shrewsbury is the county town of Shropshire, England.
Siân James (born 24 December 1961) is a Welsh traditional folk singer and harpist who has recorded for Sain and BBC Records as well as her own label, Bos.
Sikhism was recorded as the religion of 420,196 people resident in England at the 2011 Census, along with 2,962 people in Wales, 9,055 in Scotland and 216 in Northern Ireland, making for a total Sikh population of 432,429.
Silene acaulis, known as moss campion or cushion pink, is a small mountain-dwelling wildflower that is common all over the high arctic and tundra in the higher mountains of Eurasia and North America, (south to the Alps, Carpathians, southern Siberia, Pyrenees, British Isles, Faroe Islands, Rocky Mountains).
The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe or tribal confederation of ancient Britain, occupying what is now south east Wales and perhaps some adjoining areas.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (– 4 August 1265), also called Simon de Munford and sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from other Simons de Montfort, was a French-English nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England.
The Six Nations Championship (recently known as the NatWest 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Snooker is a cue sport which originated among British Army officers stationed in India in the latter half of the 19th century.
Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa) is the highest mountain in Wales, at an elevation of above sea level, and the highest point in the British Isles outside the Scottish Highlands.
Snowdonia (Eryri) is a mountainous region in northwestern Wales and a national park of in area.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
South Wales (De Cymru) is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west.
The South Wales Argus is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Newport, South Wales.
The South Wales Coalfield (Welsh: Maes glo De Cymru) is a large region of south Wales that is rich in coal deposits, especially the South Wales Valleys.
The South Wales Echo is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Cardiff, Wales and distributed throughout the surrounding area.
The South Wales Evening Post is a tabloid daily newspaper distributed in the South West region of Wales The paper has three daily editions - Swansea, Neath and Port Talbot and Carmarthenshire and is published by South West Wales Publications, part of the Local World group.
The South Wales Main Line (Prif Linell De Cymru), originally known as the London, Bristol and South Wales Direct Railway or simply as the Bristol and South Wales Direct Railway, is a branch of the Great Western Main Line in Great Britain.
South Wales Police (Heddlu De Cymru) is one of the four territorial police forces in Wales.
The South Wales Valleys (Cymoedd De Cymru) are a group of industrialised valleys in South Wales.
Sparling is a surname.
Sport Wales (Welsh: Chwaraeon Cymru) is the national organisation responsible for developing and promoting sport and physical activity in Wales.
St Asaph (Llanelwy) is a city and community on the River Elwy in Denbighshire, Wales.
St Davids or St David's (Tyddewi,, "David's house") is a city, a community (full name St David's and the Cathedral Close) and a parish in Pembrokeshire, Wales, lying on the River Alun.
St Fagans National Museum of History (Sain Ffagan: Amgueddfa Werin Cymru), commonly referred to as St Fagans after the village where it is located, is an open-air museum in Cardiff chronicling the historical lifestyle, culture, and architecture of the Welsh people.
St George's Channel (Sianel San Siôr, Muir Bhreatan) is a sea channel connecting the Irish Sea to the north and the Celtic Sea to the southwest.
St Giles' Church is the parish church of Wrexham, Wales, and is a Grade 1 listed building, described by Simon Jenkins as "the glory of the Marches".
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London.
St Winefride's or Winifred's Well is a well located in Holywell, Flintshire, in Wales.
Sir William Stanley Baker (28 February 192828 June 1976) was a Welsh actor and film producer.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
The Statute of Rhuddlan (Statud Rhuddlan), also known as the Statutes of Wales (Statuta Vallie) or as the Statute of Wales (Statutum Vallie or Statutum Valliae), provided the constitutional basis for the government of the Principality of North Wales from 1284 until 1536.
A steeple, in architecture, is a tall tower on a building, topped by a spire and often incorporating a belfry and other components.
Stereophonics are a Welsh rock band that formed in 1992 in the village of Cwmaman in the Cynon Valley.
Steve Robinson (born 13 December 1968 Cardiff) is a Welsh retired professional boxer.
The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.
Stoke-on-Trent (often abbreviated to Stoke) is a city and unitary authority area in Staffordshire, England, with an area of.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).
