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AARP (formerly American Association of Retired Persons) is a United States-based interest group whose stated mission is "empowering people to choose how they live as they age." According to the organization, as of 2018, it had more than 38 million members.
ABC Online is the brand name in Australia for the online services of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, managed by ABC Innovation.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
During the war in Iraq that began in March 2003, personnel of the United States Army and the Central Intelligence Agency committed a series of human rights violations against detainees in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq.
The Acting President of the United States is a post that was created after the adoption of the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution on January 23, 1933, but it was further defined by the Twenty-fifth Amendment on February 10, 1967.
The Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was signed on October 21, 1994, between North Korea (DPRK) and the United States.
The Air Force Outstanding Unit Award is one of the unit awards of the United States Air Force.
The Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) is a Major Command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force, with its headquarters at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Alabama Air National Guard (AL ANG) is the air force militia of the State of Alabama, United States of America.
Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.
Alan Lee Keyes (born August 7, 1950) is an American conservative political activist, pundit, author, former diplomat, and perennial candidate for public office.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Alberto R. Gonzales (born August 4, 1955) is an American lawyer who served as the 80th United States Attorney General, appointed in February 2005 by President George W. Bush, becoming the highest-ranking Hispanic American in executive government to date.
Alternative fuels, known as non-conventional and advanced fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels like; fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, and natural gas), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium, as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
The American Bar Association (ABA), founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. which researches government, politics, economics and social welfare.
American Heritage is a magazine dedicated to covering the history of the United States of America for a mainstream readership.
American International Group, Inc., also known as AIG, is an American multinational finance and insurance corporation with operations in more than 80 countries and jurisdictions.
American Presidents: Life Portraits is a series produced by C-SPAN in 1999.
American Research Group, Incorporated is a U.S. opinion polling and marketing research company based in Manchester, New Hampshire, and founded in 1985.
Andover is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States.
Andrews Air Force Base is the airfield portion of Joint Base Andrews which is under the jurisdiction of the United States Air Force.
Dorothy Ann Willis Richards (September 1, 1933 – September 13, 2006) was an American politician and 45th Governor of Texas (1991–95).
The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty or ABMT) (1972—2002) was an arms control treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against ballistic missile-delivered nuclear weapons.
Arbusto Energy was an oil and gas exploration firm started in 1977 by former US President George W. Bush.
Ariel Sharon (אריאל שרון;,, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born Ariel Scheinermann, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli general and politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel from March 2001 until April 2006.
Arlington is a principal city in the U.S. state of Texas, located in Tarrant County.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
AT&T Stadium, formerly Cowboys Stadium, is a retractable roof stadium in Arlington, Texas, United States.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), Pub. L., codified at 115 Stat. 224 and passed as by the United States Congress on September 14, 2001, authorizes the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2001 and any "associated forces".
The phrase axis of evil was first used by U.S. President George W. Bush in his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, and often repeated throughout his presidency, to describe foreign governments that, during his administration, sponsored terrorism and sought weapons of mass destruction.
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري, born June 19, 1951) is the current leader of Al-Qaeda and a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Balkan Insight is a publication of the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN), that focuses on news, analysis, commentary and investigative reporting from southeast Europe.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barbara Bush (née Pierce; June 8, 1925 – April 17, 2018) was First Lady of the United States from 1989 to 1993 as the wife of George H. W. Bush, who served as the 41st President of the United States.
Barbara Pierce Bush (born November 25, 1981) is the elder of the sororal twin daughters (the other is Jenna Bush Hager) of the 43rd U.S. President George W. Bush and former First Lady Laura Bush.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
Battle Assembly is the term used by the United States Army Reserve to describe monthly training, where soldiers practice and perfect their military skills and maintain individual and unit readiness in the event of mobilization and deployment.
The Battle of Basra began on 25 March 2008, when the Iraqi Army launched an operation (code-named Saulat al-Fursan, meaning Operation Charge of the Knights in Arabic) to drive the Mahdi Army militia out of the southern Iraqi city of Basra.
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd President of the United States from 1889 to 1893.
Benjamin K. Sovacool is director of the Danish Center for Energy Technology at the Department of Business Technology and Development and a professor of social sciences at Aarhus University.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
This bibliography of Abraham Lincoln is a comprehensive list of written and published works about or by Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States.
This bibliography of George W. Bush is a list of published works, both books and films, about George W. Bush, 43rd President of the United States.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all present and former members of the United States Congress and its predecessor, the Continental Congress.
A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
The Bixby letter is a brief, consoling message sent by President Abraham Lincoln in November 1864 to Lydia Parker Bixby, a widow living in Boston, Massachusetts, who was thought to have lost five sons in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school.
Robert Douglas Bullock, Sr., known as Bob Bullock (July 10, 1929 – June 18, 1999), was a Democratic politician from Texas, whose career spanned four decades.
Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is a retired American politician and attorney who represented Kansas in Congress from 1961 to 1996 and served as the Republican Leader of the United States Senate from 1985 until 1996.
Robert Clinton Smith (born March 30, 1941) is an American politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives for New Hampshire's 1st congressional district from 1985 to 1990 and the state of New Hampshire in the United States Senate from 1990 to 2003.
Robert Upshur Woodward (born March 26, 1943) is an American investigative journalist and non-fiction author.
The Boston Herald is an American daily newspaper whose primary market is Boston, Massachusetts and its surrounding area.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is a unit of the United States Department of Labor.
The Bush Doctrine refers to various related foreign policy principles of the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush.
The Bush family is an American family that is prominent in the fields of politics, sports, entertainment, and business.
The phrase Bush tax cuts refers to changes to the United States tax code passed originally during the presidency of George W. Bush and extended during the presidency of Barack Obama, through.
Bush v. Gore,, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court that settled a recount dispute in Florida's 2000 presidential election.
"Bushisms" are unconventional statements, phrases, pronunciations, malapropisms, and semantic or linguistic errors in the public speaking of former President of the United States George W. Bush.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
A cause célèbre (famous case; plural causes célèbres) is an issue or incident arousing widespread controversy, outside campaigning, and heated public debate.
CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The Center for Defense Information (CDI) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization based in Washington, DC.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chain migration is a term used by scholars to refer to the social process by which migrants from a particular town follow others from that town to a particular destination.
Charlottesville, colloquially known as C'ville and officially named the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) – formerly known as the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) – is a program administered by the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides matching funds to states for health insurance to families with children.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Civil Georgia (სივილ ჯორჯია) is a Tbilisi-based free daily news website run by Georgian NGO UN Association of Georgia.
Clayton Wheat "Claytie" Williams Jr. (born October 8, 1931) is an American businessman and philanthropist from Midland in the U.S. state of Texas who ran for governor in 1990.
