260 relations: A History of Warfare, Advanced Gun System, Aiming point, Air burst, Allotropes of phosphorus, Ammunition, Ammunition dump, AMOS, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-tank warfare, Archer Artillery System, Armour, Armstrong Gun, Arsenal, Artillery battery, Artillery fuze, Artillery museum, Artillery observer, Artillery sound ranging, Artillery tractor, AS-90, Atlantic Wall, Auxiliary power unit, Azimuth, BAE Systems AB, Ballista, Ballistic missile, Barnsley, Barrage (artillery), Base bleed, Bastion, Battle of Cambrai (1917), Battle of Kay, Battle of Pollilur (1780), Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs, Battle of the Bulge, Battle of Waterloo, Battleship, Beehive anti-personnel round, Binoculars, Blast injury, Bolt action, Bombard (weapon), Breech-loading swivel gun, Breech-loading weapon, Built-up gun, Byzantine Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cannon, Canon de 75 modèle 1897, ..., Carbon steel, Casimir Siemienowicz, Cast iron, Castle, Casualty (person), Catapult, Centrifugal force, Ceuta, Charles Oman, Close combat, Coastal artillery, Coilgun, Combat arms, Combustion light-gas gun, Company (military unit), Congreve rocket, Constantinople, Contemporary history, Continuous track, Cordite, Counter-battery fire, Counter-battery radar, Crew-served weapon, Crimean War, Cylindro-conoidal bullet, Daniel Treadwell, Deflagration, Detonation, Deutsches Museum, Driving band, Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munition, East India Company, Elswick Ordnance Company, Engineering design process, Explosive material, Fall of Constantinople, FH70, Field artillery, Field artillery team, Field gun, Fortification, Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, Fragmentation (weaponry), Fuse (explosives), Fuze, G6 howitzer, Gauge (firearms), Geographic coordinate system, German Army (German Empire), Global Positioning System, Guidance system, Gun barrel, Gun carriage, Gun laying, Gun-howitzer, Gunpowder, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Gyroscope, Harassing fire, Henry Hugh Tudor, High-explosive anti-tank warhead, Honourable Artillery Company, Horse artillery, Horse-drawn vehicle, Howitzer, Human intelligence (intelligence gathering), Hundred Years' War, Huolongjing, Hussite Wars, Hydraulic recoil mechanism, Imagery intelligence, Indirect fire, Industrial Revolution, Infantry, Infantry support gun, James II of Scotland, Jan Žižka, Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval, Joan of Arc, John Keegan, Joseph Stalin, Joseph Whitworth, JSTOR, Kamikaze, Kingdom of Mysore, Krasnopol (weapon system), Laser ignition, Laser rangefinder, Light-gas gun, List of artillery, Live fire exercise, Magazine (artillery), Major general, Martin von Wahrendorff, Mehmed the Conqueror, Metallurgy, Middle Ages, Military doctrine, Military operation, Military organization, Military service, Military technology, Ming dynasty, Minié ball, Missile, Modern history, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasions and conquests, Mortar (weapon), Motor vehicle, Mountain gun, Mughal Empire, Multiple rocket launcher, Muzzle velocity, Muzzleloader, Mysorean rockets, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Naval artillery, Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia, Nitrocellulose, Nitroglycerin, Nitroguanidine, Nuclear artillery, Old French, Onager (weapon), Operation Michael, Osprey Publishing, Ottoman Empire, Panokseon, Panzerhaubitze 2000, Parasitic drag, Paris Gun, Patria (company), Pen and Sword Books, Penetrating trauma, People's Liberation Army, Picric acid, Polynomial, Precision engineering, Predicted fire, Project Babylon, Propellant, Proximity fuze, Radar, Railgun, Railway gun, RBL 12 pounder 8 cwt Armstrong gun, Recoil, Ribauldequin, Rifling, Rocket, Rocket artillery, Rocket engine, Rocket-assisted projectile, Roman legion, Royal Arsenal, Royal Artillery, Royal Horse Artillery, Second Anglo-Mysore War, Second Boer War, Self-propelled artillery, Seven Years' War, SG2 Shareable (Fire Control) Software Suite (S4), Shell (projectile), Shoot-and-scoot, Shrapnel shell, Siege, Siege engine, Siege of Seringapatam (1792), Siege of Seringapatam (1799), Sieges of Stirling Castle, Signals intelligence, Small arms, Smoothbore, SMS Königsberg (1905), Society for the History of Technology, Space gun, Supergun, Suppressive fire, Surface warfare, Swaging, Syracuse, Sicily, Tanegashima (gun), Tangier, Targeting (warfare), Technology and Culture, Teleprinter, The Journal of Military History, Third Anglo-Mysore War, Time On Target, Trebuchet, Trunnion, V-1 flying bomb, Viking Press, War memorial, War of 1812, Weapons platform, William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong, Woolwich, World War I, World War II, Worm (artillery), Wrought iron, XM2001 Crusader, 12-pounder gun, 130 mm coastal defense gun A-222, 155mm SpGH ZUZANA, 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41. Expand index (210 more) » « Shrink index
A History of Warfare is a book by military historian John Keegan, which was published in 1993 by Random House.
