382 relations: Abaga Mongols, Abaganar, Abaoji, Abaqa Khan, Abul Khair Khan, Adriatic Sea, Agin-Buryat Okrug, Agnosticism, Al-Adil Kitbugha, Altai Uriankhai, Altaic languages, Altan Telgey, American Center for Mongolian Studies, Aohans, Argun River (Asia), Asashōryū Akinori, Asud, Atheism, Azerbaijanis, Üzemchin Mongols, Baarins, Baatud, Barga Mongols, Bashkirs, Basmachi movement, Bayad, Bayads, Bayan I, Bayan-Ölgii Province, Beidi, Beijing Temple of Confucius, Berke, Bohai Sea, Bon, Bonan people, Borjigin, Buddhism, Buddhism in Mongolia, Burkhan Khaldun, Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Buryatia, Buryats, Buzava, Catherine the Great, Central Asia, Chahars, Chantuu, Chiang Kai-shek, China, Chinese Civil War, ..., Chingissid, Chita Oblast, Choros, Chu (state), Classic of Mountains and Seas, Communism, Communist Party of China, Confucianism, Cossacks, Cultural genocide, Cultural Revolution, Dalai Lama, Dariganga Mongols, Darkhad, Daur people, Dayan Khan, Dörbet Oirat, De facto, Donghu people, Dongxiangs, Drogön Chögyal Phagpa, Duan tribe, Dulduityn Danzanravjaa, Dzungar Khanate, Dzungar people, East Asia, Eastern Dorbet, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ejin Banner, Eljigin, Emperor Guangwu of Han, Emperor of China, Empire of Japan, Empress Wanrong, Encyclopædia Britannica, Esen Taishi, Ethnic group, Ethnic minorities in China, Eurasia, Evenks, Expansion of Russia 1500–1800, Fengcheng, Liaoning, Fergana Valley, Frances Wood, Galdan Boshugtu Khan, Gaza City, Gelug, Genghis Khan, Genocide, Ghazan, Gog and Magog, Golden Horde, Gorlos Mongols, Great Purge, Great Wall of China, Guoyu (book), Hamnigan, Han Chinese, Horse culture in Mongolia, Hulagu Khan, Hulunbuir, Human rights in China, Huns, Ilkhanate, Imperialism, Indonesia, Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolian Army, Inner Mongolian People's Party, Iran, Iranian peoples, Irkutsk Oblast, Islam, Jalaids, Japan, Jaruud, Java, Jianchang County, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Joseph Stalin, Juha Janhunen, Jurchen people, Kagyu, Kalmyk deportations of 1943, Kalmyk Khanate, Kalmyk Oirat, Kalmykia, Kalmykian Cavalry Corps, Kalmyks, Kangyur, Karakalpaks, Karakorum, Karelia, Kazakhs, Kazakhstan, Külüg Khan, Keraites, Khagan, Khakassia, Khalkha Mongols, Khamag Mongol, Kharchin Mongols, Khövsgöl Province, Khishigten, Khitan people, Kho Orluk, Khoid, Khorchin Mongols, Khorloogiin Choibalsan, Khoshut, Khoshut Khanate, Khotogoid, Khotons, Khovd Province, Khuuchid, King Cheng of Zhou, Kizhinginsky District, Korea, Korea Bay, Kumo Xi, Kumul Khanate, Kuomintang, Kyrgyz people, Kyrgyzstan, Lake Baikal, Lake Balkhash, Liao dynasty, Liaoning, Library of Congress, Ligdan Khan, List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans, List of modern Mongol clans, List of Mongol rulers, List of Mongol states, List of Mongolians, Manchu people, Manchukuo, Manchuria, Manichaeism, Mao Zedong, Mausoleum of Genghis Khan, Möngke Khan, Mengjiang, Middle Mongol language, Ming dynasty, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Taiwan), Modu Chanyu, Moghol language, Moghulistan, Mongol invasions of Japan, Mongolia, Mongolia (1911–24), Mongolia under Qing rule, Mongolia–Russia border, Mongolian Americans, Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission, Mongolian language, Mongolian name, Mongolian People's Republic, Mongolian Plateau, Mongolian Revolution of 1911, Mongolian script, Mongolians in South Korea, Mongolians in the Czech Republic, Mongolians in the United Kingdom, Mongolic languages, Mongols, Monguor people, Mughal tribe, Murong, Muumyangan, Myangad, Naadam, Naimans, Nationalism, Navaanneren, Nestorianism, New Book of Tang, New Policies, Nicholas II of Russia, Nogais, Northern Yuan dynasty, Noyan, Oirats, Oka River (Siberia), Olot people, Omaha kinship, Onnigud, Ordos culture, Ordos Desert, Ordos Mongols, Ordos Plateau, Outer Mongolia, Padishah, Palestine (region), Pan-Mongolism, Pannonian Avars, Peoples of the Caucasus, Persianization, Peter the Great, Plough, Protestantism, Proto-Mongols, Puppet state, Qara Khitai, Qara'unas, Qing dynasty, Qinghai, Qishan County, Rabban Bar Sauma, Republic of China (1912–1949), Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, Rouran Khaganate, Russia, Russian Census (2010), Russian conquest of Siberia, Russian Empire, Russian famine of 1921–22, Russian Orthodox Church, Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), Sakya, Sart Kalmyks, Sartuul, Scythians, Second Council of Lyon, Second East Turkestan Republic, Shaanxi, Shamanism, Shang dynasty, Shanrong, Shiwei, Siberia, Sichuan Mongols, Sima Qian, Sino-Soviet split, Sogwo Arig, Sorghaghtani Beki, Soviet Army, Soviet Central Asia, Soviet Union, Soviet war crimes, Soviet–Japanese War, Stalinist repressions in Mongolia, State terrorism, Sultan of Egypt, Sunni Islam, Sunud, Syr Darya, Tadun, Taisun Khan, Taiwan, Tajiks, Tang dynasty, Taoism, Taraz, Tashkent, Tatar confederation, Tatars, Tümen Zasagt Khan, Tengri, Theocracy, Tibet, Tibet (1912–1951), Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetan people, Tolui, Torghut, Transbaikal, Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet, Treaty of Kyakhta (1727), Treaty of Kyakhta (1915), Treaty of Nerchinsk, Tsardom of Russia, Tsewang Rabtan, Tumed, Tumen (unit), Tumu Crisis, Tundra, Tungusic languages, Tungusic peoples, Tuoba, Turkic Khaganate, Turkic languages, Turkic tribal confederations, Turkistan (city), Turkmens, Tuva, Ubashi Khan, Ulaanbaatar, United Kingdom, University of Southampton, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Upper Mongols, Upper Xiajiadian culture, Urad Mongols, Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug, Uvs Province, Uyghur Khaganate, Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Volga River, White movement, William of Rubruck, World War I, World War II, Wuhuan, Xianbei, Xianbei state, Xinhai Revolution, Xinjiang, Xiong Yi, Xiongnu, Yahballaha III, Yakut language, Yakuts, Yan (state), Yassa, Yenisei Kyrgyz, Yenisei River, Yi Zhou Shu, Yuan dynasty, Yugur, Yujiulü Chounu, Yujiulü Shelun, Zakhchin, Zanabazar, Zaya Pandita, Zhukaigou culture, Zoroastrianism, 1932 armed uprising in Mongolia, 2011 Inner Mongolia unrest, 4th Dalai Lama. Expand index (332 more) » « Shrink index
The Abagas (Khalkha-Mongolian:Авга/Avga) are a Southern Mongolian ethnic groups in Abag Banner, Inner Mongolia, China.
