328 relations: Absolute monarchy, Achan (biblical figure), Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652, Agitator, Agreement of the People, Alfred A. 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Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.
Achan (עכן), also called Achar, is a figure mentioned in the Book of Joshua in connection with the fall of Jericho and conquest of Ai.
The Act for the Settlement of Ireland imposed penalties including death and land confiscation against participants and bystanders of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and subsequent unrest.
An agitator is a person who actively supports some ideology or movement with speeches and especially actions.
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An Agreement of the People was a series of manifestos, published between 1647 and 1649, for constitutional changes to the English state.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. (pronounced, with an audible k and silent p) is an award-winning New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. in 1915.
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The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, was the armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its former North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America.
Andover is a town in the English county of Hampshire.
Lady Antonia Margaret Caroline Fraser, DBE (born 27 August 1932), née Pakenham, is a British author of history, novels, biographies and detective fiction.
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An apocalypse (Ancient Greek: ἀποκάλυψις apokálypsis, from ἀπό and καλύπτω meaning "uncovering"), translated literally from Greek, is a disclosure of knowledge, i.e., a lifting of the veil or revelation.
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Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1st Earl of Midlothian (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929) was a British Liberal statesman and Prime Minister.
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures, called "metals".
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Arminianism is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as the Remonstrants.
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Austin Herbert Woolrych (May 18, 1918-September 15, 2004) was an English historian, a specialist in the period of the English Civil War.
The Banbury mutiny was a mutiny by soldiers in the English New Model Army.
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Barbados is a sovereign island country in the Lesser Antilles.
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Barebone's Parliament, also known as the Little Parliament, the Nominated Assembly and the Parliament of Saints, came into being on 4 July 1653, and was the last attempt of the English Commonwealth to find a stable political form before the installation of Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector.
Basing House was a major Tudor palace and castle in the village of Old Basing in the English county of Hampshire.
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The Battle of Dunbar (3 September 1650) was a battle of the Third English Civil War.
The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War.
The Battle of Gainsborough was a battle in the English Civil War, fought on 28 July 1643.
The Battle of Langport was a Parliamentarian victory late in the First English Civil War which destroyed the last Royalist field army and gave Parliament control of the West of England, which had hitherto been a major source of manpower, raw materials and imports for the Royalists.
The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646.
The Battle of Naseby was the decisive battle of the first English Civil War.
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The Battle of Preston (17–19 August 1648), fought largely at Walton-le-Dale near Preston in Lancashire, resulted in a victory for the New Model Army under the command of Oliver Cromwell over the Royalists and Scots commanded by the Duke of Hamilton.
The Battle of Rathmines was fought in and around what is now the Dublin suburb of Rathmines in August 1649, during the Irish Confederate Wars, the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco–Prussian War on 1 September 1870.
The Battle of the Severn was a skirmish fought on March 25, 1655, on the Severn River at Horn Point, across Spa Creek from Annapolis, Maryland, in what at that time was referred to as "Providence", in what is now the neighborhood of Eastport.
The Battle of Turnham Green occurred 13 November 1642 near the village of Turnham Green, at the end of the first campaigning season of the First English Civil War.
The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England, and was the final battle of the English Civil War.
Bermuda, also referred to in legal documents as, fully, "the Bermudas or Somers Isles", is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean, located off the east coast of North America.
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Patrick Bartholomew "Bertie" Ahern (born 12 September 1951) is a former Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach of Ireland from 26 June 1997 to 7 May 2008.
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The Bishops' Wars (Bellum Episcopale) were conflicts, both political and military, which occurred in 1639 and 1640 centred on the nature of the governance of the Church of Scotland, and the rights and powers of the Crown.
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The Bishopsgate mutiny occurred in April 1649 when soldiers of Colonel Edward Whalley's regiment of the New Model Army refused to obey orders and leave London.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיה., "Sefer Yeshayahu") is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in English Bibles.
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70013 Oliver Cromwell is a British Railways standard class 7 (also known as the Britannia class) preserved steam locomotive.
Bridgwater is a market town and civil parish in Somerset, England.