Sub-Roman Britain is the transition period between the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century around CE 235 (and the subsequent collapse and end of Roman Britain), until the start of the Early Medieval period.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
Super Furry Animals are a Welsh psychedelic rock band.
Super League (currently known as the Betfred Super League for sponsorship reasons) is the top-level professional rugby league club competition in the Northern hemisphere.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Susan Williams-Ellis (6 June 1918 – 26 November 2007) was an English pottery designer, who was best known for co-founding Portmeirion Pottery.
Swansea (Abertawe), is a coastal city and county, officially known as the City and County of Swansea (Dinas a Sir Abertawe) in Wales, UK.
The Swansea Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of Swansea by the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany from 19–21 February 1941.
Swansea City Association Football Club (Clwb Pêl-droed Dinas Abertawe) is a Welsh professional football club based in Swansea, Wales, that plays in the Championship, the second tier of English football.
Swansea Sound (Sain Abertawe) is a British independent local radio station broadcasting to Swansea Bay area of West Wales, aimed at a core 40+ demographic.
Professor Thomas Gwynn Jones C.B.E. (10 October 1871 – 7 March 1949), more widely known as T. Gwynn Jones, was a leading Welsh poet, scholar, literary critic, novelist, translator, and journalist who did important work in Welsh literature, Welsh education, and the study of Welsh folk tales in the first half of the twentieth century.
Sir Thomas Herbert Parry-Williams (21 September 1887 – 3 March 1975) was a Welsh poet, author and academic.
Taliesin (6th century AD) was an early Brythonic poet of Sub-Roman Britain whose work has possibly survived in a Middle Welsh manuscript, the Book of Taliesin.
Carys Davina Grey-Thompson, Baroness Grey-Thompson, DBE, DL (born 26 July 1969), known as Tanni Grey-Thompson, is a British politician, television presenter and former wheelchair racer.
Taxus is a small genus of coniferous trees or shrubs in the yew family Taxaceae.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Tenby (Dinbych-y-pysgod, meaning fortlet of the fish) is a walled seaside town in Pembrokeshire, Wales, on the western side of Carmarthen Bay.
Terrence "Terry" Griffiths, (born 16 October 1947) is a retired Welsh snooker player and current snooker coach and pundit.
Terence Graham Parry Jones (born 1 February 1942) is a Welsh actor, writer, comedian, screenwriter and film director.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
The Alarm are a Welsh alternative rock/new wave band that formed in Rhyl, Wales, in 1981.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Hennessys are one of Wales' foremost traditional folk music groups.
The History Press is a British publishing company specialising in the publication of titles devoted to local and specialist history.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Kardomah Gang,The Kardomah Boys, or Kardomah Group was a group of bohemian friends – artists, musicians, poets and writers – who, in the 1930s, frequented the Kardomah Café in Castle Street, Swansea, Wales.
The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
The Prehistoric Society is an international learned society devoted to the study of the human past from the earliest times until the emergence of written history.
TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.
The Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain (Welsh: Tri Thlws ar Ddeg Ynys Prydain) are a series of items in late medieval Welsh tradition.
Thomas Edgar Stephens (November 18, 1884 – January 4, 1966) was a Welsh-American artist and portrait painter.
Sir Thomas John Woodward (born 7 June 1940), also known by his stage name Tom Jones, is a Welsh singer.
Thomas Frederick Cooper (19 March 1921 – 15 April 1984) was a Welsh prop comedian and magician.
Thomas George Farr (12 March 1913 – 1 March 1986) was a Welsh boxer from Clydach Vale, Rhondda, nicknamed "the Tonypandy Terror".
In topography, prominence characterizes the height of a mountain or hill's summit by the vertical distance between it and the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it.
Torchwood is a British science fiction television programme created by Russell T Davies.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Wales is an emerging tourist destination, with 8,078,900 visitors to National Trust and Wales Tourist Board destinations in 2002.
The Treachery of the Blue Books or Treason of the Blue Books (Brad y Llyfrau Gleision) was the publication in 1847 of the three-volume Reports of the commissioners of enquiry into the state of education in Wales, which caused uproar in Wales for disparaging the Welsh; being particularly scathing in its view of the Welsh language, nonconformity and the immorality of the Welsh people in general.