The Advanced Gun System (AGS) is a naval artillery system developed and produced by BAE Systems Armaments Systems for the ''Zumwalt''-class destroyer of the United States Navy.
In field artillery, the accuracy of indirect fire depends on the use of aiming points.
An air burst is the detonation of an explosive device such as an anti-personnel artillery shell or a nuclear weapon in the air instead of on contact with the ground or target or a delayed armor-piercing explosion.
Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes, the most common of which are white and red solids.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
An ammunition depot, ammunition supply point (ASP), ammunition handling area (AHA), ammunition dump, is a military storage facility for live ammunition and explosives.
AMOS or Advanced Mortar System is a 120 mm automatic twin barrelled, breech loaded mortar turret.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.
The Archer Artillery System, or Archer - FH77BW L52, or Artillerisystem 08 is an international project aimed at developing a next-generation self-propelled gun system for Sweden and Norway.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
An Armstrong Gun was a uniquely designed type of rifled breech-loading field and heavy gun designed by Sir William Armstrong and manufactured in England beginning in 1855 by the Elswick Ordnance Company and the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich.
An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made, maintained and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination, whether privately or publicly owned.
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.
An artillery fuze or fuse is the type of munition fuze used with artillery munitions, typically projectiles fired by guns (field, anti-aircraft, coast and naval), howitzers and mortars.
An artillery museum is a museum exhibiting the history and artifacts of artillery.
A military artillery observer or spotter or FO (forward observer) is responsible for directing artillery and mortar fire onto a target, and may be a Forward Air Controller (FAC) for close air support and spotter for naval gunfire support.
In land warfare, artillery sound ranging is a method of determining the coordinates of a hostile battery using data derived from the sound of its guns (or mortar or rockets) firing.
An artillery tractor, also referred to as a gun tractor, is a specialized heavy-duty form of tractor unit used to tow artillery pieces of varying weights and calibres.
The AS-90 ("Artillery System for the 1990s"), known officially as Gun Equipment 155 mm L131, is an armoured self-propelled artillery weapon used by the British Army.
The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom during World War II.
An auxiliary power unit (APU) is a device on a vehicle that provides energy for functions other than propulsion.
An azimuth (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.
BAE Systems AB is a Swedish defence company and a subsidiary of BAE Systems Land and Armaments, whose ultimate parent is the British defence contractor BAE Systems.
The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα ballistra and that from βάλλω ballō, "throw"), plural ballistae, sometimes called bolt thrower, was an ancient missile weapon that launched a large projectile at a distant target.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
Barnsley (locally) is a town in South Yorkshire, England, located halfway between Leeds and Sheffield.
A barrage is massed artillery fire aimed at points, typically apart, along one or more lines that can be from a few hundred to several thousand yards long.
Base bleed is a system used on some artillery shells to increase their range, typically by about 30%.
A bastion or bulwark is a structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly angular in shape and positioned at the corners.
The Battle of Cambrai (Battle of Cambrai, 1917, First Battle of Cambrai and Schlacht von Cambrai) was a British attack followed by the biggest German counter-attack against the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) since 1914, in the First World War.
The Battle of Kay (Schlacht bei Kay), also referred to as the Battle of Sulechów, Battle of Züllichau, or Battle of Paltzig, was an engagement fought on 23 July 1759 during the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Pollilur (a.k.a Pullalur), also known as the Battle of Polilore or Battle of Perambakam, took place on 10 September 1780 at Pollilur near Conjeevaram, the city of Kanchipuram in present-day Tamil Nadu state, India, as part of the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
The Battle of St.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.