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Bristol is a city, unitary authority and county in South West England with an estimated population of 442,500 in 2015.
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British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the operator of most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997.
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Burford is a small town on the River Windrush in the Cotswold hills in west Oxfordshire, England, about west of Oxford, southeast of Cheltenham and only about from the Gloucestershire boundary.
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Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.
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The city of Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England.
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Cambridge is a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the U.K. Parliament.
Cambridgeshire County Council is the county council of Cambridgeshire, England.
Carlow is the county town of County Carlow in Ireland.
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Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin) is a community in, and the county town of, Carmarthenshire, Wales.
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Cavalier was a name first used by Parliamentarians as a term of abuse for the wealthier male Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).
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The Cavalier Parliament of England lasted from 8 May 1661 until 24 January 1679.
Cavalry (from French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
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The ceremonial mace is a highly ornamented staff of metal or wood, carried before a sovereign or other high official in civic ceremonies by a mace-bearer, intended to represent the official's authority.
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Charles Fleetwood (c. 1618 – 4 October 1692) was an English Parliamentarian soldier and politician, Lord Deputy of Ireland from 1652–55, where he enforced the Cromwellian Settlement.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Charles Worsley (24 June 1622 – 1656) was an English soldier and politician.
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Chepstow Castle (Cas-gwent), located in Chepstow, Monmouthshire, in Wales, on top of cliffs overlooking the River Wye, is the oldest surviving post-Roman stone fortification in Britain.
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A chevron (also spelled cheveron, especially in older documents) is a V-shaped pattern.
John Edward Christopher Hill (6 February 1912 – 23 February 2003) was an English Marxist historian and author of textbooks.
Clonmel is the county town of County Tipperary in Ireland.
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Colonel (abbreviated Col., Col or COL and pronounced, similar to "kernel") is a senior military officer rank below the general officer ranks.
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The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original English Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of North America.
The Colony of Virginia (also known frequently as the Virginia Colony, the Province of Virginia, and occasionally as the Dominion and Colony of Virginia or Most Ancient Colloney and Dominion of Virginia) was the first English colony in the world.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 onwards when England, along later with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was initially declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
Confederate Ireland refers to the period of Irish self-government between 1642 and 1649, during the Eleven Years' War.
Connacht or Connaught (Connacht or Cúige Chonnacht) is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the west of the country.
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The Continental Navy was the navy of the United States during the American Revolutionary War, and was formed in 1775.
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Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in Ireland.
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Cornwall (or; Kernow) is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom.
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A coronation is a ceremony marking the formal investiture of a monarch and/or their consort with regal power, usually involving the ritual placement of a crown upon his or her head and the presentation of other items of regalia.
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The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century.
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Tank, Cruiser, Mk VIII, Cromwell (A27M), and the related Centaur (A27L) tank, were one of the most successful series of cruiser tanks fielded by Britain in the Second World War.
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The Other House (also referred to as the Upper House, House of Peers and House of Lords), established by the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell under the terms of the Humble Petition and Advice, was one of the two chambers of the Parliaments that legislated for England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, in 1658 and 1659, the final years of the Protectorate.
Cromwell's Soldiers' Pocket Bible (aka The Soldier's Pocket Bible, Cromwell's Soldier's Bible) was a pamphlet version of the Christian Bible that was carried by the soldiers of Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth army during the First English Civil War.
David Leslie, 1st Lord Newark (c. 1600–1682) was a cavalry officer and General in the English Civil War and Scottish Civil Wars.
Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland.
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Devizes is a market town and civil parish in the heart of Wiltshire, England.
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Devon (archaically known as Devonshire) is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.
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A dictator is a ruler who wields absolute authority.
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The Doge of Venice (Venetian: Doxe de Venexia; Doge di Venezia; all derived from Latin dūx, "military leader"), sometimes translated as Duke (cf. Italian Duca), was the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for over a thousand years.
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Drogheda is an industrial and port town in County Louth on the east coast of Ireland, north of Dublin.
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Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland.
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Dunbar is a town in East Lothian on the southeast coast of Scotland, approximately 28 miles (45 km) east of Edinburgh and 28 miles (45 km) from the English Border at Berwick-upon-Tweed.