The Abaganars are (Khalkha-Mongolian:Авга нар/Avga nar) a Southern Mongolian sub-ethnic group in Inner Mongolia of China.
Abaoji (Khitan: Ambagyan), posthumously known as Emperor Taizu of Liao, was a Khitan leader and founder of the Liao dynasty (907–926).
Abaqa Khan (1234–1282, ᠠᠪᠠᠬᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ (Traditional script), "paternal uncle", also transliterated Abaġa), was the second Mongol ruler (Ilkhan) of the Ilkhanate.
Abulhair Khan, Abul Khair Khan (Әбілқайыр хан, Äbilqayır xan) (1693–1748) was leader of the Kazakh Little jüz in present-day western Kazakhstan.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Agin-Buryat Okrug (Аги́нский Буря́тский о́круг; Агын Буряадай тойрог, Agyn Burjaadaj toirog), or Aga Buryatia, is an administrative division of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Kitbugha (كتبغا), royal name: al-Malik al-Adil Zayn-ad-Din Kitbugha Ben Abd-Allah al-Mansuri al-Turki al-Mughli; الملك العادل زين الدين كتبغا بن عبد الله المنصورى التركى المغلى) (died 1297 CE) was the 10th Mamluk sultan of Egypt from December 1294 to November 1296.
The Altai Uriankhai (Алтайн Урианхай, Altain Urianhai or Altai-yn Urianhai) refer to a Mongolian tribe around the Altai Mountains that were organized by the Qing dynasty.
Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.
Altan Telgey is a Mongol earth goddess.
The American Center for Mongolian Studies (ACMS) is a US registered 501(c)3 not-for-profit, academic organization which promotes research and scholarship in Inner Asia, a broad region consisting of Mongolia and parts of China, Russia and Central Asia, including Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Buryatia, Tuva and eastern Kazakhstan.
The Aohan (Khalkha-Mongolian:Аохань/Aohan) are a Southern Mongol subgroup in Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia, China.
The Argun or Ergune is a river that forms part of the eastern China–Russia border, together with the Amur River (Heilong Jiang).
is a Mongolian former sumo wrestler (rikishi).
The Asud (Mongolian Cyrillic: Асуд, IPA: //) were a military group of Alani origin.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Üzemchin (Mongolian: Үзэмчин), also written Ujumchin, Ujumucin or Ujimqin, are a subgroup of Mongols in eastern Mongolia and Inner Mongolia.
The Baarin are a Southern Mongol subgroup.
The Baatuds are a sub-ethnic group of the Oirats.
The Barga (Mongol: Барга) are a subgroup of the Mongol people which gave its name to the Baikal region – "Bargujin-Tukum" (Bargujin Tökhöm) – “the land’s end”, according to the 13th-14th centuries Mongol people’s conception.
The Bashkirs (Башҡорттар, Başqorttar,; Башкиры, Baškiry) are a Turkic ethnic group, indigenous to Bashkortostan and to the historical region of Badzhgard, extending on both sides of the Ural Mountains, in the area where Eastern Europe meets North Asia.
The Basmachi movement (Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia.
The bayad (Bagrus bajad), is a species of bagrid catfish from Africa.
The Bayad (Mongol: Баяд/Bayad, lit. "the Riches") is the third largest subgroup of the Mongols in Mongolia and they are a tribe in Four Oirats.
Bayan I was the first khagan of the Avar Khaganate, between 562 and 602.
Bayan-Ölgii (Баян-Өлгий; Bai'-O'lke, Rich cradle/region, alternately spelled Olgiy, Ulgii, etc.) is the westernmost of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
The Beidi, Northern Di, or Northern Barbarians were various ethnic groups who lived north of the Chinese (Huaxia) realms during the Zhou dynasty.
The Temple of Confucius at Beijing is the second largest Confucian Temple in China, after the one in Confucius' hometown of Qufu.
Berke Khan (died 1266) (also Birkai) was the ruler of the Golden Horde (division of the Mongol Empire) who effectively consolidated the power of the Blue Horde and White Horde from 1257 to 1266.
The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea and Korea Bay on the coast of Northeastern and North China.
Bon, also spelled Bön, is a Tibetan religion, which self-identifies as distinct from Tibetan Buddhism, although it shares the same overall teachings and terminology.