The Treaty of Aberconwy was signed in 1277 by King Edward I of England and Llewelyn the Last of modern-day Wales, who had fought each other on and off for years over control of the Welsh countryside.
The Treaty of Montgomery was an Anglo-Cambrian treaty signed on 29 September 1267 in Montgomeryshire by which Llywelyn ap Gruffudd was acknowledged as Prince of Wales by King Henry III of England (r. 1216–1272).
A trial court or court of first instance is a court having original jurisdiction, in which trials take place.
The triple harp is a type of multi-course harp employing three parallel rows of strings instead of the more common single row.
Tuberaria guttata, the spotted rock-rose or annual rock-rose, is an annual plant of the Mediterranean region which also occurs very locally in Wales and Ireland.
The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.
Under Milk Wood is a 1954 radio drama by Welsh poet Dylan Thomas, commissioned by the BBC and later adapted for the stage.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.
The 1906 United Kingdom general election was held from 12 January to 8 February 1906.
The 2017 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 8 June, having been announced just under two months earlier by Prime Minister Theresa May on 18 April 2017 after it was discussed at cabinet.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Leicester is a public research university based in Leicester, England.
The University of Wales (Welsh: Prifysgol Cymru) was a confederal university based in Cardiff, Wales, UK.
The University of Wales Press (Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru) was founded in 1922 as a central service of the University of Wales.
Valleys & Cardiff Local Routes (Llwybrau Lleol y Cymoedd a Chaerdydd) (formerly Valley Lines) is the busy network of passenger suburban railway services radiating from Cardiff, Wales.
In business, the difference between the sale price and the production cost of a product is the unit profit.
Vernon Phillips Watkins (27 June 1906 – 8 October 1967) was a Welsh poet, translator and painter.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Visit Wales (Croeso Cymru) is the Welsh Government's tourism team within the Department for Heritage to promote Welsh tourism and assist the tourism industry.
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
The Volcae were a tribal confederation constituted before the raid of combined Gauls that invaded Macedonia c. 270 BC and fought the assembled Greeks at the Battle of Thermopylae in 279 BC.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Wales is a constituency of the European Parliament.
The Wales and Berwick Act 1746 (20 Geo. II, c. 42) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that created a statutory definition of England as including England, Wales and Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Wales in the High Middle Ages covers the 11th to 13th centuries in Welsh history.
Wales Millennium Centre (Canolfan Mileniwm Cymru) is an arts centre located in the Cardiff Bay area of Cardiff, Wales.
The Welsh cricket team (Tîm criced cenedlaethol Cymru) is the representative cricket team for Wales.
The Wales national football team (Tîm pêl-droed cenedlaethol Cymru) represents Wales in international football.
The Wales national rugby union team (Tîm rygbi'r undeb cenedlaethol Cymru) competes annually in the Six Nations Championship with England, France, Ireland, Italy and Scotland.
*Walhaz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic word meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker".
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Wallonië, Walonreye, Wallounien) is a region of Belgium.
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
Walton is a village and civil parish 2 miles (3 km) east of Wetherby, West Yorkshire, England.
Walworth is a central small village with outlying farmsteads, which together constitute a scattered village in the borough of Darlington and the ceremonial county of County Durham, England.
Wat's Dyke (Clawdd Wat) is a 40-mile (64 km) earthwork running through the northern Welsh Marches from Basingwerk Abbey on the River Dee estuary, passing to the east of Oswestry and on to Maesbury in Shropshire, England.
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.
The Welsh 3000s are the 15 mountains in Wales that have a height of or more.
The Welsh Affairs Select Committee (or simply the 'Welsh Affairs Committee') is a select committee of the House of Commons in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Welsh Americans are an American ethnic group whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Wales.
The Welsh Books Council or Cyngor Llyfrau Cymru was established in 1961.
Welsh cakes (picau ar y maen, pice bach, cacen gri or teisen radell), also Welshcakes or pics, are traditional in Wales.
The Welsh Church Act 1914 is an Act under which the Church of England was separated and disestablished in Wales and Monmouthshire, leading to the creation of the Church in Wales.
The Welsh Conservative Party (Plaid Geidwadol Cymru) is the part of the Conservative Party that operates in Wales.
The Welsh referendum of 1979 was a post-legislative referendum held on 1 March 1979 (Saint David's Day) to decide whether there was sufficient support for a Welsh Assembly among the Welsh electorate.