The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
The Clear Skies Act of 2003 was a proposed federal law of the United States.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
The Clinton Bush Haiti Fund was a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization founded on January 16, 2010, by former US Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, to aid the victims of the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
Cloture, closure, or, informally, a guillotine is a motion or process in parliamentary procedure aimed at bringing debate to a quick end.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
A college-preparatory school (shortened to preparatory school, prep school, or college prep) is a type of secondary school.
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
Compassionate conservatism is an American political philosophy that stresses using traditionally conservative techniques and concepts in order to improve the general welfare of society.
The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 (full name: Secure Borders, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Reform Act of 2007) was a bill discussed in the 110th United States Congress that would have provided legal status and a path to citizenship for the approximately 12 million undocumented immigrants residing in the United States.
Concealed carry or carrying a concealed weapon (CCW), is the practice of carrying a weapon (such as a handgun) in public in a concealed manner, either on one's person or in close proximity.
The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is a federal agency within the legislative branch of the United States government that provides budget and economic information to Congress.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution of a nation or state.
The Contemporary Arts Museum – Houston is a not-for-profit institution in the Museum District, Houston, Texas, founded in 1948,dedicated to presenting contemporary art to the public.
Contempt of Congress is the act of obstructing the work of the United States Congress or one of its committees.
Convair was an American aircraft manufacturing company which later expanded into rockets and spacecraft.
The Convair F-102 Delta Dagger was an American interceptor aircraft that was built as part of the backbone of the United States Air Force's air defenses in the late 1950s.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
A coronary stent is a tube-shaped device placed in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, to keep the arteries open in the treatment of coronary heart disease.
Crawford is a town located in western McLennan County, Texas, United States.
The Crown Publishing Group is a subsidiary of Random House that publishes across several categories including fiction, non-fiction, biography, autobiography and memoir, cooking, health, business, and lifestyle.
The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903.
Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team based in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex.
James Danforth "Dan" Quayle (born February 4, 1947) is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 44th Vice President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
David Brooks (born August 11, 1961) is an American author and conservative political and cultural commentator who writes for The New York Times.
David Howell Petraeus (born November 7, 1952) is a retired United States Army general and public official.
Osama bin Laden, the founder and first leader of the Islamist group Al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011 shortly after 1:00 am PKT (20:00 UTC, May 1) by United States Navy SEALs of the U.S. Naval Special Warfare Development Group (also known as DEVGRU or SEAL Team Six).
Decision Points is a memoir by former U.S. President George W. Bush.
Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ), commonly known as DKE or Deke, is one of the oldest North American fraternities, with 56 active chapters across America and Canada.
The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the formal governing body for the United States Democratic Party.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Dennis John Kucinich (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician.
Lila Diane Sawyer (born December 22, 1945) is an American television journalist.
Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
The Dickey-Wicker Amendment is the name of an appropriation bill rider attached to a bill passed by United States Congress in 1995, and signed by former President Bill Clinton, which prohibits the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) from using appropriated funds for the creation of human embryos for research purposes or for research in which human embryos are destroyed.
Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons.
The Diversity Immigrant Visa program, also known as the green card lottery, is a United States government lottery program for receiving a United States Permanent Resident Card.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Dorothy Walker "Doro" Bush Koch (born August 18, 1959) is an American author and philanthropist.
The dot-com bubble (also known as the dot-com boom, the dot-com crash, the Y2K crash, the Y2K bubble, the tech bubble, the Internet bubble, the dot-com collapse, and the information technology bubble) was a historic economic bubble and period of excessive speculation that occurred roughly from 1997 to 2001, a period of extreme growth in the usage and adaptation of the Internet.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), or simply the Dow, is a stock market index that shows how 30 large, publicly owned companies based in the United States have traded during a standard trading session in the stock market.
Driving under the influence (DUI), driving while impaired/driving while intoxicated (DWI), operating while intoxicated (OWI), or drink-driving (UK) is currently the crime or offense of driving or operating a motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol or other drugs (including recreational drugs and those prescribed by physicians), to a level that renders the driver incapable of operating a motor vehicle safely.
Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.
Dutch Americans are Americans of Dutch descent whose ancestors came from the Netherlands in the recent or distant past.
EBSCO Industries is an American company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama.
The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (June 7, 2001) was a sweeping piece of tax legislation in the United States passed by the 107th Congress and signed by President George W. Bush.
Ehud Olmert (אֶהוּד אוֹלְמֶרְט,; born 30 September 1945) is an Israeli politician and lawyer.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
George W. Bush, 43rd President of the United States (2001–2009); 46th Governor of Texas (1995–2000).
Mary Elizabeth Alexander Hanford "Liddy" Dole (born July 29, 1936)Mary Ella Cathey Hanford, "Asbury and Hanford Families: Newly Discovered Genealogical Information" The Historical Trail 33 (1996), pp.
Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base is a joint installation shared by various active component and reserve component military units, as well as aircraft flight operations of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the aegis of the nearby Johnson Space Center.
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells or ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo.
The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (Division A of), commonly referred to as a bailout of the U.S. financial system, is a law enacted subsequently to the subprime mortgage crisis authorizing the United States Secretary of the Treasury to spend up to $700 billion to purchase distressed assets, especially mortgage-backed securities, and supply cash directly to banks.
Emissions trading, or cap and trade, is a government, market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.
Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources.
English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a country that is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
"Enhanced interrogation techniques" or "enhanced interrogation" is a euphemism for the U.S. government's program of systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and various components of the U.S. Armed Forces at black sites around the world, including Bagram, Guantanamo Bay, and Abu Ghraib, authorized by officials of the George W. Bush administration.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The Executive Office of the President of the United States (acronyms: EOP) is a group of agencies at the center of the executive branch of the United States federal government.
In the United States, an executive order is a directive issued by the President of the United States that manages operations of the federal government and has the force of law.
Executive privilege is the power of the President of the United States and other members of the executive branch of the United States Government to resist certain subpoenas and other interventions by the legislative and judicial branches of government in pursuit of information or personnel relating to the executive.
Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American fiction writer, whose works illustrate the Jazz Age.
The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), commonly known as Fannie Mae, is a United States government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) and, since 1968, a publicly traded company.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. commercial banks and savings institutions.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, initially created by Presidential Reorganization Plan No.
The Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) is a United States federal payroll (or employment) contribution directed towards both employees and employers to fund Social Security and Medicare—federal programs that provide benefits for retirees, disabled people, and children of deceased workers.
The federal takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac was the placing into conservatorship of the government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) by the U.S. Treasury in September 2008.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
Fictionalized portrayals of George W. Bush, the 43rd President of the United States, have become common since his inauguration on January 20, 2001.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The first inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States took place on Tuesday, January 20, 2009.
First Lady is an unofficial title used for the wife of a non-monarchical head of state or chief executive.