The Bonan people (保安族; pinyin: Bǎo'ān zú; native) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China.
Borjigin (plural Borjigid; Боржигин, Borjigin; Борджигин, Bordjigin; Mongolian script:, Borjigit) is the last name of the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism in Mongolia derives much of its recent characteristics from Tibetan Buddhism of the Gelug and Kagyu lineages, but is distinct and presents its own unique characteristics.
The Burkhan Khaldun (Cyrillic: Бурхан Халдун) is one of the Khentii Mountains in the Khentii Province of northeastern Mongolia.
The Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Бурятская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика; Буряадай Автономито Совет Социалис Республика), abbreviated as Buryat ASSR (Бурятская АССР; Буряадай АССР), was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian SFSR of the Soviet Union.
The Republic of Buryatia (p; Buryaad Ulas) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in Asia in Siberia.
The Buryats (Buryaad; 1, Buriad), numbering approximately 500,000, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia, mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia.
The Buzava or Buzava Kalmyks are the ethnic Kalmyk people centered in the western Republic of Kalmykia, in the present day Southern Federal District of Russia.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Chahars (Khalkha Mongolian: Цахар, Tsahar) are a subgroup of Mongols that speak Chakhar Mongolian and predominantly live in southeastern Inner Mongolia, China.
The Chantuu people are Mongolized Uzbeks of Turkic origin in Hovd province, Mongolia.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chingissid refers to someone who is a direct blood descendant of Genghis Khan, known as Chinggis Khaan in Mongolian.
Chita Oblast (p) was a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) in southeast Siberia, Russia.
Choros or Tsoros (Цорос) was the ruling clan of the Dzungars and Dörbet Oirat and once ruled the whole Four Oirat.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
The Classic of Mountains and Seas or Shan Hai Jing, formerly romanized as the Shan-hai Ching, is a Chinese classic text and a compilation of mythic geography and myth.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Cultural genocide or cultural cleansing is a concept that lawyer Raphael Lemkin distinguished in 1944 as a component of genocide.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.
The Dariganga (Mongolian: Дарьганга) are an eastern Mongol subgroup who mainly live in Dari Ovoo and Ganga Lake, Sukhbaatar Province.
The Darkhad, Darqads,.
The Daur people (Khalkha Mongolian: Дагуур/Daguur;; the former name "Dahur" is considered derogatory) are a Mongolic-speaking ethnic group in northeastern China.
Dayan Khan (Даян Хаан) (given name: Batumöngke; 1464–1517/1543) was a Mongol khan who reunited the Mongols under Chinggisid supremacy in the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia.
The Dörbet (Дөрвд, Dörwd; Дөрвөд, Dörwöd,, lit. "the Fours";; also known in English as the Derbet) is the second largest subgroup of Mongol people in modern Mongolia and was formerly one of the major tribes of the Four Oirat confederation in the 15th-18th centuries.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Donghu (IPA:; literally: "Eastern foreigners" or "Eastern barbarians") was a confederation of nomadic people that was first recorded from the 7th century BCE and was destroyed by the Xiongnu in 150 BCE.
The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔);; Xiao'erjing: دْوݣسِيْاݣذُ) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.
Drogön Chogyal Phagpa (1235 – 15 December 1280), was the fifth leader of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Duan was a pre-state tribe of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.
Dulduityn Danzanravjaa (1803–1856, Дулдуйтын Данзанравжаа) was a prominent Mongolian writer, composer, painter, Buddhist scholar, physician and was the Fifth Noyon Khutagt, the Lama of the Gobi.
The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian Steppe.
The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The Dörbet (Dörvön Khüükhed/four children, Züün Dörvöd/Eastern Dorbet) clan is composed of descendants of Ainaga (爱纳嘎), the 16th grandson of Hasar.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Ejin or Ejina (Mongolian: Эжэн-э қосиу Ejen-e qosiɣu) is a banner in the far west of Inner Mongolia, China.
The Eljigin people are a Khalkha Mongolian sub-ethnic group.
Emperor Guangwu (born Liu Xiu; 15 January 5 BC – 29 March 57), courtesy name Wenshu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty).
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Wanrong (13 November 1906 – 20 June 1946), posthumously known as Empress Xiaokemin, was the Empress Consort of Puyi, the Last Emperor of China and final ruler of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Esen Taishi (d. 1455) was a powerful Oirat Taishi and de facto ruler of the Northern Yuan in 15th century Mongolia.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki) (autonym: Эвэнкил Evenkil; Эвенки Evenki; Èwēnkè Zú; formerly known as Tungus or Tunguz; Хамниган Khamnigan) are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia.
The steppe and forest-steppe of Ukraine and southern Russia is good agricultural land, but it was traditionally held by pastoral nomads.
Fengcheng is a city in the southeast of Liaoning Province in Northeast China.
The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.
Frances Wood (Chinese name Wú Fāngsī 吴芳思; born 1948) is an English librarian, sinologue and historian known for her writings on Chinese history, including Marco Polo, life in the Chinese treaty ports, and the First Emperor of China.
Choros Erdeniin Galdan (1644–1697, Галдан Бошигт хаан,, in Mongolian script: Galdan bošoɣtu qaɣan) was a Dzungar-Oirat Khan of the Dzungar Khanate.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
The Gelug (Wylie: dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Mahmud Ghazan (1271– 11 May 1304) (sometimes referred to as Casanus by Westerners) was the seventh ruler of the Mongol Empire's Ilkhanate division in modern-day Iran from 1295 to 1304.
Gog and Magog (גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג Gog u-Magog) in the Hebrew Bible may be individuals, peoples, or lands; a prophesied enemy nation of God's people according to the Book of Ezekiel, and according to Genesis, one of the nations descended from Japheth, son of Noah.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Gorlos (Khalkha-Mongolian:Горлос/Gorlos) are a Southern Mongol subgroup in Qian Gorlos Mongol Autonomous County, China.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
The Guoyu, usually translated Discourses of the States, is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of speeches attributed to rulers and other men from the Spring and Autumn period (771–476).
