272 relations: A History of Warfare, Advanced Gun System, Aiming point, Air burst, Allotropes of phosphorus, Ammunition, AMOS, Anno Domini, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-tank warfare, Archer Artillery System, Armed forces, Armour, Armstrong Gun, Artillery battery, Artillery fuze, Artillery museum, Artillery observer, Artillery tractor, AS-90, Atlantic Wall, Auxiliary power unit, Azimuth, BAE Systems AB, Ballista, Ballistic missile, Barnsley, Barrage (artillery), Base bleed, Bastion, Battle of Cambrai (1917), Battle of Kay, Battle of Pollilur (1780), Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs, Battle of the Bulge, Battle of Waterloo, Battleship, Beehive anti-personnel round, Binoculars, Blast injury, Bolt action, Bombard (weapon), Breech-loading swivel gun, Breech-loading weapon, Built-up gun, Byzantine Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cannon, Canon de 75 modèle 1897, Carbon steel, ..., Cast iron, Castle, Casualty (person), Catapult, Centrifugal force, Ceuta, Charles Oman, Close combat, Coastal artillery, Combat Arms, Combustion light-gas gun, Company (military unit), Congreve rocket, Constantinople, Contemporary history, Continuous track, Cordite, Counter-battery fire, Counter-battery radar, Crew-served weapon, Crimean War, Cylindro-conoidal bullet, Daniel Treadwell, Deflagration, Detonation, Deutsches Museum, Driving band, Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munition, East India Company, Elswick Ordnance Company, Engine, Engineering design process, Escalade, Europe, Explosive material, Fall of Constantinople, FH70, Field artillery, Field artillery team, Field gun, Finland, Firepower, Flintlock, Fortification, Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, Fragmentation (weaponry), Fujian, Fuse (explosives), Fuze, G6 howitzer, Gauge (bore diameter), Geographic coordinate system, German Army (German Empire), Germany, Global Positioning System, Guidance system, Gun barrel, Gun carriage, Gun laying, Gun-howitzer, Gunpowder, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Gyroscope, Han Shizhong, Hand cannon, Harassing fire, Henry Hugh Tudor, High-explosive anti-tank warhead, History of Song, Honourable Artillery Company, Horse artillery, Horse-drawn vehicle, Howitzer, Human intelligence (intelligence gathering), Hundred Years' War, Huochong, Huolongjing, Hussite Wars, Hydraulic recoil mechanism, Imagery intelligence, India, Indirect fire, Industrial Revolution, Infantry, Infantry support gun, James II of Scotland, Jan Žižka, Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval, Jeep, Joan of Arc, John Keegan, Joseph Stalin, Joseph Whitworth, Kamikaze, Kazimierz Siemienowicz, Kingdom of Mysore, Laser ignition, Laser rangefinder, Light-gas gun, List of artillery, Live fire exercise, Major general, Martin von Wahrendorff, Mehmed the Conqueror, Metallurgy, Middle Ages, Middle East, Military doctrine, Military operation, Military organization, Military service, Military technology, Ming dynasty, Minié ball, Missile, Modern history, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasions and conquests, Mortar (weapon), Motor vehicle, Mountain gun, Mughal Empire, Multiple rocket launcher, Muzzle velocity, Muzzleloader, Mysorean rockets, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Naval artillery, Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia, Nitrocellulose, Nitroglycerin, Nitroguanidine, Nuclear artillery, Old French, Onager (weapon), Operation Michael, Osprey, Panokseon, Panzerhaubitze 2000, Parasitic drag, Paris, Paris Gun, Patria (company), Pen and Sword Books, Penetrating trauma, People's Liberation Army, Picric acid, Polynomial, Portugal, Precision engineering, Predicted fire, Project Babylon, Propellant, Proximity fuze, Radar, Railgun, Railway gun, RBL 12 pounder 8 cwt Armstrong gun, Recoil, Ribauldequin, Rifling, Rocket, Rocket artillery, Roman legion, Royal Arsenal, Royal Artillery, Royal Horse Artillery, Sailor, Second Anglo-Mysore War, Second Boer War, Self-propelled artillery, Seven Years' War, SG2 Shareable (Fire Control) Software Suite (S4), Shell (projectile), Shoot-and-scoot, Shrapnel shell, Siege, Siege engine, Siege of Seringapatam (1792), Siege of Seringapatam (1799), Sieges of Stirling Castle, Signals intelligence, Slovakia, Small arms, Smoothbore, SMS Königsberg (1905), Soldier, Song dynasty, Sound ranging, South Africa, Suppressive fire, Surface warfare, Swaging, Sweden, Tanegashima (Japanese matchlock), Tangier, Targeting (warfare), Teleprinter, Third Anglo-Mysore War, Time On Target, Trebuchet, Truck, Trunnion, United States, V-1 flying bomb, Viking Press, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), War of 1812, Weapons platform, William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong, Woolwich, World War I, World War II, Worm (artillery), Wrought iron, XM2001 Crusader, 12-pounder gun, 130 mm coastal defense gun A-222, 155mm SpGH ZUZANA, 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41. Expand index (222 more) » « Shrink index
A History of Warfare is a book by military historian John Keegan, which was published in 1993 by Random House.