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Dundee (Dùn Dé), officially the City of Dundee, is Scotland's fourth largest city and the 51st most populous built-up area in the United Kingdom.
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East Anglia is an area in the East of England.
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The Eastern Association of counties was a Parliamentarian organisation during the English Civil War.
EBSCO Industries is headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama.
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Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann) is the capital city of Scotland, located in Lothian on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth.
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Edmund Dunch (1602–1678) was an English Member of Parliament who supported the Parliamentary cause before and during the English Civil War.
Edmund Ludlow (c. 1617–1692) was an English parliamentarian, best known for his involvement in the execution of Charles I, and for his Memoirs, which were published posthumously in a rewritten form and which have become a major source for historians of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
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Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609 – 9 December 1674) was an English statesman, historian, and maternal grandfather of two English, Scottish and Irish monarchs, Queen Mary II and Queen Anne.
Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester KG, KB, FRS (1602 – 5 May 1671) was an important commander of Parliamentary forces in the First English Civil War, and for a time Oliver Cromwell's superior.
Elizabeth Claypolealso Cleypole and Claypoole (Noble and Firth DNB) (née Cromwell; 2 July 1629 – 6 August 1658) was the second daughter of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his wife, Elizabeth Cromwell, and reportedly interceded with her father for royalist prisoners.
Elizabeth Cromwell (née Bourchier; 1598–1665) was the wife of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death.
Ely is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, 14 miles (23 km) north-north-east of Cambridge and about by road from London.
The Engagers were a faction of the Scottish Covenanters, who made "The Engagement" with King Charles I in December 1647 while he was imprisoned in Carisbrooke Castle by the English Parliamentarians after his defeat in the First Civil War.
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The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") in the Kingdom of England over, principally, the manner of its government.
The English Council of State, later also known as the Protector's Privy Council, was first appointed by the Rump Parliament on 14 February 1649 after the execution of King Charles I. Charles's execution on 30 January was delayed for several hours so that the House of Commons could pass an emergency bill to declare the representatives of the people, the House of Commons, as the source of all just power and to make it an offence to proclaim a new King.
An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.
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Sir Ernest Barker (23 September 1874 – 17 February 1960) was an English political scientist who served as Principal of King's College London from 1920 to 1927.
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The Escape of Charles II from England in 1651 is a key episode in his life.
Essex is a county in England, immediately north-east of London.
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Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or religious groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
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The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.
The Familists or Family of Love (English term) was a mystic religious sect known as the Familia Caritatis (Hus der Lieften; Huis der Liefde; Haus der Liebe), founded in the sixteenth century by Henry Nicholis, also known as Niclaes.
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The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were active from 1649 to 1660 during the Interregnum, following the English Civil Wars of the 17th century.
The First Anglo-Dutch War (Eerste Engels-Nederlandse oorlog) (1652–54) (called the First Dutch War in England) was the first of the four Anglo-Dutch Wars.
The First English Civil War (1642–1646) began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War (or "Wars").
The First Protectorate Parliament was summoned by the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell under the terms of the Instrument of Government.
The First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff (1SL/CNS).
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Fore Street is a street in the City of London near the Barbican Centre.
Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford PC (1593 – 9 May 1641) was an English politician.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil; Na Gàidheil), also known as Goidels, are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to northwestern Europe.
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Galway (Gaillimh) is a city in the West of Ireland in the province of Connacht.
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The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Church's governing body.
Genocide is the systematic elimination of all or a significant part of a racial, ethnic, religious, cultural or national group.
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Gentry (origin Old French genterie, from gentil, "high-born, noble") are "well-born, genteel and well-bred people" of high social class, especially in the past.
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Geoffrey Ronald Robertson QC (born 30 September 1946) is a human rights barrister, academic, author and broadcaster.
Cornet George Joyce (born 1618) was an officer in the Parliamentary New Model Army during the English Civil War.