The Hamnigan Buryats or Khamnigan are Mongolized Evenks of Tungusic origin.
The Han Chinese,.
Horses play a large role in the daily and national life of the Mongols; it is traditionally said that "A Mongol without a horse is like a bird without the wings." Elizabeth Kendall, who travelled through Mongolia in 1911, observed, "To appreciate the Mongol you must see him on horseback,—and indeed you rarely see him otherwise, for he does not put foot to ground if he can help it.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir (style, Kölün buyir, Cyrillic: Хөлөнбуйр, Khölönbuir;, Hūlúnbèi'ěr) is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city in northeastern Inner Mongolia, in China.
Human rights in China is a highly contested topic, especially for the fundamental human rights periodically reviewed by the United Nations Human Rights Committee, on which the government of the People's Republic of China and various foreign governments and human rights organizations have often disagreed.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
The Inner Mongolian Army, also sometimes called the Mengjiang National Army, referred to the Inner Mongolian military units in service of Imperial Japan and its puppet state of Mengjiang during the Second Sino-Japanese War, particularly those led by Prince Demchugdongrub.
The Inner Mongolian People's Party, or IMPP (Öbür mongγul-un arad-un nam;, or 内人党, pinyin: nèiréndǎng), is an Inner Mongolian secessionist movement.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Irkutsk Oblast (Ирку́тская о́бласть, Irkutskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in southeastern Siberia in the basins of the Angara, Lena, and Nizhnyaya Tunguska Rivers.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Jalaid (Khalkha-Mongolian:Жалайд/Jalaid) are a Southern Mongol subgroup in Jalaid Banner, in China.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Jaruud (Khalkha-Mongolian:Жарууд/Jaruud, "The Sixties") are a Southern Mongol subgroup in Jarud Banner, China.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jianchang is a county of Huludao City in the southwest of Liaoning province, China.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Juha Janhunen (born 12 February 1952 in Pori) is a Finnish linguist whose wide interests include Uralic and Mongolic languages.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
The Kagyu, Kagyü, or Kagyud school, also known as the "Oral Lineage" or Whispered Transmission school, is today regarded as one of six main schools (chos lugs) of Himalayan or Tibetan Buddhism.
The Kalmyk deportations of 1943, codename Operation Ulussy, was the deportation in December 1943 of most people of the Kalmyk nationality in the Soviet Union (USSR), as well as Russian women married to Kalmyks.
The Kalmyk Khanate (Kalmyk: Хальмг хана улс) was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian steppe.
Kalmyk Oirat (Хальмг Өөрдин келн, Xaľmg Öördin keln), commonly known as the Kalmyk language (Хальмг келн, Xaľmg keln), is a register of the Oirat language, natively spoken by the Kalmyk people of Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia.
The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Xaľmg Tañhç) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
The Kalmykian Cavalry Corps (Kalmücken-Kavallerie-Korps) was a unit of about 5,000 Kalmyk volunteers who chose to join the German Army in 1942 rather than remain in Kalmykia as German forces retreated before the Red Army.
The Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Xaľmgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Halimag) are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.
The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various schools of Tibetan Buddhism, comprising the Kangyur or Kanjur ('The Translation of the Word') and the Tengyur or Tanjur (Tengyur) ('Translation of Treatises').
The Karakalpaks or Qaraqalpaqs (Qaraqalpaqlar, Қарақалпақлар) are a Turkic ethic group native to Karakalpakstan in northwestern Uzbekistan.
Karakorum (Khalkha Mongolian: Хархорум Kharkhorum) was the capital of the Mongol Empire between 1235 and 1260, and of the Northern Yuan in the 14–15th centuries.
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Külüg Khan (Mongolian: Хөлөг хаан, Hülüg Khaan, Külüg qaγan), born Khayishan (also spelled Khayisan, Хайсан, meaning "wall"), also known by the temple name Wuzong (Emperor Wuzong of Yuan) (August 4, 1281 – January 27, 1311), Prince of Huai-ning (懷寧王) in 1304-7,was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
The Keraites (also Kerait, Kereit, Khereid) were one of the five dominant Turco-Mongol tribal confederations (khanates) in the Altai-Sayan region during the 12th century.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
The Republic of Khakassia (r,; Khakas: Хака́с Респу́бликазы, tr. Khakás Respúblikazy), or simply Khakassia (Хака́сия; Khakas: Хака́сия) is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
The Khalkha (Халх, Halh) is the largest subgroup of Mongol people in Mongolia since the 15th century.
Khamag Mongol (Хамаг монгол, lit. "Whole Mongol") was a major Mongolic tribal confederation (khanlig) on the Mongolian Plateau in the 12th century.
The Kharchin (Харчин, ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢᠨ, qaračin) is a subgroup of the Mongols residing mainly (and originally) in North-western Liaoning and Chifeng, Inner Mongolia.
Khövsgöl (Хөвсгөл) is the northernmost of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
The Hishigten (Khalkha-Mongolian: Хишигтэн/Hishigten) are one of the Southern Mongol ethnic groups.
The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.
Kho Orluk (Хо Өрлөг; died 1644) was an Oirat prince and Tayishi of the Torghut-Oirat tribe.
The Khoyd, Qoyid (also Khoid or Khoit) (Northern ones/people) people are an Oirat.
The Khorchin (Хорчин, Horçin; Qorčin) is a subgroup of the Mongols that speak the Khorchin dialect of Mongolian and predominantly live in northeastern Inner Mongolia of China.