The Welsh devolution referendum of 1997 was a pre-legislative referendum held in Wales on 18 September 1997 over whether there was support for the creation of an assembly for Wales with devolved powers.
The Welsh devolution referendum on law-making powers also known as the Referendum on the law-making powers of the National Assembly for Wales was a non-binding referendum held in Wales on 3 March 2011 on whether the Welsh Assembly should have full law making powers in the twenty subject areas where it has jurisdiction.
The Welsh Dragon (Y Ddraig Goch, meaning the red dragon) appears on the national flag of Wales.
Welsh English refers to the dialects of English spoken by Welsh people.
The Welsh Government (Llywodraeth Cymru) is the devolved government for Wales.
Welsh Government sponsored bodies (WGSBs) (Corff a Noddir gan Lywodraeth Cymru, CNLC) are non-departmental public bodies (quangoes) directly funded by the Welsh Government.
Welsh Italians are an ethnic minority of Italian or mixed Italian and Welsh descent living in Wales.
Welsh Labour (Llafur Cymru) is the part of the United Kingdom Labour Party that operates in Wales.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
The Welsh Language Act 1993, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector.
The Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) was a statutory body set up by Her Majesty's Government under the Welsh Language Act 1993.
The role of the Welsh Language Commissioner was created by the Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011 on 1 April 2012 with the appointment of Meri Huws as Wales' first Commissioner.
The Welsh Language Society (Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg, often abbreviated to Cymdeithas or Cymdeithas yr Iaith) is a direct action pressure group in Wales campaigning for the right of Welsh people to use the Welsh language in every aspect of their lives.
Welsh law is the primary and secondary legislation generated by the National Assembly for Wales, according to devolved authority granted in the Government of Wales Act 2006.
The Welsh League was the first club rugby league competition in Wales.
The Welsh Liberal Democrats (Democratiaid Rhyddfrydol Cymru) is a political party in Wales and a member of the federal Liberal Democrats, along with the Scottish Liberal Democrats and the English Liberal Democrats.
The Welsh Marches (Y Mers) is an imprecisely defined area along and around the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom.
The Welsh Marches line (in Welsh: Llinell y Mers), known historically as the North and West Route, is the railway line running from Newport in south-east Wales to Shrewsbury in the West Midlands region of England by way of Abergavenny, Hereford and Craven Arms and thence (by some definitions) to Crewe via Whitchurch.
The Welsh Methodist revival was an evangelical revival that revitalised Christianity in Wales during the 18th century.
Welsh Mountain sheep (Defaid (sing;"Dafad") Mynydd Cymreig) are small, hardy sheep from the higher parts of the Welsh mountains.
Welsh National Opera (WNO) (Opera Cenedlaethol Cymru) is an opera company based in Cardiff, Wales; it gave its first performances in 1946.
The Welsh Not or Welsh Note or Welsh stick was a punishment used in some schools in Wales in the 19th century to dissuade children from speaking Welsh.
This is an index of Welsh peers and baronets whose primary peerage, life peerage, and baronetcy titles include a Welsh place-name origin or its territorial qualification is within the historic counties of Wales.
The Welsh (Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history, and the Welsh language.
The Welsh Premier League (Uwch Gynghrair Cymru) is the national football league for Wales.
Fixed family names were adopted in Wales from the 15th century onwards.
The placenames of Wales derive in most cases from the Welsh language, but have also been influenced by linguistic contact with the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Anglo-Normans and modern English.
The Welsh Triads (Trioedd Ynys Prydein, "Triads of the Island of Britain") are a group of related texts in medieval manuscripts which preserve fragments of Welsh folklore, mythology and traditional history in groups of three.
Welsh-language literature (llenyddiaeth Gymraeg) has been produced continuously since the emergence of Welsh from Brythonic as a distinct language c. 5th century AD.
Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.
The West Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
West Wales Raiders (Dynion Haearn De Cymru) are a professional rugby league club based in Llanelli, Wales, following a move from Merthyr Tydfil.
West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England.
The westerlies, anti-trades, or prevailing westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.
The Western Mail is a daily newspaper published by Media Wales Ltd in Cardiff, Wales owned by the UK's largest newspaper company, Trinity Mirror.