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The Advanced Gun System is a naval gun system under development by BAE Systems Armaments Systems (formerly United Defense) for the ''Zumwalt''-class destroyer of the United States Navy.
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In field artillery, the accuracy of indirect fire depends on the use of aiming points.
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An air burst is the detonation of an explosive device such as an anti-personnel artillery shell or a nuclear weapon in the air instead of on contact with the ground or target or a delayed armor piercing explosion.
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Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes; the most common of which are white and red solids.
Ammunition (commonly shortened to ammo) is propellant and projectile, or broadly anything that can be used in combat including bombs, missiles, warheads, landmines, naval mines, and anti-personnel mines.
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AMOS or Advanced Mortar System is a 120 mm automatic twin barrelled, breech loaded mortar turret.
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The terms anno Domini (AD or A.D.) and before Christ (BC or B.C.) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
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Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
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Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during the First World War.
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The Archer Artillery System or Archer - FH77BW L52 is an international project aimed at developing a next-generation self-propelled artillery system for Sweden and Norway.
The armed forces of a country are its government-sponsored defense, fighting forces, and organizations.
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Armour (spelled armor in the United States of America) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual, or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or action (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
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An Armstrong Gun was a uniquely designed type of rifled breech-loading field and heavy gun designed by Sir William Armstrong and manufactured in England beginning in 1855 by the Elswick Ordnance Company and the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich.
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In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of guns, mortars, rockets or missiles so grouped in order to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.
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An artillery fuze is the type of munition fuze used with artillery munitions, typically projectiles fired by guns (field, anti-aircraft, coast and naval), howitzers and mortars.
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An artillery museum is a museum exhibiting the history and artifacts of artillery.
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A military artillery observer or spotter is responsible for directing artillery and mortar fire onto a target, and may be a Forward Air Controller (FAC) for close air support and spotter for naval gunfire support.
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An artillery tractor, also referred to as a gun tractor, is a specialized heavy-duty form of tractor unit used to tow artillery pieces of varying weights and calibres.
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The AS-90 (Artillery System for the 1990s; known officially as Gun Equipment 155 mm L131) is a lightly armoured self-propelled artillery piece used by the British Army. The AS-90 was first deployed by the British Army in 1993. 179 AS-90s were acquired to re-equip six of the eight self-propelled field artillery regiments (each 24 guns) in the 1 (BR) Corps, replacing the 105 mm FV433 Abbot SPG and older M109 155 mm Self Propelled Gun. It remains in UK service and will equip three field regiments supporting armoured infantry brigades for the foreseeable future. 134 in service in 2008, 117 in 2015. AS-90 was designed and built by the Armaments division of Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering (VSEL), whose parent company became BAE Systems in 1999. VSEL provided 179 vehicles between 1992 and 1995 at a cost of £300 million ($480 million USD). The AS-90 underwent a capability enhancement program in 2008 and 2009, primarily relating to upgrades of the AS-90's electronic system. In 1999, Marconi Electronic Systems was contracted to upgrade British Army AS-90s to include a 52 calibre gun in order to increase the range of the artillery. Critical to the program was a bi-modular charge system from Somchem of South Africa (selected after extensive trials of ammunition from many suppliers), which offered greatly reduced barrel wear. However, this ammunition failed to meet the requirement for insensitive munitions and the project was terminated.
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The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defense against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from Great Britain during World War II.
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An auxiliary power unit (APU) is a device on a vehicle that provides energy for functions other than propulsion.
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An azimuth (from Arabic al-sumūt, meaning "the directions") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.
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BAE Systems AB is a Swedish defence company and a subsidiary of BAE Systems Land and Armaments, whose ultimate parent is the British defence contractor BAE Systems.
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The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα ballistra and that from βάλλω ballō, "throw"), plural ballistae, was an ancient missile weapon that launched a large projectile at a distant target.
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A ballistic missile is a missile (rocket) that follows a ballistic trajectory with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target.
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Barnsley (locally) is a town in South Yorkshire, England.
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A barrage is a particular method of delivering massed artillery fire from a few or many batteries.
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Base bleed is a system used on some artillery shells to increase their range, typically by about 30%.
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A bastion (also named bulwark, derived from the Dutch name "bolwerk"), is an angular structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of an artillery fortification.
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The Battle of Cambrai (designated Battle of Cambrai, 1917 by the Battlefield Nomenclature Committee; also sometimes referred to as the First Battle of Cambrai) was a British offensive and German counter-offensive battle in the First World War.