First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces and, in some forces, an appointment.
An election for governor of Florida was held on November 8, 1994.
The US Army Field Manual on Interrogation, sometimes known by the military nomenclature FM 34-52, is a 177-page manual describing to military interrogators how to conduct effective interrogations while conforming with US and international law.
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 ("FISA") is a United States federal law which establishes procedures for the physical and electronic surveillance and collection of "foreign intelligence information" between "foreign powers" and "agents of foreign powers" suspected of espionage or terrorism.
The foreign policy of the United States is its interactions with foreign nations and how it sets standards of interaction for its organizations, corporations and system citizens of the United States.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), known as Freddie Mac, is a public government-sponsored enterprise (GSE), headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia.
Freedom Square (Georgian: თავისუფლების მოედანი Tavisuplebis moedani, pronounced), formerly known as Erivan (or Erivanskaya) or Pashkevich-Erivanskaya Square (Georgian: ერევანსკი მოედანი, Erevansk'i moedani, Russian: Эриванская площадь, Erivanskaya ploshchad) under Imperial Russia and Lenin Square under the Soviet Union, is located in the center of Tbilisi at the eastern end of Rustaveli Avenue.
French Americans (French: Franco-Américains) are citizens or nationals of the United States who identify themselves with having full or partial French or French Canadian heritage, ethnicity, and/or ancestral ties.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Fushë-Krujë is a town in Durrës County, Albania.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
Gary Lee Bauer (born May 4, 1946) is an American politician and activist.
The general medical examination is a common form of preventive medicine involving visits to a general practitioner by well feeling adults on a regular basis.
The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA, pronounced Jee-na), is an Act of Congress in the United States designed to prohibit some types of genetic discrimination.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
George Herman Mahon (September 22, 1900 – November 19, 1985) was a Texas politician who served twenty-two consecutive terms (1935–1979) as a member of the United States House of Representatives from the Lubbock-based 19th congressional district.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
The 1988 presidential campaign of George H. W. Bush began on October 13, 1987, when Bush, then the sitting Vice President of the United States, announced he was running for the Republican Party's nomination in the 1988 U.S. presidential election.
George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is a former Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) for the United States Central Intelligence Agency as well as a Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University.
During President George W. Bush's two term tenure in office, some of his nominations for federal judgeships were blocked by the Senate Democrats either directly in the Senate Judiciary Committee or on the full Senate floor in various procedural moves, including the first use of a fillibuster to block a Federal Appeals Court nominee.
The George W. Bush Presidential Center, which opened on April 25, 2013, is a complex that includes the 43rd President George W. Bush's presidential library and museum, the George W. Bush Policy Institute, and the offices of the George W. Bush Foundation.
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Globe Life Park in Arlington is a baseball park in Arlington, Texas, located between Dallas and Fort Worth.
Good Morning America (GMA) is an American morning television show that is broadcast on ABC.
James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010.
Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born Eugene Louis Vidal; October 3, 1925 – July 31, 2012) was an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, and polished style of writing.
Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.
The Governor of Texas is the head of the executive branch of Texas's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.
The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a United States military prison located within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base,, The Independent, 29 April 2006 also referred to as Guantánamo or GTMO, which is on the coast of Guantánamo Bay in Cuba.
A guest worker program allows foreign workers to temporarily reside and work in a host country until a next round of workers is readily available to switch.
The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.
Gun laws of the United States are found in a number of federal statutes.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
The Hainan Island incident occurred on April 1, 2001, when a United States Navy EP-3E ARIES II signals intelligence aircraft and a People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) J-8II interceptor fighter jet collided in mid-air, resulting in an international dispute between the United States of America and the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld,, is a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that military commissions set up by the Bush administration to try detainees at Guantanamo Bay lack "the power to proceed because its structures and procedures violate both the Uniform Code of Military Justice and the four Geneva Conventions signed in 1949." Specifically, the ruling says that Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions was violated.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
Harriet Ellan Miers (born August 10, 1945) is a Republican lawyer and former White House Counsel to President George W. Bush.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University, and is one of the top schools of education in the United States.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.
HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.
In political studies, surveys have been conducted in order to construct historical rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
History News Network (HNN) at George Washington University is a platform for historians writing about current events.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
HKN, Inc., formerly Harken Energy Corporation, is a petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company headquartered in Southlake, Texas.
A hobby is a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one's leisure time.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
Hurricane Harvey is tied with Hurricane Katrina as the costliest tropical cyclone on record, inflicting $125 billion (2017 USD) in damage, primarily from catastrophic rainfall-triggered flooding in the Houston metropolitan area.
Hurricane Irma was an extremely powerful and catastrophic Cape Verde hurricane, the strongest observed in the Atlantic in terms of maximum sustained winds since Wilma, and the strongest storm on record to exist in the open Atlantic region.
Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that caused catastrophic damage along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge and levee failure.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
IMDb, also known as Internet Movie Database, is an online database of information related to world films, television programs, home videos and video games, and internet streams, including cast, production crew and personnel biographies, plot summaries, trivia, and fan reviews and ratings.
Immigration to the United States is the international movement of individuals who are not natives or do not possess citizenship in order to settle, reside, study, or work in the country.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
The inauguration of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States marked commencement of the four-year term of Donald Trump as President and Mike Pence as Vice President.
The Independent Media Center (also known as Indymedia or IMC) is a far-left open publishing network of journalist collectives that report on political and social issues.
The 123 Agreement signed between the United States of America and the Republic of India is known as the U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement or Indo-US nuclear deal.
The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
An Internet meme is an activity, concept, catchphrase, or piece of media that spreads, often as mimicry or for humorous purposes, from person to person via the Internet.
The Iowa Caucuses are quadrennial electoral events in which members of the Democratic and Republican parties in the U.S. state of Iowa meet to select delegates who will vote for their party's nominee in the United States presidential election at the party convention.
Ipsos Group S.A. is a global market research and a consulting firm with worldwide headquarters in Paris, France.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs.
Iraq Body Count project (IBC) is a web-based effort to record civilian deaths resulting from the US-led 2003 invasion of Iraq.
The Iraq disarmament crisis was claimed as one of primary issues that led to the multinational invasion of Iraq on 20 March 2003.
The Iraq Study Group (ISG) also known as the Baker-Hamilton Commission was a ten-person bipartisan panel appointed on March 15, 2006, by the United States Congress, that was charged with assessing the situation in Iraq and the US-led Iraq War and making policy recommendations.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
In the context of the Iraq War, the surge refers to United States President George W. Bush's 2007 increase in the number of American troops in order to provide security to Baghdad and Al Anbar Province.
Governorate or provincial elections were held in Iraq on 31 January 2009, to replace the local councils in fourteen of the eighteen governorates of Iraq that were elected in the Iraqi governorate elections of 2005.