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George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG (6 December 1608 – 3 January 1670) was an English soldier, politician and a key figure in effecting the Restoration of the Monarchy to King Charles II in 1660.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
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Gideon or Gedeon, which means "Destroyer," "Mighty warrior," or "Feller (of trees)" was, according to the Hebrew Bible, a judge of the Israelites.
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The Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 90), also known as the Home Rule Act, and before enactment as the Third Home Rule Bill, was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to provide home rule (self-government within the United Kingdom) for Ireland.
Grandee (Grande; Grande) is a high aristocratic title used by the Spanish nobility, Portuguese nobility and Brazilian nobility.
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The half crown was a denomination of British money, equivalent to two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound.
Hampton Court Palace is a royal palace in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, Greater London, in the historic county of Middlesex, and within the postal town East Molesey, Surrey.
Harper's Magazine (also called Harper's) is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts.
The Heads of Proposals was a set of propositions intended to be a basis for a constitutional settlement after King Charles I was defeated in the First English Civil War.
Henry Cromwell (20 January 1628 – 23 March 1674) was the fourth son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier, and an important figure in the Parliamentarian regime in Ireland.
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Henry Ireton (1611 – 26 November 1651) was an English general in the Parliamentary army during the English Civil War, the son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell.
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Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland KG KB PC (19 August 1590 (baptised) – 9 March 1649), known as The Lord Kensington between 1623 and 1624, was an English courtier, peer and soldier.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death.
Sir Henry Williams, alias Cromwell (died 1604) was a Knight of the Shire for Huntingdonshire and a grandfather of Oliver Cromwell.
Highness is a formal style used to address (in second person) or refer to (in third person) certain members of a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty.
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Hinchingbrooke House in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, was built around an 11th-century nunnery.
Hinchingbrooke School is a large secondary school situated on the outskirts of Huntingdon in Cambridgeshire.
Hispaniola (Spanish: Española; French: Hispaniola; Taíno: Ayiti) is the 22nd-largest island in the world, located in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
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Historiography refers to both the study of the methodology of historians and development of history as a discipline, and also to a body of historical work on a particular subject.
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The history of the British Isles has witnessed intermittent periods of competition and cooperation between the people that occupy the various parts of Great Britain, Ireland, and the smaller adjacent islands, which together make up the British Isles.
The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England (which incorporated Wales) from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain.
The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
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The House of Stuart is a European royal house.
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The Humble Petition and Advice was the second, and last, codified constitution of England after the Instrument of Government.
Huntingdon is a market town in Cambridgeshire, England.
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Huntingdon is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2001 by Jonathan Djanogly, a Conservative.
Huntingdonshire (or; abbreviated Hunts) is a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire, as well as a historic county of England.
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Imperialism is a type of advocacy of empire.
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Indentured servitude was a labor system whereby young people paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a certain number of years.
In English church history, Independents advocated local congregational control of religious and church matters, without any wider geographical hierarchy, either ecclesiastical or political.
The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales.
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The Instrument of Government was a constitution of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The Internet Movie Database (abbreviated IMDb) is an online database of information related to films, television programs, and video games, including cast, production crew, fictional characters, biographies, plot summaries, trivia and reviews.
The Irish Confederate Wars, also called the Eleven Years' War (derived from the Irish language name Cogadh na hAon Bhliana Déag), took place in Ireland between 1641 and 1653.
The Irish Rebellion of 1641 (Éirí Amach 1641) began as an attempted coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland to force concessions for the Catholics living under English rule.
The Ironsides were troopers in the Parliamentarian cavalry formed by English political leader Oliver Cromwell in the 17th century, during the English Civil War.
The Israelites were a Semitic people of the Ancient Near East, who inhabited part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods (15th to 6th centuries BCE), and lived in the region in smaller numbers after the fall of the monarchy.
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Italian Fascism (Fascismo Italiano), also known simply as Fascism (Fascismo), is the original fascist ideology, as developed in Italy.
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James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century.
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Jericho (أريحا; יריחו) is a city located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
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John Bradshaw (15 July 1602 – 31 October 1659) was an English judge.
John Claypole (21 August 1625 – 26 June 1688),or John Claypoole (Lee p. 246) was an officer in the Parliamentary army in 1645 during the English Civil War.