Khorloogiin Choibalsan (Хорлоогийн Чойбалсан, (February 8, 1895 – January 26, 1952) was the Communist leader of the Mongolian People's Republic and Marshal (general chief commander) of the Mongolian armed forces from the 1930s until his death in 1952. His rule marked the first and last time in modern Mongolian history that an individual had complete political power. Sometimes referred to as "the Stalin of Mongolia", Choibalsan oversaw Soviet-ordered purges in the late 1930s that resulted in the deaths of an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Mongolians. Most of the victims were Buddhist clergy, intelligentsia, political dissidents, ethnic Buryats and Kazakhs and other "enemies of the revolution." His intense persecution of Mongolia's Buddhists brought about their near complete extinction in the country. Although Choibalsan's devotion to Joseph Stalin helped preserve his country's fledgling independence during the early years of the Mongolian People's Republic (MPR), it also bound Mongolia closely to the Soviet Union. Throughout his rule, Mongolia's economic, political and military ties to the USSR deepened, infrastructure and literacy rates improved and international recognition of Mongolia's independence expanded, especially after World War II.
The Khoshut (Mongolian: Хошууд, Hoşūd, literally "bannermen," from Middle Mongolian qosighu "flag, banner") are one of the four major tribes of the Oirat people.
The Khoshut Khanate was an Oirat khanate based in the Tibetan Plateau in the 17th and the 18th centuries.
Khotogoid (Mongolian: Хотгойд, transliteration: Khotgoid) is a subgroup of Mongol people in northwestern Mongolia.
The Khoton people are an ethnic group in Mongolia.
Khovd (Ховд) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the west of the country.
The Huuchid (Khalkha-Mongolian: Хуучид/Huuchid, "The old/ancient ones") are a Southern Mongol subgroup.
King Cheng of Zhou or King Ch'eng of Chou was the second king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
Kizhinginsky District (Кижингинский райо́н; Хэжэнгын аймаг) is an administrativeResolution #431 and municipalLaw #985-III district (raion), one of the twenty-one in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
The Korea(n) Bay, sometimes the West Korea(n) Bay, is a northern extension of the Yellow Sea, between Liaoning Province of China and North Pyongan Province of North Korea.
The Kumo Xi (Xu Elina-Qian, p.296b called the Xi since the Sui dynasty (581-618 AD)), also Tatabi, were a Mongolic steppe people located in current northeast China from 207 AD to 907 AD.
The Kumul Khanate was a semi-autonomous feudal Turkic khanate within the Qing dynasty and then the Republic of China until it was abolished by Xinjiang governor Jin Shuren in 1930.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
Lake Balkhash (Балқаш көлі,; Озеро Балхаш, Ozero Balhaš) is one of the largest lakes in Asia and 15th largest in the world.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Ligdan Khutugtu Khan (from Mongolian "Ligden Khutugt Khan"; Mongolian Cyrillic: Лигдэн Хутугт хаан; or from Chinese, Lindan Han; Chinese: 林丹汗; 1588–1634) was the last khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia as well as the last in the Borjigin clan of Mongol Khans who ruled the Mongols from Chakhar.
The qualifier Mongol Tribes was established as an umbrella term in the early 13th century, when Temüjin (later Genghis Khan) united the different tribes under his control and established the Mongol Empire.
The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties.
This is a list of Mongol states.
This is a list of historical and living Mongolians (of Mongolia or the Mongolian diaspora), sorted by field and name.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
The Mausoleum of Genghis Khan, is a temple dedicated to Genghis Khan, where he is worshipped as ancestor, dynastic founder, and deity.
Möngke (valign / Мөнх;; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259.
Mengjiang (Mengkiang;; Hepburn: Mōkyō), also known in English as Mongol Border Land or the Mongol United Autonomous Government, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, existing initially as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan before being under nominal Chinese sovereignty of the Nanjing Nationalist Government from 1940 (which itself was a puppet state).
Middle Mongol or Middle Mongolian was a Mongolic koiné language spoken in the Mongol Empire.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China (MOFA) is a cabinet level policy-making body, governed under the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China.
Modu, Modun, or Maodun (Mongolian: Модунь, Modun; Баатар, Baatar; c. 234 – c. 174 BC) was the fourth known Xiongnu ruler and the founder of the Xiongnu Empire.
Moghol (or Mogholi; Dari) is a possibly extinct Mongolic language once spoken in the region of Herat, Afghanistan, in the villages of Kundur and Karez-i-Mulla.
Moghulistan (Mughalistan, Moghul Khanate) (from مغولستان, Moqulestân/Moġūlistān), also called the Eastern Chagatai Khanate, was a Mongol breakaway khanate of the Chagatai Khanate and a historical geographic area north of the Tian Shan mountain range, on the border of Central Asia and East Asia.
The, which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military efforts undertaken by Kublai Khan to conquer the Japanese archipelago after the submission of Goryeo (Korea) to vassaldom.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Bogd Khaanate of Mongolia was the government of Mongolia (Outer Mongolia) between 1911 and 1919 and again from 1921 to 1924.
Mongolia under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty of China over the Mongolian steppe, including the Outer Mongolian 4 aimags and Inner Mongolian 6 leagues from the 17th century to the end of the dynasty.
The Mongolia–Russia border (Монгол-Оросын хил, Mongol-Orosın xil; Российско-монгольская граница, Rossijsko-mongoljskaja granica) is the international border between the Russian Federation (CIS member) and Mongolia.
Mongolian Americans are American citizens who are of full or partial Mongolian ancestry.
The Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission (MTAC) was a ministry-level commission of the Executive Yuan in the Republic of China.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Mongolian names have gone through certain revolutions in the history of Mongolia.
The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.
The Mongolian Plateau is the part of the Central Asian Plateau lying between 37°46′-53°08′N and 87°40′-122°15′E and having an area of approximately.
The Mongolian Revolution of 1911 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1911) occurred when the region of Outer Mongolia declared its independence from the Manchu-led Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution.
The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.
Mongolians in South Korea form the world's largest population of Mongolian citizens abroad.
Mongolians in the Czech Republic form one of the country's smaller ethnic groups.