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Israel Hayom (lit) is an Israeli national Hebrew-language free daily newspaper, first published in 2007.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: جەلال تاڵەبانی Celal Tallebanî, جلال طالباني; 1933 – 3 October 2017) was an Iraqi Kurdish politician who served as President of Iraq from 2006 to 2014, as well as the President of the Governing Council of Iraq.
James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) is an American attorney and political figure.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.
Jan Crawford is a television journalist, author, and lawyer.
John Ellis "Jeb" Bush Sr. (born February 11, 1953) is an American politician who served as the 43rd Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007.
The 2016 presidential campaign of Jeb Bush, the 43rd Governor of Florida, was formally launched on June 15, 2015, coming six months after announcing the formal exploration of a candidacy for the 2016 Republican nomination for the President of the United States on December 16, 2014, and the formation of the Right to Rise PAC.
Jenna Bush Hager (born Jenna Welch Bush; November 25, 1981) is an American news personality, teacher, author, and journalist.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus Day is a common term for the day of the March for Jesus held annually by some Christians on the Saturday before Pentecost Sunday, since the 1980s, with the purpose of "express their love for Jesus by serving their communities and worshiping their Lord in the streets of their cities." While Governor of Texas, Former President George W. Bush, signed a bill into law proclaiming June 10, 2000 to be Jesus Day, the event was observed in Austin that year.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
The Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 ("JGTRRA"), was passed by the United States Congress on May 23, 2003 and signed into law by President George W. Bush on May 28, 2003.
Joe M. Allbaugh (born July 27, 1952) is an American political figure in the Republican Party.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Robert Fowles (31 March 1926 – 5 November 2005) was an English novelist of international stature, critically positioned between modernism and postmodernism.
John Henry Sununu (born July 2, 1939) is a Cuban-born Palestinian-American politician who served as the 75th Governor of New Hampshire (1983–89) and later White House Chief of Staff under President George H. W. Bush.
John Richard Kasich Jr. (born May 13, 1952) is an American politician, author and former television news host serving as the 69th and current Governor of Ohio.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona, a seat he was first elected to in 1986.
John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829.
John Glover Roberts Jr. (born January 27, 1955) is an American lawyer who serves as the 17th and current Chief Justice of the United States.
Marion Mitchell Morrison (born Marion Robert Morrison; May 26, 1907 – June 11, 1979), known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed "The Duke", was an American actor and filmmaker.
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born 4 August 1960) is a Spanish politician and member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
Joshua Brewster "Josh" Bolten (born August 16, 1954) served as the White House Chief of Staff to U.S. President George W. Bush.
JURIST is an online legal news service hosted by the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, powered by a staff of more than 60 law students working in Pittsburgh and other US locations under the direction of founding Publisher & Editor-in-Chief Professor Bernard Hibbitts, Acting Executive Director Andrew Morgan, Research Director Jaclyn Belczyk, Technical Director Jeremiah Lee, Managing Editor Dave Rodkey and Chief of Staff Ram Eachambadi.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Karen Parfitt Hughes (born December 27, 1956) is the global vice chair of the public relations firm Burson-Marsteller.
Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is an American Republican political consultant and policy advisor.
Kenneth Brian Mehlman (born August 21, 1966) is an American social entrepreneur and businessman.
Kennebunkport is a town in York County, Maine, United States.
Kent Ronald Hance (born November 14, 1942) is the former Chancellor of the Texas Tech University System.
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (sometimes also spelled Khalid Shaikh Mohammed; among at least fifty pseudonyms; born April 14, 1965) is a Pakistani Islamist militant held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp under terrorism-related charges.
Kim Jong-il (or Kim Jong Il) (16 February 1941 – 17 December 2011) was the second Supreme Leader of North Korea, from the death of his father Kim Il-sung, the first Supreme Leader of North Korea, in 1994 until his own death in 2011.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
Andrew Lamar Alexander Jr. (born July 3, 1940) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Tennessee, a seat he has held since 2003.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Laura Lane Welch Bush (born November 4, 1946) is an American educator and the wife of the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush, serving as the First Lady of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. (former NYSE ticker symbol LEH) was a global financial services firm.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT+ people in society.
Liberalism in the United States is a broad political philosophy centered on what many see as the unalienable rights of the individual.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.
Lindsey Olin Graham (born July 9, 1955) is an American politician and retired U.S. Air Force colonel serving as the senior United States Senator from South Carolina, a seat he has held since 2003.
George W. Bush during his presidency of 8 years from 2001 to 2009 signed 56 legislations.
The Governor of Florida is the head of the executive branch of Florida's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.
The Governor of Texas is the chief executive of the U.S. State of Texas, the presiding officer over the executive branch of the Government of Texas, and the commander-in-chief of the Texas National Guard, the State's militia.
Of the 44 men who have served as Presidents of the United States, at least half have displayed proficiency in speaking or writing a language other than English.
This is a list of nicknames of Presidents of the United States that were in common usage at the time they were in office or shortly thereafter.
Former American President George W. Bush is widely known to use nicknames to refer to journalists, fellow politicians, and members of his White House staff.
The following are notable people who were either born, raised or have lived for a significant period of time in the U.S. state of Texas.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
Although many paths may lead to the Presidency of the United States, the most common job experience, occupation or profession of U.S. presidents has been lawyer.
This is a list of notable Anti-Trump or Never Trump Republicans and conservatives who announced their opposition to the election of Donald Trump, the 2016 Republican Party nominee and eventual winner of the election, as the President of the United States.
Skull and Bones, a secret society at Yale University, was founded in 1832.
This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the Republican Party of the United States.
The Lockheed EP-3 is the signals reconnaissance version of the P-3 Orion, operated by the United States Navy.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Mahmoud Abbas (مَحْمُود عَبَّاس,; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (أَبُو مَازِن), is the President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority. He has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since 11 November 2004, and Palestinian president since 15 January 2005 (Palestinian National Authority since 15 January 2005, and State of Palestine since 8 May 2005). Abbas is a member of the Fatah party and was elected Chairman of Fatah in 2009. Abbas was elected on 9 January 2005 to serve as President of the Palestinian National Authority until 15 January 2009, but extended his term until the next election in 2010, citing the PLO constitution, and on December 16, 2009 was voted into office indefinitely by the PLO Central Council. As a result, Fatah's main rival, Hamas, initially announced that it would not recognize the extension or view Abbas as the rightful president. The Jerusalem Post (9 January 2009) Yet, Abbas is internationally recognized and Hamas and Fatah conducted numerous negotiations in the following years, leading to an agreement in April 2014 over a Unity Government, which lasted until October 2016, and therefore to the recognition of his office by Hamas. Abbas was also chosen as the President of the State of Palestine by the Palestine Liberation Organization's Central Council on 23 November 2008, a position he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005. Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to September 2003. Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department.