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John Lambert (Autumn 1619 – March 1684) was an English Parliamentary general and politician.
John Lilburne (1614 – 29 August 1657), also known as Freeborn John, was an English political Leveller before, during and after the English Civil Wars 1642–1650.
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John Lowry (died 1669) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 to 1653.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell.
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John Stephen Morrill (born 12 June 1946?) is a British historian and academic who specializes in the political, religious, social, and cultural history of early-modern Britain from 1500-1750, especially the English Civil War.
Colonel John Penruddock (or Penruddocke, 1619–1655), of Compton Chamberlayne, was an English Cavalier during the English Civil War and the English Interregnum.
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John Poyer (died 25 April 1649) was a soldier in the Parliamentary army during the English Civil War in South Wales.
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John Toland (30 November 1670 – 11 March 1722) was a rationalist philosopher and freethinker, and occasional satirist, who wrote numerous books and pamphlets on political philosophy and philosophy of religion, which are early expressions of the philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment.
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The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
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A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.
Kenneth Vivian Rose (15 November 1924 – 28 January 2014) was a royal biographer in the United Kingdom.
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The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.
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A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus or nephrolith, is a solid piece of material which is formed in the kidneys from minerals in urine.
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King Edward's Chair, sometimes known as St Edward's Chair or The Coronation Chair, is the throne on which the British monarch sits for the coronation.
The Kingdom of England was a state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Kirk is a Scottish word meaning a church, or more specifically, the Church of Scotland.
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Ladybird Books is a London-based publishing company, trading as a stand-alone imprint within the Penguin Group of companies.
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Lawrence Crawford (1611–1645) was a Scottish soldier who fought in English or other armies on the continent of Europe.
Leon Trotsky (Лев Дави́дович Тро́цкий;; born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein; – 21 August 1940) was a Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army.
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The Levellers were a political movement during the English Civil War that emphasised popular sovereignty, extended suffrage, common land ownership, equality before the law, and religious tolerance, all of which were expressed in the manifesto "Agreement of the People".
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The Liberal Party was a liberal political party which was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th century.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn is one of four Inns of Court in London to which barristers of England and Wales belong and where they are called to the Bar.
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This is a list of Chancellors of the University of Oxford in England by year of appointment.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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The Long Parliament was an English Parliament summoned on 3 November 1640This article uses the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January – for a more detailed explanation, see Old Style and New Style dates#Differences between the start of the year old style and new style dates: differences between the start of the year.
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The Lord Deputy was the King's representative and head of the Irish executive under English rule, during the Lordship of Ireland and later the Kingdom of Ireland.
Lord Protector (pl. Lords Protector) is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for heads of state.
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Machiavellianism is "cunning and duplicity".
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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganism) belonging to the genus Plasmodium.
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Manchester Town Hall is a Victorian, Neo-gothic municipal building in Manchester, England.
Mary Cromwell, Countess Fauconberg (christened 9 February 1637, died 14 March 1713) was the third daughter of Oliver Cromwell and his wife Elizabeth Bourchier.
Matthew Noble (1818 – 23 June 1876) was a British sculptor.
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Maurice Percy Ashley CBE (4 September 1907 – 26 September 1994) was a noted historian of the 17th Century and a former editor of The Listener.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
Midian (מִדְיָן), Madyan (مدين), or Madiam (Μαδιάμ) is a geographical place and the Midianites a people mentioned in the Torah and in the Qur'an.
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The military history of the United Kingdom covers the period from the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain, uniting England and Scotland, in 1707, with the political union of England and Scotland, to the present day.
A militia generally is an army or other fighting force that is composed of non-professional fighters; citizens of a nation or subjects of a state or government that can be called upon to enter a combat situation, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of the fighting nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
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Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws.
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Moses (מֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Moushe; موسى; Mωϋσῆς in both the Septuagint and the New Testament) is a prophet in Abrahamic religions.
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The Museum of London documents the history of London from prehistoric to modern times.
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National security is a concept that a government, along with its parliaments, should protect the state and its citizens against all kind of "national" crises through a variety of power projections, such as political power, diplomacy, economic power, military might, and so on.