Mongolians in the United Kingdom (also known as Mongols) are a relatively small but fast emerging ethnic group, including both Mongolian expatriates and migrants residing in the UK along with British-born citizens who identify themselves to be of Mongolian national background or descent.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Monguor or Tu people, White Mongol or Tsagaan Mongol are one of the 56 officially recognized ethnic groups in China.
The Mughals (مغول; مغل; مغول, also spelled Moghul or Mogul) are a number of culturally related clans of the Indian subcontinent.
Murong or Muren refers to an ethnic Xianbei tribe who are a Mongolic people attested from the time of Tanshihuai (reigned 156-181).
The Muumyangan (Khalkha-Mongolian:Муумянган/Muumyangan) are a sub-ethnic group of the Southern Mongols in Darhan Muminggan United Banner, China.
The Myangad people live in Myangad sum of Khovd Province, Mongolia.
Naadam (Наадам, classical Mongolian: Naɣadum,, literally "games") is a traditional festival in Mongolia.
The Naiman (Khalkha-Mongolian: Найман/Naiman, "eight") is the name of a tribe originating in East Turkic Khaganate (nowadays west part of Mongolia, one of the tribes in middle juz of Kazakh nation.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Tserendondovyn Navaanneren (Навааннэрэн 1877–1937) was the 20th Khan of the hereditary Setsen Khanate located in the eastern third of modern-day Mongolia.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.
The New Policies, or New Administration of the late Qing dynasty (1644-1912), also known as the Late Qing Reform, were a series of cultural, economic, educational, military, and political reforms that were implemented in the last decade of the Qing dynasty to keep the dynasty in power after the humiliating defeat in the Boxer Rebellion.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
The Nogais are a Turkic ethnic group who live in southern European Russia, mainly in the North Caucasus region.
The Northern Yuan dynasty, was a Mongol régime based in the Mongolian homeland.
Noyon, noyan, nayan was a title of authority in the Mongol Empire and later periods.
Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.
The Oka is a river in Siberia, left tributary of the Angara River.
The Olot people (Mongolian: Өөлд/Ööld, English: Eleut) are an Oirat sub-ethnic group of Choros origin.
Omaha kinship is the system of terms and relationships used to define family in Omaha tribal culture.
The Onniguds (Khalkha-Mongolian:Оннигууд/Onniguud) are a sub-ethnic group of the Southern Mongols in Ongniud Banner, China.
The Ordos culture was a culture occupying a region centered on the Ordos Loop (modern Inner Mongolia, China) during the Bronze and early Iron Age from the 6th to 2nd centuries BCE.
The Ordos Desert, also known as the Muu-us or Bad Water Desert,Donovan Webster.
The Ordos (Mongolian Cyrillic: Ордос) are a Mongol subgroup that live in Uushin district, Inner Mongolia of China.
The Ordos Loop is a large rectangular bend of the Yellow River in central China.
Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script: or ， Mongolian Cyrillic: or, romanization: Gadaad Mongol or Alr Mongol)Huhbator Borjigin.
Padishah, sometimes rendered as Padeshah or Padshah (پادشاه, padişah) is a superlative sovereign title of Persian origin, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king", which was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Pan-Mongolism is an irredentist idea that advocates cultural and political solidarity of Mongols.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
Persianization or persification is a sociological process of cultural change in which something becomes "Persianate".
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The proto-Mongols emerged from an area that had been inhabited by humans and predecessor hominin species as far back as the Stone Age over 800,000 years ago.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Qara Khitai (alternatively spelled Kara Khitai; Хар Хятан; 1124–1218), also known as the Kara Khitan Khanate or Western Liao, officially the Great Liao, was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia.
The Qara'unas or Negüderi were a Mongol people that settled in Afghanistan.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qishan County is a county of Baoji, Shaanxi, China.
Rabban Bar Ṣawma (1220–1294) (Syriac language: ܪܒܢ ܒܪ ܨܘܡܐ), also known as Rabban Ṣawma or Rabban Çauma,Mantran, p. 298, was a Turkic Chinese monk turned diplomat of the "Nestorian" Church of the East in China.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Baron Roman Nicolaus Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg (Барон Ро́берт-Никола́й-Максими́лиан Рома́н Фёдорович фон У́нгерн-Ште́рнберг)adopted Russian name: Роман Фёдорович фон Унгерн-Штернберг, which transliterates as Roman Fyodorovich fon Ungern-Shternberg (10 January 1886 NS – 15 September 1921) was an Austrian-born Russian anti-Bolshevik lieutenant general in the Russian Civil War and then an independent warlord whose Asiatic Cavalry Division wrested control of Mongolia from the Republic of China in 1921 after its occupation.
The Rouran Khaganate, Ruanruan, Ruru, or Tantan was the name of a state established by proto-Mongols, from the late 4th century until the middle 6th century.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Census of 2010 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2010 го́да) is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian conquest of Siberia took place in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Khanate of Sibir had become a loose political structure of vassalages that were being undermined by the activities of Russian explorers.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian famine of 1921–22, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence.
The Sakya ("pale earth") school is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the others being the Nyingma, Kagyu, and Gelug.
The Sart Kalmyks are an ethnic group of the Oirats, who live in Issyk Kul Province, Kyrgyzstan.
Sartuul is one of the Mongol clans.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon, France, in 1274.
The Second East Turkestan Republic, commonly referred to simply as the East Turkestan Republic (ETR), was a short-lived Soviet-backed Turkic socialist people's republic.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shanrong (山戎), or Rong (戎) were an Old Chinese nomadic people of the Central Plain of China.
Shiwei was an umbrella term for the Food (or Work or Catastrophe) Council Mongols and Tungusic peoples that inhabited far-eastern Mongolia, northern Inner Mongolia, northern Manchuria and the area near the Okhotsk Sea beach.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Sichuan Mongols are officially counted among the Mongolian nationality in China.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
The Sogwo Arig (or Sog Mongols) claim to be descendants of Mongolian Yuan Dynasty rulers of Henan province.