A marine reserve is a type of marine protected area that has legal protection against fishing or development.
Marvin Pierce Bush (born October 22, 1956) is the youngest son of former U.S. President George H. W. Bush and First Lady Barbara Bush, and brother of former U.S. President George W. Bush, former Florida Governor Jeb, Neil and Dorothy.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.) is a master's degree in business administration (management).
Median income is the amount that divides the income distribution into two equal groups, half having income above that amount, and half having income below that amount.
In the United States, Medicare is a national health insurance program, now administered by the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services of the U.S. federal government but begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration.
The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, also called the Medicare Modernization Act or MMA, is a federal law of the United States, enacted in 2003.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.
Michael Chertoff (born November 28, 1953) is an American attorney who was the second United States Secretary of Homeland Security, serving under President George W. Bush.
Michael DeWayne Brown (born November 8, 1954) served as the first Undersecretary of Emergency Preparedness and Response (EP&R), a division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama (born January 17, 1964) is an American lawyer and writer who served as the First Lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Midland is a city in and the county seat of Midland County, Texas, United States, on the Southern Plains of the state's western area.
Miguel Angel Estrada Castañeda (born September 25, 1961) is an attorney who became embroiled in controversy following his 2001 nomination by President George W. Bush to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
Mikheil Saakashvili (მიხეილ სააკაშვილი, Mixeil Saak'ašvili; Міхеіл Саакашвілі, Michejil Saakašwili; born 21 December 1967) is a Georgian and Ukrainian politician.
The United States Military Commissions Act of 2006, also known as HR-6166, was an Act of Congress signed by President George W. Bush on October 17, 2006.
The Miller Center is a nonpartisan affiliate of the University of Virginia that specializes in United States presidential scholarship, public policy, and political history and strives to apply the lessons of history to the nation’s most pressing contemporary governance challenges.
Missile defense systems are a type of missile defense intended to shield a country against incoming missiles, such as intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBMs) or other ballistic missiles.
The Mission Accomplished speech (named from a banner displayed above the speaker) was a televised address by United States President George W. Bush on the aircraft carrier USS ''Abraham Lincoln'' on May 1, 2003.
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American businessman and politician who served as the 70th Governor of Massachusetts from 2003 to 2007 and was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 election.
Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei (محمد مصطفى البرادعى,,; born 17 June 1942) is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013.
Mohammad bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (محمد بن سلمان بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود; born 31 August 1985), known colloquially as MbS, is the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, also serving as First Deputy Prime Minister, President of the Council for Economic and Development Affairs and Minister of Defense—the world's youngest office holder at the time.
Monica Marie Goodling (born August 6, 1973) is a former United States government lawyer and Republican political appointee in the George W. Bush administration who is best known for her role in the controversy about the politically motivated firings of several United States Attorneys in 2007.
Montgomery is the capital city of the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Montgomery County.
Dr Mowaffak Baqer al-Rubaie (alternative transliterations Muwaffaq al-Rubaie and Muwaffaq al-Rubay'i) (Arabic: موفق الربيعي) is a distinguished Iraqi politician and active civil rights campaigner.
MSN (stylized as msn) is a web portal and related collection of Internet services and apps for Windows and mobile devices, provided by Microsoft and launched on August 24, 1995, the same release date as Windows 95.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
The Museum of the Bible is a museum in Washington D.C. which documents the narrative, history and impact of the Bible.
Nancy Patricia D'Alesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is an American politician serving as the Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives since 2011, representing most of San Francisco, California.
Nation-building is constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The national debt of the United States is the public debt carried by the federal government of the United States, which is measured as the face value of the currently outstanding Treasury securities that have been issued by the Treasury and other federal government agencies.
The National Defense Service Medal (NDSM) is a service medal of the United States Armed Forces established by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953. The medal was first intended to be a "blanket campaign medal" awarded to service members who served honorably during a designated time period of which a "national emergency" had been declared during a time of war or conflict. It may also be issued to active military members for any other period that the Secretary of Defense designates. Currently, the National Defense Service Medal is the oldest service medal in use by the United States Armed Forces. The oldest continuously issued combat medal is the Medal of Honor.
The National Guard of the United States, part of the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces, is a reserve military force, composed of National Guard military members or units of each state and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, for a total of 54 separate organizations.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) are United States federal government documents that are the authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) on intelligence related to a particular national security issue.
The National Response Plan (NRP) was a United States national plan to respond to emergencies such as natural disasters or terrorist attacks.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
Neil Mallon Bush (born January 22, 1955) is an American businessman and investor.
The New Hampshire primary is the first in a series of nationwide party primary elections and the second party contest (the first being the Iowa Caucuses) held in the United States every four years as part of the process of choosing the delegates to the Democratic and Republican national conventions which choose the party nominees for the presidential elections to be held the subsequent November.
New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nicholas Donabet Kristof (born April 27, 1959) is an American journalist and political commentator.
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB) was a U.S. Act of Congress that reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; it included Title I provisions applying to disadvantaged students.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i Afghānistān), was a united military front that came to formation in late 1996 after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) took over Kabul.
The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands or the Leeward Islands are the small islands and atolls in the Hawaiian island chain located northwest (in some cases, far to the northwest) of the islands of Kauai and Niihau.
Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki (نوري كامل محمد حسن المالكي.; born 20 June 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki (جواد المالكي) or Abu Esraa (أبو إسراء), is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from 2006 to 2014.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
NSA warrantless surveillance (also commonly referred to as "warrantless-wiretapping" or "-wiretaps") refers to the surveillance of persons within the United States, including United States citizens, during the collection of notionally foreign intelligence by the National Security Agency (NSA) as part of the Terrorist Surveillance Program.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
The Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) is an office in the United States Department of Justice that assists the Attorney General's position as legal adviser to the President and all executive branch agencies.
Offshore drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled below the seabed.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
On the Issues or OnTheIssues is an American non-partisan, non-profit organization providing information to voters about candidates, primarily via their web site.
The One America Appeal is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization founded on September 7, 2017, by all five living former U.S. Presidents: Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama.
Operation Mountain Thrust was a NATO and Afghan-led operation in the war in Afghanistan, with more than 3,300 British troops, 2,300 U.S., 2,200 Canadian troops, about 3,500 Afghan soldiers and large air support.
Operation Red Wings, informally referred to as the Battle of Abbas Ghar (often incorrectly called "Operation Redwing" or "Operation Red Wing"), was a combined / joint military operation during the War in Afghanistan in the Pech District of Afghanistan's Kunar Province, on the slopes of a mountain named Sawtalo Sar, approximately west of Kunar's provincial capital of Asadabad, in late June through mid-July 2005.