The Nationalist Party was a term commonly used to describe a number of parliamentary political parties and constituency organisations supportive of Home Rule for Ireland from 1874 to 1922.
Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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The United Colonies of New England, commonly known as the New England Confederation, was a short-lived military alliance of the English colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven.
The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.
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New Ross (formerly Ros Mhic Treoin) is a town in southwest County Wexford, Ireland.
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A victor gives no quarter when the victor shows no clemency or mercy and refuses to spare the life in return for the surrender at discretion (unconditional surrender) of a vanquished opponent.
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The Old English (Seanghaill, meaning "old foreigners") were the descendants of the settlers who came to Ireland from Wales, Normandy, and England after the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169–71.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are sometimes used with dates to indicate whether the Julian year has been adjusted to start on 1 January (N.S.), even though documents written at the time use a different start of year (O.S.), or whether a date conforms to the Julian calendar (O.S.), formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian (N.S.). web page of the.
Following the death of Oliver Cromwell on 3 September 1658, he was given a public funeral at Westminster Abbey, equal to those of monarchs before him.
Sir Oliver St John (pronounced "Sinjun") (c. 1598–31 December 1673), was an English judge and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 to 1653.
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Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
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The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Palace of Whitehall (or Palace of White Hall) was the main residence of the English monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones's 1622 Banqueting House was destroyed by fire.
Pembroke Castle (Castell Penfro) is a medieval castle in Pembroke, West Wales.
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The Penruddock uprising was one of a series of coordinated uprisings planned by the Sealed Knot for a Royalist insurrection to start in March 1655 during the Protectorate of the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell.
Sir Peter Lely (14 September 1618 – 30 November 1680) was a painter of Dutch origin, whose career was nearly all spent in England, where he became the dominant portrait painter to the court.
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Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke and 1st Earl of Montgomery (10 October 1584 – 23 January 1650) was an English courtier and politician active during the reigns of James I and Charles I. Philip and his older brother William were the 'incomparable pair of brethren' to whom the First Folio of Shakespeare's collected works was dedicated in 1623.
The Politics of England forms the major part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with England being more populous than all the other countries of the United Kingdom put together.
Posthumous execution is the ritual or ceremonial mutilation of an already dead body as a punishment.
Praise-God Barebone, also spelled Barbon, was an English leather-seller, preacher and Fifth Monarchist.
Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to the British Isles.
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Pride’s Purge was an event that took place in December 1648, during the Second English Civil War, when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the Long Parliament all those who were not supporters of the Grandees in the New Model Army and the Independents.
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Admiral of the Fleet Louis Alexander Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven (24 May 1854 – 11 September 1921), formerly Prince Louis Alexander of Battenberg, was a British naval officer and German prince related to members of the British Royal Family.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
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The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation, was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant Reformers.
Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.
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Providentialism is a belief that God's will is evident in all occurrences, and its application to the social order and world events.
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The Province of Maryland was an English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland.
The Puritans were a group of English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England from all Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
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The Putney Debates were a series of discussions, which took place in 1647, between members of the New Model Army – a number of the participants being Levellers – concerning the makeup of a new constitution for Britain.
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Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
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At the eastern end of Westminster Abbey in the magnificent Lady Chapel built by King Henry VII is the RAF Chapel dedicated to the men of the Royal Air Force who died in the Battle of Britain between July and October 1940.
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Sir Ralph Warren (c. 1486 – 11 July 1553) was twice Lord Mayor of London, for the first time in 1536 and the second in 1543.
The Red Sea, (also the Erythraean Sea), is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
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The broad definition of regicide (Latin regis "of king" + cida "killer" or cidium "killing") is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty.
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Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia; Repùblica Vèneta), or traditionally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice, was a state originating from the lagoon communities in the area of Venice, now northeastern Italy.
Republicanism in the United Kingdom is a movement that seeks to replace the British monarchy with a republic.
The resettlement of the Jews in England was a historic commercial policy in the 17th century.
The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
Richard Cromwell (4 October 162612 July 1712) was Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the position.