Beehive was a Vietnam war era anti-personnel round packed with metal flechettes fired from an artillery gun most popularly deployed during that conflict and known as flechette rounds as well as by their official designation, antipersonnel-tracer (APERS-T).
Binoculars or field glasses are two telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.
A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from direct or indirect exposure to an explosion.
Bolt action is a type of firearm action where the handling of cartridges into and out of the weapon's barrel chamber are operated by manually manipulating the bolt directly via a handle, which is most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon (as most users are right-handed).
The bombard is a cannon or mortar used throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
A breech-loading swivel gun was a particular type of swivel gun and a small breech-loading cannon invented in the 14th century.
A breech-loading gun is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel.
A built-up gun is artillery with a specially reinforced barrel.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898.
Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight.
Kazimierz Siemienowicz (Casimirus Siemienowicz, Kazimieras Simonavičius, Kazimierz Siemienowicz, born 1600 – 1651), was a Polish–Lithuanian general of artillery, gunsmith, military engineer, and pioneer of rocketry.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
A casualty in military usage is a person in military service, combatant or non-combatant, who becomes unavailable for duty due to several circumstances, including death, injury, illness, capture or desertion.
A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.
In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman, KBE, FBA (12 January 1860 – 23 June 1946) was a British military historian.
Close combat means a violent physical confrontation between two or more opponents at short range.
Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications.
A coilgun or Gauss rifle is a type of projectile accelerator consisting of one or more coils used as electromagnets in the configuration of a linear motor that accelerate a ferromagnetic or conducting projectile to high velocity.
Combat arms (or fighting arms in non-American parlance) is a collective name in a system of administrative military reference to those troops within national armed forces which participate in direct tactical ground combat.
A combustion light-gas gun (CLGG) is a projectile weapon that utilizes the explosive force of low molecular-weight combustible gases, such as hydrogen mixed with oxygen, as propellant.
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.
The Congreve rocket was a British military weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804, based directly on Mysorean rockets.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Contemporary history, in English-language historiography, is a subset of modern history which describes the historical period from approximately 1945 to the present.
Continuous track, also called tank tread or caterpillar track, is a system of vehicle propulsion in which a continuous band of treads or track plates is driven by two or more wheels.
* Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom since 1889 to replace gunpowder as a military propellant.
Counter-battery fire (sometimes called counter-fire) is a battlefield military activity to defeat the enemy's indirect fire elements (guns, rocket launchers, artillery and mortars), including their target acquisition, command and control components.
A counter-battery radar (alternatively weapon tracking radar) is a radar system that detects artillery projectiles fired by one or more guns, howitzers, mortars or rocket launchers and, from their trajectories, locates the position on the ground of the weapon that fired it.
A crew-served (crew-serve or crew service) weapon is any weapon system that requires a crew of more than one individual, as opposed to an individual service weapon, to function at optimum efficiency due to its operational complexity, such as requiring one person to load while another fires.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The cylindro-conoidal bullet was invented by Captain John Norton of the British 34th Regiment in 1832.
Daniel Treadwell (October 10, 1791 – February 27, 1872) was an American inventor.
Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.
Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
The Deutsches Museum (German Museum) in Munich, Germany, is the world's largest museum of science and technology, with about 28,000 exhibited objects from 50 fields of science and technology.
The driving band or rotating band is part of an artillery shell, a band of soft metal near the bottom of the shell, typically made of gilding metal, copper or lead.
A Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munition (DPICM) is an artillery or surface-to-surface missile warhead designed to burst into sub-munitions at an optimum altitude and distance from the desired target for dense area coverage.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Elswick Ordnance Company (sometimes referred to as Elswick Ordnance Works, but usually as "EOC") was a British armaments manufacturing company of the late 19th and early 20th century.
The engineering design process is a methodical series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
The FH70 (field howitzer for the 1970s) is a towed howitzer in use with several nations.
Field artillery is a category of mobile artillery used to support armies in the field.
In the land-based field artillery, the field artillery team is organized to direct and control indirect artillery fire on the battlefield.
A field gun is a field artillery piece.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore against the British East India Company and the Hyderabad Deccan in 1798–99.
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery or mortar shell, rocket, missile, bomb, grenade, etc.
In an explosive, pyrotechnic device, or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function.
In military munitions, a fuze (sometimes fuse) is the part of the device that initiates function.