The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana (Maarjamaa Risti teenetemärk, sometimes translated as the Order of the Cross of St. Mary’s Land) was instituted by the President of Estonia, Lennart Meri, in 1995 to honour the independence of the Estonian state.
Order of the Three Stars (Triju Zvaigžņu ordenis) is an order awarded for meritorious service to Latvia.
Orrin Grant Hatch (born March 22, 1934) is an American attorney and politician serving as the senior United States Senator for Utah who has been the President pro tempore of the United States Senate since 2015.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
The Oval Office is the working office space of the President of the United States located in the West Wing of the White House, Washington, DC.
Ownership society is a slogan for a model of society promoted by former United States president George W. Bush.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (roughly) is a World Heritage listed U.S. National Monument encompassing of ocean waters, including ten islands and atolls of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
Parkland Memorial Hospital is a hospital in Dallas, Texas, United States.
The Parliament of Albania (Kuvendi i Shqipërisë) or Kuvendi is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Albania; it is Albania's legislature.
A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on something, caricature, or joke) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.
The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 ((HTML); *, from the U.S. Government Printing Office (PDF) PBA Ban) is a United States law prohibiting a form of late termination of pregnancy called "partial-birth abortion," referred to in medical literature by as intact dilation and extraction.
Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American paleoconservative political commentator, author, syndicated columnist, politician, and broadcaster.
The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress signed into law by US President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001.
Paul Henry O'Neill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury for part of President George W. Bush's first term.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Peace Companies (سرايا السلام, translit. Sarāyā al-Salām), frequently mistranslated as Peace Brigades in US media, are an Iraqi armed group linked to Iraq's Shia community.
People is an American weekly magazine of celebrity and human-interest stories, published by Meredith Corporation.
The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) is the aerial warfare service branch of the People's Liberation Army, the armed forces of the People's Republic of China.
United States lawful permanent residency, informally known as having a green card, is the immigration status of a person authorized to live and work in the United States of America permanently.
Peter Baker (born July 2, 1967) is an American political writer and newspaper reporter who is the chief White House correspondent for The New York Times and a contributing writer for The New York Times Magazine. He was responsible for covering President Barack Obama and the Obama administration.
Peter Douglas Feaver (born December 17, 1961) is American professor of political science and public policy at Duke University.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Phillips Academy Andover (also known as Andover, PA, or Phillips) is a co-educational university-preparatory school for boarding and day students in grades 9–12, along with a post-graduate (PG) year.
Piers Stefan Pughe-Morgan (né O'Meara; born 30 March 1965) is a British journalist and television personality currently working as a presenter on the ITV Breakfast programme Good Morning Britain.
The Plame affair (also known as the CIA leak scandal and Plamegate) was a political scandal that revolved around journalist Robert Novak's public identification of Valerie Plame as a covert Central Intelligence Agency officer in 2003.
Playboy is an American men's lifestyle and entertainment magazine.
Commentators have discussed the likely effects of the disaster on a wide range of political issues.
The political positions of United States President Donald Trump (sometimes referred to as Trumpism) have elements from across the political spectrum, merging populism with plutocracy and authoritarianism.
George W. Bush's political positions have been expressed in public statements, and through his actions as President of the United States.
A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions.
Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.
A poncho (punchu in Quechua; Mapudungun pontro, blanket, woolen fabric) is an outer garment designed to keep the body warm.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Porter Johnston Goss (born November 26, 1938) is an American politician and government official who served as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1989 until 2004, when he became the last Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) and the first Director of the Central Intelligence Agency following the passage of the 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act, which abolished the DCI position and replaced it with the Director of National Intelligence on April 21, 2005.
Portraits of Courage, full title Portraits of Courage: A Commander in Chief's Tribute to America's Warriors is a book published in 2017 that includes a collection of oil paintings and stories about military veterans by former U.S. President George W. Bush.
A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war shortly before that attack materializes.
Prescott Sheldon Bush Sr. (May 15, 1895October 8, 1972) was an American banker and politician.
The presidency of Barack Obama began at noon EST on January 20, 2009, when Barack Obama was inaugurated as 44th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2017.
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/Emergency Plan) is a United States governmental initiative to address the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and help save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa.
The President's Surveillance Program (PSP) is a collection of secret intelligence activities authorized by the President of the United States George W. Bush after the September 11 attacks in 2001 as part of the War on Terrorism.
Preston Hollow (PH) is a neighborhood in north Dallas, Texas.
A preventive war is a war or military action initiated to prevent another party from acquiring a capability for attacking.
The Prime Minister of Albania (Kryeministri i Shqipërisë), officially styled the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania (Kryeministri i Republikës së Shqipërisë), is the head of government of the Republic of Albania and as well the most powerful and influential person in Albanian politics.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
PRISM is a code name for a program under which the United States National Security Agency (NSA) collects internet communications from various U.S. internet companies.
This article covers the professional life of George W. Bush, the 43rd President of the United States.
The Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) is an institution devoted to research on the public opinion of international politics.
George W. Bush, the 43rd President of the United States, has elicited a variety of public perceptions regarding his policies, personality, and performance as a head of state.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Regulatory economics is the economics of regulation.
A renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is a regulation that requires the increased production of energy from renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal.
The Republican Jewish Coalition (RJC), formerly the National Jewish Coalition, founded in 1985, is a 501(c)(4) political lobbying group in the United States that promotes Jewish Republicans.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The 2000 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 2000 U.S. presidential election.
The 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries and caucuses were a series of electoral contests taking place within all 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and five U.S. territories, occurring between February 1 and June 7.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Richard Jay Tubb (born July 21, 1959) was the personal physician to President George W. Bush as well as being personal physician to Vice President Al Gore during the Clinton Administration.
James Richard Perry (born March 4, 1950) is an American politician who is the 14th and current United States Secretary of Energy, serving in the Cabinet of Donald Trump.
Robert Booker "Bob" Baer (born July 1, 1952) is an American author and a former CIA case officer who was primarily assigned to the Middle East.
Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rudolph William Louis Giuliani (born May 28, 1944) is an American politician, attorney, businessman, public speaker, former mayor of New York City, and attorney to President Donald Trump.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
A running mate is a person running together with another person on a joint ticket during an election.
Ryan Clark Crocker (born June 19, 1949) is a former career ambassador within the United States Foreign Service and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
, (born 15 October 1944) is an Albanian cardiologist and politician who served as the second President of Albania from 1992 to 1997 and Prime Minister from 2005 to 2013.
Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Samuel Anthony Alito Jr. (born April 1, 1950) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, having served from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until 2006.
Sara Taylor Fagen (born September 15, 1974, in Dubuque, Iowa) is an issue strategist who specializes in integrating data and technology.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scottish Americans or Scots Americans (Scottish Gaelic: Ameireaganaich Albannach; Scots-American) are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Scotland.