The White Book of Rhydderch (Welsh: Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch, National Library of Wales, Peniarth MS 4-5) is one of the most notable and celebrated surviving manuscripts in Welsh.
White British is an ethnicity classification used in the 2011 United Kingdom Census.
Whitland (Welsh: Hendy-gwyn, lit. "Old White House", or Hendy-gwyn ar Daf, "Old White House on the River Taf", both in reference to the medieval Ty Gwyn ar Daf) is a community and small town in Carmarthenshire, south-west Wales, lying on the River Tâf.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
William Charles Macready (3 March 1793 – 27 April 1873) was an English actor.
William Morgan (1545 – 10 September 1604) was Bishop of Llandaff and of St Asaph, and the translator of the first version of the whole Bible into Welsh from Greek and Hebrew.
William Salesbury also Salusbury (c. 1520 – c. 1584) was the leading Welsh scholar of the Renaissance and the principal translator of the 1567 Welsh New Testament.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
William Wroth (1576–1641), a minister of the Church of England, is generally credited with the establishment of the first Independent Church in Wales in 1639.
The woollen industry in Wales was at times the country's most important industry, though it often struggled to compete with the better-funded woollen mills in the north of England, and almost disappeared during the 20th century.
The World Boxing Organization (WBO) is a sanctioning organization which recognizes professional boxing world champions.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrexham (Wrecsam) is the largest town in the north of Wales and an administrative, commercial, retail and educational centre.
Wrexham Association Football Club (Clwb Pêl-droed Wrecsam) is a professional association football club based in Wrexham, Wales that plays in the English football league system.
Wroxeter is a village in Shropshire, England.
The Wye Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB; Dyffryn Gwy) is an internationally important protected landscape straddling the border between England and Wales.
Y Cymro (Welsh for The Welshman) is a Welsh language newspaper, published from 1932.
Y Lolfa (Welsh for The Lounge) is a Welsh printing and publishing company based in Tal-y-bont, Ceredigion, in Mid-Wales.
Y Traethodydd (The Essayist) is a quarterly cultural magazine published in the Welsh language covering historical, literary and theological topics.
Y Wladfa ('The Colony'); also occasionally Y Wladychfa Gymreig ('The Welsh Settlement') is a Welsh settlement in Argentina, which began in 1865 and occurred mainly along the coast of Chubut Province in the far southern region of Patagonia.
The yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis), also called yellow-necked field mouse, yellow-necked wood mouse, and South China field mouse, is closely related to the wood mouse, with which it was long confused.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
10 Downing Street, colloquially known in the United Kingdom as Number 10, is the headquarters of the Government of the United Kingdom and the official residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury, a post which, for much of the 18th and 19th centuries and invariably since 1905, has been held by the Prime Minister.
The 1904–1905 Welsh Revival was the largest Christian revival in Wales during the 20th century.
The 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games (Welsh: Gemau Ymerodraeth Prydain a'r Gymanwlad 1958) were held in Cardiff, Wales, from 18–26 July 1958.
The 1999 Rugby World Cup was the fourth Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial international rugby union championship.
The 2002 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XVII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Manchester 2002 were held in Manchester, England, from 25 July to 4 August 2002.
The 2008 UCI Road World Championships took place in Varese, Italy, between September 23 and September 28, 2008.
The 38th Ryder Cup was held 2010 at the Celtic Manor Resort in Newport, Wales.
The 2017 UEFA Champions League Final was the final match of the 2016–17 UEFA Champions League, the 62nd season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 25th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 38th (Welsh) Division (initially the 43rd Division, later the 38th (Welsh) Infantry Division and then the 38th Infantry (Reserve) Division) of the British Army was active during both the First and Second World Wars.
Autonomous Province of Wales, CYMRU, Climate of Wales, Communications in Wales, Cymru, Cymru / Wales, Cymru / wales, Cymru am byth, Cyrmu, Etymology of Wales, Flora and fauna of Wales, Gymru, Pays de Galles, Rain in Wales, The Principality of Wales, WALES, Wales, U.K., Wales, UK, Wales, United Kingdom, Wales, United Kingdom., Welsh Nation, Welsh Peninsula, Welsh mountains, Welsh nation, West of the Rhymney.