Sorghaghtani Beki (ᠰᠥᠯᠺᠥᠺᠲᠠᠨᠢᠪᠡᠺᠢ) or Bekhi (Bek(h)i is a title), also written Sorkaktani, Sorkhokhtani, Sorkhogtani, Siyurkuktiti (c.1190-1252; posthumous name) was a Keraite princess and daughter-in-law of Genghis Khan.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
Soviet Central Asia refers to the section of Central Asia formerly controlled by the Soviet Union, as well as the time period of Soviet administration (1918–1991).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
War crimes perpetrated by the Soviet Union and its armed forces from 1919 to 1991 include acts committed by the Red Army (later called the Soviet Army) as well as the NKVD, including the NKVD's Internal Troops.
The Soviet–Japanese War (Советско-японская война; ソ連対日参戦, "Soviet Union entry into war against Japan") was a military conflict within the Second World War beginning soon after midnight on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Stalinist repressions in Mongolia (Их Хэлмэгдүүлэлт, Ikh Khelmegdüülelt, "Great Repression") refers to a period of heightened political violence and persecution in the Mongolian People's Republic between 1937 and 1939.
State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against foreign targets or against its own people.
Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Sunuds (Khalkha-Mongolian:Сөнөд/Sönöd; English:Sonid, Sönid) are a Southern Mongol subgroup.
The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.
Tadun (died 207) was a leader of the Wuhuan tribes during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.
Taisun Khan (or Toghtoa Bukha, Toγtoγa Buqa; Modern Mongolian:Taisun haan) (1416–1453) was a Khagan of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Taraz (Тараз) (known to Europeans as Talas) is a city and the administrative center of Jambyl Region in Kazakhstan, located on the Talas (Taraz) River in the south of the country near the border with Kyrgyzstan.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
Tatar (Татар) was one of the five major Mongol tribal confederations (khanlig) in the Mongolian Plateau in the 12th century.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Tümen Zasagt Khan (Түмэн засагт хаан, Tümen zasagt xaan) was a 16th-century Mongol Khagan of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia who reigned from 1558 to 1592.
Tengri (𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃; Тангра; Modern Turkish: Tanrı; Proto-Turkic *teŋri / *taŋrɨ; Mongolian script:, Tngri; Modern Mongolian: Тэнгэр, Tenger), is one of the names for the primary chief deity used by the early Turkic (Xiongnu, Hunnic, Bulgar) and Mongolic (Xianbei) peoples.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The historical era of Tibet from 1912 to 1951 followed the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912, and lasted until the invasion of Tibet by the People's Republic of China.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
Tolui, (Classic Mongolian: Toluy, Tului, Тулуй хаан,, Tolui Khan (meaning the Khan Tolui)) (c.1191–1232) was the fourth son of Genghis Khan by his chief khatun Börte.
The Torghut (Mongolian: Торгууд/Torguud, "Guardsman" or "the Silks") are one of the four major subgroups of the Four Oirats.
Transbaikal, Trans-Baikal, Transbaikalia (p), or Dauria (Даурия, Dauriya) is a mountainous region to the east of or "beyond" (trans-) Lake Baikal in Russia.
A Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet was signed on 11 January 1913 (corresponding to 29 December 1912 of the Julian calendar), at Urga (now Ulaanbaatar).
The Treaty of Kyakhta (or Kiakhta) (Кяхтинский договор, Kjahtinskij dogovor;, Wade-Giles: Pu4lien2ssŭ1ch‘i2 / Ch‘ia4k‘o4tu2 t‘iao2yüeh1, Xiao'erjing: بُلِيًاصِٿِ / ٿِاكْتُ تِيَوْيُؤ; Хиагтын гэрээ, Xiagtın gerê; Manchu:, Wylie: chuwan emu hatsin-i pitghe, Möllendorff: juwan emu hacin-i bithe), along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid-19th century.
Signed on 25 May 1915, the Treaty of Kyakhta was a tri-party treaty between Russia, Mongolia, and China.
The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 (Нерчинский договор, Nerčinskij dogovor; Manchu:,Möllendorff: nibcoo-i bade bithe;, Xiao'erjing: نِبُچُ تِيَوْيُؤ) was the first treaty between Russia and China.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Tsewang Rabtan (from Tsewang Rapten;;; 1643–1727) was a Choros-Oirat prince and the Khong Tayiji of the Dzungar Khanate from 1697 (following the death of his uncle and rival Galdan Boshugtu Khan) until his death in 1727.
The Tümed (Tumad, "The many or ten thousands" derived from Tumen) are a Mongol subgroup.
Tumen, or tümen ("unit of ten thousand"; Old Turkic: tümän; Түмэн, tümen; tümen; tömény), was a part of the decimal system used by the Turkic peoples and Mongol peoples to organize their armies.
The Tumu Crisis (Тумугийн тулалдаан); also called the Crisis of Tumu Fortress or Battle of Tumu, was a frontier conflict between the Oirat tribes of Mongols and the Chinese Ming dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 1, 1449, and the defeat of an army of 500,000 men by a much smaller force.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus, Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and northeast China by Tungusic peoples.
Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages.
The Turkic Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Kök Türük) or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic term oğuz or oğur (in z- and r-Turkic, respectively) is a historical term for "military division, clan, or tribe" among the Turkic peoples.
Turkistan (Түркістан, Túrkistan, تٷركئستان), formerly known as Turkestan (Туркестан; Turkiston, Туркистон, توركىستان), is a city and the admiistrative center of Turkistan Region of Kazakhstan, near the Syr Darya river.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
Ubashi Khan (Chinese:; 1744~1774) was a Torghut-Kalmyk prince and the last Khan of the Kalmyk Khanate.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of Southampton (abbreviated as Soton in post-nominal letters) is a research university located in Southampton, England.
The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is an international pro-democracy organization.