Between 2006 and 2008, Iraq experienced a high level of sectarian violence.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Siena Research Institute (SRI) is an affiliate of Siena College, located originally in Friars Hall and now in Hines Hall on the college's campus, in Loudonville, New York, in suburban Albany.
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States.
Skull and Bones is an undergraduate senior secret student society at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.
A smear campaign, also referred to as a smear tactic or simply a smear, is an effort to damage or call into question someone's reputation, by propounding negative propaganda.
In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.
This article concerns proposals to change the Social Security system in the United States.
Socialized medicine is a term used in the United States to describe and discuss systems of universal health care: medical and hospital care for all at a nominal cost by means of government regulation of health care and subsidies derived from taxation.
South Ossetia or Tskhinvali Region, is a disputed territory in the South Caucasus, in the northern part of the internationally recognised Georgian territory.
The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives.
Spectrum 7 was an oil company started by William DeWitt and Mercer Reynolds.
In law, standing or locus standi is the term for the ability of a party to demonstrate to the court sufficient connection to and harm from the law or action challenged to support that party's participation in the case.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act was the name of two similar bills that both passed through the United States House of Representatives and Senate, but were both vetoed by President George W. Bush and were not enacted into law.
Malcolm Stevenson "Steve" Forbes Jr. (born July 18, 1947) is an American publishing executive, who was twice a candidate for the nomination of the Republican Party for President of the United States.
A still life (plural: still lifes) is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either natural (food, flowers, dead animals, plants, rocks, shells, etc.) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, etc.). With origins in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greco-Roman art, still-life painting emerged as a distinct genre and professional specialization in Western painting by the late 16th century, and has remained significant since then.
The Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT), also known as the Treaty of Moscow, was a strategic arms reduction treaty between the United States and Russia that was in force from June 2003 until February 2011 when it was superseded by the New START treaty.
The United States subprime mortgage crisis was a nationwide banking emergency, occurring between 2007 and 2010, that contributed to the U.S. recession of December 2007 – June 2009.
The Sudan Tribune is an electronic news portal on Sudan and South Sudan and neighbouring countries including news coverage, analyses and commentary, official reports and press releases from various organizations, and maps.
The Supreme Court of Florida is the highest court in the U.S. state of Florida.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Taliban insurgency began shortly after the group's fall from power following the 2001 War in Afghanistan.
The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St.
Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (TQJBR; (Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia", tanẓīm qā‘idat al-jihād fī bilād ar-rāfidayn), also referred to as Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) or Al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia, was an Iraqi Sunni Islamic Jihadist organization affiliated with al-Qaeda.
The United States of America has separate federal, state, and local government(s) with taxes imposed at each of these levels.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (February 22, 1932 – August 25, 2009) was an American politician who served in the United States Senate from Massachusetts for almost 47 years, from 1962 until his death in 2009.
Television New Zealand (Te Reo Tātaki o Aotearoa), more commonly referred to as TVNZ, is a state-owned television network that is broadcast throughout New Zealand and parts of the Pacific region.
The Terrorist Surveillance Program was an electronic surveillance program implemented by the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States in the wake of the September 11, 2001, attacks.
Terence Richard McAuliffe (born February 9, 1957) is an American politician and former entrepreneur who served as the 72nd Governor of Virginia from 2014 to 2018.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Texas Air National Guard (TX ANG) is the air force militia of the State of Texas, United States of America.
The 1994 Texas gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1994 to elect the Governor of Texas.
The 1998 Texas gubernatorial election was held on November 3, 1998 to elect the Governor of Texas.
Texas Monthly is a monthly American magazine headquartered in Downtown Austin, Texas.
The Texas Rangers are an American professional baseball team based in Arlington, Texas, located in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex.
Texas' Nineteenth Congressional District of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the upper midwestern portion of the state of Texas The district includes portions of the State from Lubbock to Abilene.
The 4% Solution: Unleashing the Economic Growth America Needs is a 2012 non-fiction book.
The American Conservative (TAC) is a bi-monthly magazine founded in 2002 and published by the American Ideas Institute, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, 501(c)(3) organization based in Washington, D.C., which states that it exists to promote a conservatism that opposes unchecked power in government and business; promotes the flourishing of families and communities through vibrant markets and free people; and embraces realism and restraint in foreign affairs based on America's vital national interests.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Colbert Report is an American late-night talk and news satire television program hosted by Stephen Colbert that aired four days a week on Comedy Central from October 17, 2005 to December 18, 2014 for 1,447 episodes.
The Grand Rapids Press is a daily newspaper published in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Hill is an American political newspaper and website published in Washington, D.C. since 1994.
The Indianapolis Star is a morning daily newspaper that began publishing on June 6, 1903 in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States.
The Kinkaid School is a PK-12 non-sectarian school in Piney Point Village, Texas, United States in Greater Houston.
The Nature Conservancy is a charitable environmental organization, headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, United States.
The New Republic is a liberal American magazine of commentary on politics and the arts, published since 1914, with influence on American political and cultural thinking.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune. The name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing, later renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities. The sale closed on June 18, 2018.
The Tonight Show with Jay Leno is an American late-night talk show hosted by Jay Leno that first aired from May 25, 1992, to May 29, 2009, and resumed production on March 1, 2010 until its ending on February 6, 2014.
The Venetian Resort Hotel Casino is a luxury hotel and casino resort located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada, United States, on the site of the old Sands Hotel.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Toomas Hendrik Ilves (born 26 December 1953) is an Estonian politician who served as the fourth President of Estonia from 2006 until 2016.
Tora Bora (توره بوړه, "Black Cave") is a cave complex, part of the Spīn Ghar mountain range of eastern Afghanistan.
Tort reform refers to proposed changes in the civil justice system that aim to reduce the ability of victims to bring tort litigation or to reduce damages they can receive.
A set of legal memoranda known as the "Torture Memos" were drafted by John Yoo as Deputy Assistant Attorney General of the United States and signed in August 2002 by Assistant Attorney General Jay S. Bybee, head of the Office of Legal Counsel of the United States Department of Justice.
The Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA), also known as the Afghan Transitional Authority, was the name of a temporary administration of Afghanistan put in place by the loya jirga of June 2002.
Truthout is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, progressive news and commentary website.
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The Unite the Right rally, also known as the Charlottesville rally or Charlottesville riots, was a white nationalist rally that occurred in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, from August 11 to 12, 2017.
The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mainline Protestant denomination and a major part of Methodism.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted on 9 May 1992 and opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
United States Army Field Manuals are published by the United States Army's Army Publishing Directorate.
United States Attorneys (also known as chief federal prosecutors and, historically, as United States District Attorneys) represent the United States federal government in United States district courts and United States courts of appeals.