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Richard Neile (1562–1640) was an English churchman, bishop successively of six English dioceses, more than any other man, including the Archdiocese of York from 1631 until his death.
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Sir Richard Trevithick Tangye (24 November 1833 – 14 October 1906) was a British manufacturer of engines and other heavy equipment.
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Sir Richard Williams, alias Cromwell (born by 1502 – 1544) was a Welsh soldier and a courtier in the court of Henry VIII.
Robert Blake (27 September 1598 – 7 August 1657) was one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England and one of the most famous English admirals of the 17th century, whose successes have "never been excelled, not even by Nelson" according to one biographer.
Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex KB PC (11 January 1591 – 14 September 1646) was an English Parliamentarian and soldier during the first half of the seventeenth century.
Robert Lockyer (sometimes spelled Lockier) (1625–1649) was an English soldier in Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army.
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Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick (5 June 1587 – 19 April 1658) was an English colonial administrator, admiral, and Puritan.
Robert Rich, 3rd Earl of Warwick (28 June 1611 – 29 May 1659 in London), supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War (his father the 2nd Earl supported Parliament).
Robert Walker (1599–1658) was an English portrait painter, notable for his portraits of the "Lord Protector" Oliver Cromwell and other distinguished parliamentarians of the period.
Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery (25 April 1621 – 16 October 1679) was a soldier, dramatist and politician from the British Isles who sat in the House of Commons of England at various times between 1654 and 1679.
Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
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The Root and Branch Petition was a petition presented to the Long Parliament on December 11, 1640.
Roundhead was the name given to the supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.
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Major General Rowland Laugharne (c.1607–1675) was a soldier in the English Civil War.
The Rule of the Major-Generals from August 1655 – January 1657, was a period of direct military government during Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate.
The Rump Parliament was the English Parliament after Colonel Pride purged the Long Parliament on 6 December 1648 of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason.
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The Sack of Wexford took place in October 1649, during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, when the New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell took Wexford town in south-eastern Ireland.
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Saffron Walden is a market town in the Uttlesford district of Essex, England.
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A saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness, or likeness to God.
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Samuel Cooper (1609 – 5 May 1672), sometimes spelt as Samuel Cowper, was an English miniature painter, and younger brother of Alexander Cooper.
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Samuel Rawson Gardiner (March 4, 1829 near Alresford, Hampshire– February 24, 1902 in Sevenoaks) was an English historian, who specialized in 17th-century English history, and is regarded as the foremost historian of the Puritan revolution and the English Civil War.
Rev Samuel Rutherford (or Samuell Rutherfoord (– 29 March 1661) was a Scottish Presbyterian pastor, theologian and author, and one of the Scottish Commissioners to the Westminster Assembly.
The Sanhedrin (Hebrew: sanhedrîn, Greeks: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three to seventy-one men appointed in every city in the Land of Israel.
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The Scottish Highlands, known locally simply as the Highlands (A' Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels"; the Hielands) are a historic region of Scotland.
The Second Battle of Newbury was a battle of the English Civil War fought on 27 October 1644, in Speen, adjoining Newbury in Berkshire.
The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known collectively as the English Civil War (or Wars), which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651 and also include the First English Civil War (1642–1646) and the Third English Civil War (1649–1651).
The Second Protectorate Parliament in England sat for two sessions from 17 September 1656 until 4 February 1658, with Thomas Widdrington as the Speaker of the House of Commons.
The Self-denying Ordinance was passed by the Long Parliament of England on 3 April 1645.
Sepsis is a whole-body inflammatory response to an infection.
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Sherborne is a market town in northwest Dorset, in South West England.
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The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England that sat from 13 April to 5 May 1640 during the reign of King Charles I of England, so called because it lasted only three weeks.
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Sidney Sussex College (referred to informally as "Sidney") is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.
The siege of Basing House near Basingstoke in Hampshire, was a Parliamentarian victory late in the First English Civil War.
The Siege of Clonmel took place in April – May 1650 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland when the town of Clonmel in County Tipperary was besieged by Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army.