The G6, sometimes denoted as the G6 Rhino, is a South African mine-protected self-propelled howitzer.
The gauge of a firearm is a unit of measurement used to express the inner diameter (bore diameter) of the barrel.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
A guidance system is a virtual or physical device, or a group of devices implementing a guidance process used for controlling the movement of a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or any other moving object.
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.
A gun carriage is a frame and mount that supports the gun barrel of an artillery piece, allowing it to be manoeuvred and fired.
Gun laying is the process of aiming an artillery piece, such as a gun, howitzer or mortar, on land or at sea, against surface or air targets.
Gun-howitzer (also referred to as gun howitzer) is a type of artillery weapon that is intended to fulfill both the role of ordinary cannon or field gun, and that of a howitzer.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Stormaktstiden).
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
Harassing fire is a form of psychological warfare in which an enemy force is subjected to random, unpredictable and intermittent small-arms or artillery fire over an extended period of time (usually at night and times of low conflict intensity) in an effort to undermine morale, increase the enemy's stress levels and deny them the opportunity for sleep, rest and resupply.
Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Hugh Tudor, KCB, CMG (1871–1965) was a British soldier who fought as a junior officer in the Second Boer War (1899–1902), and as a senior officer in the First World War (1914–18), but is now remembered chiefly for his part in the Irish War of Independence (1919–21) and the Palestine Police.
A high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead is a type of shaped charge explosive that uses the Munroe effect to penetrate thick tank armor.
The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII and is considered one of the oldest military organisations in the world.
Horse artillery was a type of light, fast-moving, and fast-firing artillery which provided highly mobile fire support, especially to cavalry units.
A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a team of horses.
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
Human intelligence (frequently abbreviated HUMINT and sometimes pronounced as hyoo-mint) is intelligence gathered by means of interpersonal contact, as opposed to the more technical intelligence gathering disciplines such as signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT) and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT).
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).
The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the heretical Catholic Hussites and the combined Catholic orthodox forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, the Papacy and various European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church, as well as among various Hussite factions themselves.
A hydraulic recoil mechanism is a way of limiting the effects of recoil and adding to the accuracy and firepower of an artillery piece.
Imagery intelligence (IMINT) is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and aerial photography.
Indirect fire is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Infantry support guns or battalion guns are artillery weapons designed and used to increase firepower of infantry units they are intrinsic to; offering immediate tactical response to the needs of the unit's commanding officer.
James II (16 October 1430 – 3 August 1460), who reigned as King of Scots from 1437 on, was the son of King James I and Joan Beaufort.
Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha (Johann Ziska; John Zizka of Trocnov and the Chalice) was a Czech general, a contemporary and follower of Jan Hus, Hussite military leader, and later also a Radical Hussite who led the Taborites.
The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.
Lieutenant General Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (15 September 1715 – 9 May 1789) was a French artillery officer and engineer who revolutionized French cannon, creating a new production system that allowed lighter, more uniform guns without sacrificing range.
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan (15 May 1934 – 2 August 2012) was an English military historian, lecturer, writer and journalist.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Sir Joseph Whitworth, 1st Baronet (21 December 1803 – 22 January 1887) was an English engineer, entrepreneur, inventor and philanthropist.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
, officially, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than possible with conventional air attacks.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
The 2K25 Krasnopol is a Russian 152/155 mm cannon-launched, fin-stabilized, base bleed-assisted, semi-automatic laser-guided, artillery weapon system.
Laser ignition is an alternative method for igniting mixtures of fuel and oxidiser.
A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder that uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object.
The light-gas gun is an apparatus for physics experiments, a highly specialized gun designed to generate very high velocities.
Artillery has been a primary weapon of war since before the Napoleonic Era.
A live-fire exercise or LFX is any military exercise in which a realistic scenario for the use of specific equipment is demonstrated.
Magazine is the name for an item or place within which ammunition or other explosive material is stored.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Martin von Wahrendorff (1789–1861) was a Swedish diplomat and inventor.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Military doctrine is the expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements.
A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Minié ball, or Minni ball, is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilized rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
Mountain guns are artillery pieces designed for use in mountain warfare and areas where usual wheeled transport is not possible.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
A multiple rocket launcher (MRL) or multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) is a type of rocket artillery system.
Muzzle velocity is the speed of a projectile at the moment it leaves the muzzle of a gun.
A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (i.e., from the forward, open end of the gun's barrel).