A United States Aviator Badge refers to three types of aviation badges issued by the United States Armed Forces, those being for Air Force, Army, and Naval (to include Marine and Coast Guard) aviation.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (in case citations, 6th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States debt ceiling or debt limit is a legislative limit on the amount of national debt that can be incurred by the US Treasury, thus limiting how much money the federal government may borrow.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.
The 2006 United States elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006 in the middle of Republican President George W. Bush's second term.
The United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC, also called the FISA Court) is a U.S. federal court established and authorized under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) to oversee requests for surveillance warrants against foreign spies inside the United States by federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
The U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, also called the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The 1978 United States House of Representatives elections was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1978 which occurred in the middle of President Jimmy Carter's term, when the country was going through an energy crisis and facing rapid inflation.
United States housing prices experienced a major market correction after the housing bubble that peaked in early 2006.
The United States invasion of Afghanistan occurred after the September 11 attacks in late 2001, supported by close allies.
The United States order of precedence lists the ceremonial order for domestic and foreign government officials (military and civilian) at diplomatic, ceremonial, and social events within the United States and abroad.
In the United States, presidential job approval ratings were introduced by George Gallup in the late 1930s (probably 1937) to gauge public support for the President of the United States during his term.
The 2000 United States presidential election in Florida took place on November 7, 2000, as part of the nationwide presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1928 was the 36th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1928.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2004, the 55th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.
The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
Presidential vacations have often been contentious and a source of criticism for presidents throughout history.
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The United States Senate elections, 2006 were held on November 7, 2006, with all 33 Class 1 Senate seats being contested.
The United States–Africa Leaders Summit was an international summit held in Washington D.C. from August 4–6, 2014.
The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.
An unlawful combatant, illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent is a person who directly engages in armed conflict in violation of the laws of war.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
A vacated judgment makes a previous legal judgment legally void.
Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga (born 1 December 1937) is a Latvian politician who served as the sixth President of Latvia and the first female President of Latvia.
Vanity Fair is a magazine of popular culture, fashion, and current affairs published by Condé Nast in the United States.
Vicente Fox Quesada, (born 2 July 1942) is a Mexican businessman and politician who served as the 55th President of Mexico from December 1, 2000 to November 30, 2006.
Vladimir Arutyunian (ვლადიმერ არუთუნიანი, Վլադիմիր Հարությունյան; born 12 March 1978) is a Georgian national who attempted to assassinate United States President George W. Bush and Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili by throwing a hand grenade at them on 10 May 2005.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
Waterboarding is a form of water torture in which water is poured over a cloth covering the face and breathing passages of an immobilized captive, causing the individual to experience the sensation of drowning.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
Welsh Americans are an American ethnic group whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Wales.
West Texas is a loosely defined part of the U.S. state of Texas, generally encompassing the arid and semiarid lands west of a line drawn between the cities of Wichita Falls, Abilene, and Del Rio.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The White House Chief of Staff has traditionally been the highest-ranking non-elected employee of the White House.
Willa Sibert Cather (December 7, 1873 Cather's birth date is confirmed by a birth certificate and a January 22, 1874, letter of her father's referring to her. While working at McClure's Magazine, Cather claimed to be born in 1875. After 1920, she claimed 1876 as her birth year. That is the date carved into her gravestone at Jaffrey, New Hampshire. – April 24, 1947 Retrieved March 11, 2015.) was an American writer who achieved recognition for her novels of frontier life on the Great Plains, including O Pioneers! (1913), The Song of the Lark (1915), and My Ántonia (1918).
William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986, and then as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2005.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
Wind power in Texas consists of many wind farms with a total installed nameplate capacity of 22,637 MW (Q3 2017) from over 40 different projects.
Wind power in the United States is a branch of the energy industry that has expanded quickly over the latest several years.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Winton Malcolm Blount, Jr., known as Red Blount (February 1, 1921 – October 24, 2002), was the United States Postmaster General from January 22, 1969 to January 1, 1972.
The World Trade Center site, formerly referred to as "Ground Zero" after the September 11 attacks, is a 14.6-acre (5.9 ha) area in Lower Manhattan in New York City.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Yahoo! Finance is a media property that is part of Yahoo!'s network.
The Yale Daily News is an independent student newspaper published by Yale University students in New Haven, Connecticut since January 28, 1878.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Yale New Haven Hospital (abbreviated YNHH) is a 1,541-bed hospital located in New Haven, Connecticut.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.
Yoweri Museveni (born 15 September 1944) is a Ugandan politician who has been the President of Uganda since 1986.
The 147th Attack Wing (147 ATKW) is a unit of the Texas Air National Guard, stationed at Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base, Houston, Texas.
The 187th Fighter Wing (187 FW) is a unit of the Alabama Air National Guard, stationed at Montgomery Air National Guard Base, Alabama.
The 2000 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States convened at the First Union Center (now the Wells Fargo Center) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from July 31 to August 3, 2000.
The Florida election recount of 2000 was a period of vote recounting in Florida that occurred during the weeks after Election Day in the 2000 United States presidential election between George W. Bush and Al Gore.
From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under US$25/barrel.
George W. Bush, the 43rd President of the United States of America, delivered the 2002 State of the Union Address at the United States Capitol building on January 29, 2002.
The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially the XIX Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Salt Lake 2002, were a winter multi-sport event that was celebrated from 8 to 24 February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
The 2005 State of the Union Address was delivered by United States President George W. Bush on Wednesday, February 2, 2005, in Washington, D.C. to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate).
The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted by North Korea on October 9, 2006.
The 2006 State of the Union Address was delivered by United States President George W. Bush at 9 p.m. EST (0200 UTC) on Tuesday, January 31, 2006 to a joint session of the U.S. Congress.
The 2007 State of the Union address was a speech given by United States President George W. Bush on Tuesday, January 23, 2007, at 9:13 P.M. EST.
The 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence was adopted on 17 February 2008 by the Assembly of Kosovo.
The 2008 State of the Union address was a speech given by United States President George W. Bush on Monday, January 28, 2008, at 9:00 p.m. EST to a joint session of Congress.
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.
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The 2010 Haiti earthquake (Séisme de 2010 à Haïti; Tranblemanntè 12 janvye 2010 nan peyi Ayiti) was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake, with an epicenter near the town of Léogâne (Ouest), approximately west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital.
The 2010 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's (MLB) 2010 season.
The 2016 Republican National Convention, in which delegates of the United States Republican Party chose the party's nominees for President of the United States and Vice President of the United States in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, was held July 18–21, 2016, at Quicken Loans Arena in Cleveland, Ohio.
On July 7, 2016, Micah Xavier Johnson ambushed and fired upon a group of police officers in Dallas, Texas, killing five officers and injuring nine others.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
41: A Portrait of My Father is a 2014 book written by George W. Bush for his father George H. W. Bush.
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