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The Siege of Drogheda took place on 3–11 September 1649 at the outset of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.
The city of Waterford in south eastern Ireland was besieged from 1649–50 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.
Sir John Russell, 3rd Baronet(1632?-1669), first a Royalist, but afterwards a colonel of foot for Parliament and distinguished himself at the Battle of Marston-Moor, and in the Protectorate's wars in Ireland and Flanders.
St Giles-without-Cripplegate is a Church of England church in the City of London, located on Fore Street within the modern Barbican complex.
St Ives is a market town in Cambridgeshire, England, around north-west of the city of Cambridge and north of London.
A statue of Oliver Cromwell stands outside the House of Commons of the United Kingdom in Westminster, London.
The Taoiseach is the head of government or prime minister of Ireland.
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Tenby (Dinbych-y-pysgod, meaning little town of the fishes or little fortress of the fish) is a walled seaside town in Pembrokeshire, south Wales, on the western side of Carmarthen Bay.
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Sir Théodore Turquet de Mayerne (28 September 1573 – 22 March 1654 or 1655) was a Swiss-born physician who treated kings of France and England and advanced the theories of Paracelsus.
The Independent is a British national morning newspaper published in London by Independent Print Limited, owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010.
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The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum) when England (which at that time included Wales), Ireland and Scotland were governed by a Lord Protector.
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The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Belasyse, 1st Earl Fauconberg PC (c. 1627 – 31 December 1700) was an English peer.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher.
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Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, (or; 28 July 1540), was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540.
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Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron (17 January 1612 – 12 November 1671) was a general and Parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War.
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Major-General Thomas Harrison (1606 – 13 October 1660) sided with Parliament in the English Civil War.
Sir Thomas Meautys (1592–1649) was an English civil servant and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1621 and 1640.
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General Sir Thomas Pride (died 23 October 1658) was a parliamentarian commander in the Civil War, best known as one of the Regicides of King Charles I and as the instigator of "Pride's Purge".
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Thomas Rainsborough (1610 – 29 October 1648), or Rainborowe, was a prominent figure in the English Civil War, and was the leading spokesman for the Levellers in the Putney Debates.
A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.
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The Treaty of Newport was a failed treaty between Parliament and King Charles I of England, intended to bring an end to the hostilities of the English Civil War.
Tyburn was a village in the county of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch in present-day London.
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Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a symptomatic bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi.
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Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
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Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce.
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University of Toronto Press (UTP) is Canada's leading scholarly publisher and one of the largest university presses in North America.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
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Valentine Wauton (c. 1594–1661) was one of the regicides of King Charles I of England.
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Dame (Cicely) Veronica Wedgwood OM DBE (20 July 1910 – 9 March 1997) was an English historian who published under the name C. V. Wedgwood.
The Victorian era of British history (and that of the British Empire) was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death, on 22 January 1901.
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Warrington is a town in North West England, historically part of Lancashire but, since 1974, within the ceremonial county of Cheshire.
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WaterfordDiscover Waterford, by Eamon McEneaney (2001).
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Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd (established 1948), often shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books.
The West Indies is a region of the Caribbean Basin and North Atlantic Ocean that includes the many islands and island nations of the Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
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Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Wexford (from Veisafjǫrðr, Yola: Weisèforthè, Irish: Loch Garman) is the county town of County Wexford, Ireland.
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Whig history (or Whig historiography) is the approach to historiography which presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment, culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy.
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The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom.
Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, in central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea.
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Wilbur Cortez Abbott (December 28, 1869 – February 3, 1947) was an American historian and educator, born at Kokomo, Indiana.
William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele (28 June 1582 – 14 April 1662) was an English nobleman and politician, known also for his involvement in several companies for setting up overseas colonies.
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire.
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Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Worcester is a city and the county town of Worcestershire in the West Midlands of England.
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Wythenshawe Hall is a 16th-century medieval timber-framed historic house and former stately home in Wythenshawe, Manchester, England.
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A yeoman was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England.
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Youghal is a seaside resort town in County Cork, Ireland.
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"100 Greatest Britons" was broadcast in 2002 by the BBC.
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