The Upper Mongols (Mongolian: Deed mongol Дээд монгол, Mongolian Script), also known as the Köke Nuur Mongols (Mongolian: Хөх нуурын Монгол, Mongolian Script:, "Blue lake Mongol") or Qinghai Mongols (Chinese: 青海蒙古) are ethnic Mongol people of Oirat and Khalkha origin who settled around Qinghai Lake in so-called Upper Mongolia.
The Upper Xiajiadian culture (c. 1000-600 BC) was a Bronze Age archaeological culture in Northeast China derived from the Eurasian steppe bronze tradition.
The Urad (Southern ones/people) is a Mongol tribe in Inner Mongolia, China.
Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug (Усть-Орды́нский Буря́тский о́круг; Усть-Ордын Буряадай округ Ust'-Ordyn Burjaadaj okrug), or Ust-Orda Buryatia, is an administrative division of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia.
Uvs (Увс аймаг, Uws aimag) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghur: ئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
William of Rubruck (c. 1220 – c. 1293) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Wuhuan (Old Chinese: ʔˤa ɢʷˁar, Mongol romanization:Uhuan) were a Proto-Mongolic nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia.
The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.
The Xianbei state or Xianbei confederation was a nomadic empire which existed in modern-day Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northern Xinjiang, Northeast China, Gansu, Buryatia, Zabaykalsky Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Tuva, Altai Republic and eastern Kazakhstan from 156-234.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Xiong Yi (reigned 11th century BC) was the first viscount and an early ruler of the State of Chu during early Zhou Dynasty of ancient China.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Yahballaha III (1245–November 13, 1317), known in earlier years as Rabban Marcos or Markos, was Patriarch of the Church of the East from 1281 to 1317.
Yakut, also known as Sakha, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation by the Yakuts.
Yakuts (Саха, Sakha) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in North East Asia.
Yan (Old Chinese pronunciation: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
Yasser (alternatively: Yasa, Yasaq, Jazag, Zasag, Mongolian: Их засаг, Yehe Zasag) was a secret written code of law created by Genghis Khan.
The Yenisei Kyrgyz, also known as the Ancient Kyrgyz or the Khyagas (Khakas), were an ancient Turkic people who dwelled along the upper Yenisei River in the southern portion of the Minusinsk Depression from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE.
The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
The Yi Zhou Shu is a compendium of Chinese historical documents about the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BCE).
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
The Yugurs, or Yellow Uyghurs, as they are traditionally known, are a Turkic and Mongolicgroup and one of China's 56 officially recognized nationalities, consisting of 13,719 persons according to the 2000 census.
Yujiulü Chounu (pinyin: Yùjiǔlǘ Chǒunú) (?-520) khan of the Rouran (508-520) with the title of Douluofubadoufa Khan (豆羅伏跋豆伐可汗).
Yujiulü Shelun (Simplified Chinese: 郁久闾社仑; pinyin: Yùjiǔlǘ Shèlún, Wade–Giles: Yü-chiu-lü She-lun) (c.391-410) was khagan of the Rouran from 402 to 410.
The Zakhchin (Захчин) is a subgroup of the Oirats residing in Khovd Province, Mongolia.
Öndör Gegeen Zanabazar, born Eshidorji, was the sixteenth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu and the first Bogd Gegeen, or supreme spiritual authority, of the Gelugpa (Yellow Hat) lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in Outer Mongolia. The son of a Mongol Tüsheet Khan, Zanabazar was declared spiritual leader of Khalkha Mongols by a convocation of nobles in 1639 when he was just four years old. The 5th Dalai Lama (1617–1682) later recognized him as the reincarnation of the Buddhist scholar Taranatha and bestowed on him the Sanskrit name Jñānavajra (Sanskrit: ज्ञानवज्र, Zanabazar in Mongolian) meaning "thunderbolt scepter of wisdom". Over the course of nearly 60 years, Zanabazar advanced the Gelugpa school of Buddhism among the Mongols, supplanting or synthesizing Sakya or "Red Hat" Buddhist traditions that had prevailed in the area, while strongly influencing social and political developments in 17th century Mongolia. His close ties with both Khalka Mongol leaders and the devout Kangxi Emperor facilitated the Khalkha's submission to Qing rule in 1691. In addition to his spiritual and political roles, Zanabazar was a polymath – a prodigious sculptor, painter, architect, poet, costume designer, scholar, and linguist, who is credited with launching Mongolia's seventeenth century cultural renaissance. He is best known for his intricate and elegant Buddhist sculptures created in the Nepali-derived style, two of the most famous being the White Tara and Varajradhara, sculpted in the 1680s. To aid translation of sacred Tibetan texts, he created the Soyombo script from which sprang the Soyombo that later became a national symbol of Mongolia. Zanabazar used his artistic output to promote Buddhism among all levels of Khalkha society and unify Khalkha Mongol tribes during a time of social and political turmoil.
Zaya Pandita or Namkhaijamts (1599–1662) was a Buddhist missionary priest and scholar of Oirat origin who is the most prominent Oirat Buddhist scholar.
The Zhukaigou culture was a late Neolithic and early Bronze Age culture centered in the Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia, China.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 1932 armed uprising (1932 оны зэвсэгт бослого, 1932 ony zevsegt boslogo) was a revolt against the rule of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) and its "left course" directed by Soviet Bolsheviks and Komintern in the Mongolian People's Republic.
On the night of May 10, 2011 an ethnic Mongol herdsman was killed by a coal truck driver near Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China.
Yonten Gyatso or Yon-tan-rgya-mtsho (1589–1617) was a jinong and the 4th Dalai Lama, born in Mongolia on the 30th day of the 12th month of the Earth-Ox year of the Tibetan calendar.
History of the Mongols, MONGOL, Monggu, Mongol, Mongol clans, Mongol nation, Mongol people, Mongol peoples, Mongolchuud, Mongolia people, Mongolian people, Mongolian peoples, Mongolic people, Mongolids, People of Mongolia, Southern Mongol, Southern Mongolians, Southern Mongols, Ta-ta Mongols, The Mongols, The mongols, Монголчууд.