Mysorean rockets were the first iron-cased rockets successfully deployed for military use.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Naval artillery is artillery mounted on a warship, originally used only for naval warfare, later also for naval gunfire support against targets on land, and for anti-aircraft use.
Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia (1499/1500, Brescia – 13 December 1557, Venice) was a Venetian mathematician, engineer (designing fortifications), a surveyor (of topography, seeking the best means of defense or offense) and a bookkeeper from the then-Republic of Venice (now part of Italy).
Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
Nitroguanidine is an organic compound with the formula (NH2)2CNNO2.
Nuclear artillery is a subset of limited-yield tactical nuclear weapons, in particular those weapons that are launched from the ground at battlefield targets.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
The onager (British /ˈɒnədʒə/, /ˈɒnəɡə/, U.S. /ˈɑnədʒər/) was a imperial-aera Roman torsion powered siege engine.
Operation Michael was a major German military offensive during the First World War that began the Spring Offensive on 21 March 1918.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Panokseon ("board roofed" or "superstructured" ship) was an oar and sail propelled ship that was the main class of warship used by Joseon Korea during the late 16th century.
The Panzerhaubitze 2000 ("armoured howitzer 2000"), abbreviated PzH 2000, is a German 155 mm self-propelled howitzer developed by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) and Rheinmetall for the German Army.
Parasitic drag is drag that results when an object is moved through a fluid medium.
The Paris Gun (Paris-Geschütz / Pariser Kanone) was the name given to a type of German long-range siege gun, several of which were used to bombard Paris during World War I. They were in service from March to August 1918.
Patria Plc (Patria Oyj, Patria Abp) is a Finnish provider of defence, security and aviation life-cycle support services and technology solutions.
Pen and Sword Books is a British publisher which specializes in printing and distributing books on military history, militaria and other niche subjects.
Penetrating trauma is an injury that occurs when an object pierces the skin and enters a tissue of the body, creating an open wound.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Picric acid is an organic compound with the formula (O2N)3C6H2OH.
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (also called indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents of variables.
Precision engineering is a subdiscipline of electrical engineering, software engineering, electronics engineering, mechanical engineering, and optical engineering concerned with designing machines, fixtures, and other structures that have exceptionally high tolerances, are repeatable, and are stable over time.
Predicted fire (originally called map shooting) is a tactical technique for the use of artillery, enabling it to fire for effect without alerting the enemy with ranging shots or a lengthy preliminary bombardment.
Project Babylon was a project with unknown objectives commissioned by the then Iraqi president Saddam Hussein to build a series of "superguns".
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
A proximity fuze is a fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
A railgun is a device that uses electromagnetic force to launch high velocity projectiles, by means of a sliding armature that is accelerated along a pair of conductive rails.
A railway gun, also called a railroad gun, is a large artillery piece, often surplus naval artillery, mounted on, transported by, and fired from a specially designed railway wagon.
The Armstrong Breech Loading 12 pounder 8 cwt, later known as RBL 12 pounder 8 cwt, was an early modern 3-inch rifled breech-loading field gun of 1859.
Recoil (often called knockback, kickback or simply kick) is the backward movement of a gun when it is discharged.
A Ribauldequin, also known as a rabauld, ribault, ribaudkin, infernal machine or organ gun, was a late medieval volley gun with many small-caliber iron barrels set up parallel on a platform, in use during the 14th and 15th centuries.
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rocket artillery is a type of artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional guns or mortars.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
A Rocket assisted projectile (RAP) is an artillery, cannon or recoilless rifle round incorporating a rocket motor for independent propulsion.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
The Royal Arsenal, Woolwich carried out armaments manufacture, ammunition proofing, and explosives research for the British armed forces at a site on the south bank of the River Thames in Woolwich in south-east London, England, United Kingdom.
The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery arm of the British Army.
The Royal Horse Artillery (RHA) was formed in 1793 as a distinct arm of the Royal Regiment of Artillery (commonly termed Royal Artillery) of the British Army.
The Second Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company from 1780 to 1784.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
Self-propelled artillery (also called mobile artillery or locomotive artillery) is artillery equipped with its own propulsion system to move towards its target.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
The NATO Army Armaments Group (NAAG) Integrated Capability Group Indirect Fires (ICGIF), formerly Land Group 4, and their Sub Group 2 (SG2) on Surface to Surface Ballistics has created a widely used set of shareable fire control software using the Ada programming language.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
Shoot-and-scoot (alternatively, fire-and-displace or fire-and-move) is an artillery tactic of firing at a target and then immediately moving away from the location from where the shots were fired to avoid counter-battery fire (e.g. from enemy artillery).
Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
The 1792 Siege of Seringapatam was a battle and siege of the Mysorean capital city of Seringapatam (Srirangapatna) at the end of the Third Anglo-Mysore War.
The Siege of Seringapatam (5 April – 4 May 1799) was the final confrontation of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore.
There have been at least eight sieges of Stirling Castle, a strategically important fortification in Stirling, Scotland.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
Small arms include handguns (revolvers and pistols) and long guns, such as rifles, carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns.
A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling.
SMS Königsberg ("His Majesty's Ship Königsberg) was the lead ship of her class of light cruisers built by the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy).
The Society for the History of Technology, or SHOT, is the primary professional society for historians of technology.
A space gun, sometimes called a Verne gun because of its appearance in From the Earth to the Moon by Jules Verne, is a method of launching an object into space using a large gun- or cannonlike structure.
A supergun is an extraordinarily large artillery piece.
In military science, suppressive fire (commonly called covering fire) is "fire that degrades the performance of an enemy force below the level needed to fulfill its mission".
Modern naval warfare is divided into four operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare, submarine warfare and information warfare.
Swaging is a forging process in which the dimensions of an item are altered using dies into which the item is forced.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
, most often called in Japanese and sometimes in English, which means matchlock gun, was a type of matchlock configured arquebus firearm introduced to Japan through the Portuguese in 1543.
Tangier (طَنجة Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; Tanger; Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco.
Targeting is the process of selecting objects or installations to be attacked, taken, or destroyed in warfare.
Technology and Culture is a quarterly academic journal founded in 1959.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
The Journal of Military History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the military history of all times and places.
The Third Anglo–Mysore War (1790–1792) was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the East India Company and its allies, including the Maratha Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad.
Time On Target (TOT) is the military co-ordination of artillery fire by many weapons so that all the munitions arrive at the target at precisely the same time.
A trebuchet (French trébuchet) is a type of siege engine.
A trunnion (from Old French "trognon", trunk) is a cylindrical protrusion used as a mounting or pivoting point.
The V-1 flying bomb (Vergeltungswaffe 1 "Vengeance Weapon 1")—also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, and in Germany as Kirschkern (cherrystone) or Maikäfer (maybug)—was an early cruise missile and the only production aircraft to use a pulsejet for power.
Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.
A war memorial is a building, monument, statue or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or (predominating in modern times) to commemorate those who died or were injured in a war.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
A weapons platform is generally any structure or system on which a weapon can be mounted.
William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong (26 November 1810 – 27 December 1900) was an English industrialist who founded the Armstrong Whitworth manufacturing concern on Tyneside.
Woolwich is a district of south-east London, England, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A worm is a device used to remove unspent powder bag remnants from a cannon or other piece of muzzle-loading field artillery.
puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).
The XM2001 Crusader was to be the United States Army's next-generation self-propelled howitzer (SPH), designed to improve the survivability, lethality, mobility, and effectiveness of the artillery as well as the overall force.
12-pounder gun or 12-pdr, usually denotes a gun which fired a projectile of approximately 12 pounds.
The A-222 Bereg (Берег; "Coast") is a Russian 130 mm self-propelled coastal artillery gun, which was developed in the 1980s and first shown to the public in 1993 at an arms fair in Abu Dhabi.
ZUZANA - 155 mm Self-propelled Gun Howitzer is a Slovak artillery system with a 45-caliber gun and automatic loader for loading of both projectile and charge.
The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.
Artelliry, Artilery, Artillary, Artillerie, Artillery (military), Artillery Cannon, Artillery corps, Artillery piece, Artillery system, Artillery train, Artilleryman, Artillerymen, Division Artillery, Division artillery, Gunner (artillery), Gunnery Officer, Heavy artillery, Heavy field artillery, History of artillery, Horse drawn artillery, King of the battlefield, Light Artillery, Light artillery, Multiple Rounds Simultaneous Impact, Multiple round simultaneous impact, Multiple rounds simultaneous impact, Pieces of artillery, Rifled artillery, Shellfire, Supporting artillery fire, Time Over Target, Time on Target, Time-on-target.