The Battle of Kay (Schlacht bei Kay), also referred to as the Battle of Sulechów or Battle of Paltzig, was a battle fought on 23 July 1759 during the Seven Years' War.
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The Battle of Pollilur, also known as the Battle of Polilore or Battle of Perambakam, took place on 10 September 1780 at Pollilur near the city of Kanchipuram in present-day Tamil Nadu state, India as part of the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
The Battle of St.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France, and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe.
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The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of heavy caliber guns.
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Beehive was a Vietnam war era anti-personnel round packed with metal flechettes fired from an artillery gun most popularly deployed during that conflict.
Binoculars, field glasses or binocular telescopes are a pair of identical or mirror-symmetrical telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point accurately in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.
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A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from direct or indirect exposure to an explosion.
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Bolt action is a type of firearm action in which the weapon's bolt is operated manually by the opening and closing of the breech (barrel) with a small handle, most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon (for right-handed users).
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The bombard is a cannon or mortar used in medieval times.
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A breech-loading swivel gun was a particular type of swivel gun and a small breech-loading cannon invented in the 14th century.
A breech-loading weapon is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel.
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A built-up gun is artillery with a specially reinforced barrel.
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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is any piece of artillery that uses gunpowder or other usually explosive-based propellants to launch a projectile.
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The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898.
Carbon steel is steel in which the main interstitial alloying constituent is carbon in the range of 0.12–2.0%.
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Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by nobility.
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A casualty in military usage is a person in military service, combatant or non-combatant, who becomes unavailable for duty due to several circumstances, including death, injury, illness, capture and desertion.
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A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.
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In Newtonian mechanics, the term centrifugal force is used to refer to an inertial force (also called a 'fictitious' force) that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating reference frame, drawing them away from the axis.
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Ceuta (assimilated pronunciation, also;; سبتة, Sabtah; Sebta) is an Spanish city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a western border with Morocco.
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Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman KBE (12 January 1860 – 23 June 1946) was a British military historian of the early 20th century.
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Close combat means a violent physical confrontation between two or more opponents at short range.
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Coastal artillery is the branch of armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications.
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Combat Arms (or fighting arms in non-American parlance) is a collective name in a system of administrative military reference to those troops within national armed forces which participate in direct tactical land combat.
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A combustion light-gas gun (CLGG) is a projectile weapon that utilizes the explosive force of low molecular-weight combustible gases, such as hydrogen mixed with oxygen, as propellant.
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–250 soldiers and usually commanded by a major.
The Congreve rocket was a British military weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804.
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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis or Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstantinoúpoli; Constantinopolis; قسطنطینية, Kostantiniyye; Цариград; modern Istanbul) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1924) empires.
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Contemporary history describes the period timeframe that is closely connected to the present day; it is a certain perspective of modern history.
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Continuous track, also called tank tread or caterpillar track, is a system of vehicle propulsion in which a continuous band of treads or track plates is driven by two or more wheels.
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Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom since 1889 to replace gunpowder as a military propellant.
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Counter-battery fire (sometimes called counter-fire) is a battlefield military activity to defeat the enemy's indirect fire elements (guns, Rocket launchers, Artillery and Mortars), including their target acquisition, command and control components.
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A counter-battery radar (alternatively Weapon Tracking Radar or Target Acquisition Radar) is a mobile radar system that detects artillery projectiles fired by one or more guns, howitzers, mortars or rocket launchers and, from their trajectories, locates the position on the ground of the weapon that fired it.
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A crew-served (crew-serve or crew service) weapon is any weapon system that requires a crew of more than one individual, as opposed to an individual service weapon, to function at optimum efficiency due to its operational complexity, such as requiring one person to load while another fires.
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The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856), also known in Russian historiography as the Eastern War of 1853–1856 (Восточная война, Vostochnaya Voina), was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.
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The cylindro-conoidal bullet was invented by Captain John Norton of the British 34th Regiment in 1832.
Daniel Treadwell (October 10, 1791 – February 27, 1872) was an American inventor, born at Ipswich, Massachusetts.
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Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is a term describing subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.
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Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
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The Deutsches Museum (German Museum) (or Das Deutsche Museum) The English language expression "the Deutsches Museum" is a troublesome translation, because it uses a declension that is grammatically inappropriate in both English (which normally lacks such declensions) and German (which would use a different declension).
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The driving band or rotating band is part of an artillery shell, a band of soft metal near the middle of the shell, typically made of gilding metal, copper or lead.
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A Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munition (DPICM) is an artillery or surface-to-surface missile warhead designed to burst into sub-munitions at an optimum altitude and distance from the desired target for dense area coverage.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company and informally as John Company was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to pursue trade with the East Indies, but which ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and Qing China.
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The Elswick Ordnance Company (sometimes referred to as Elswick Ordnance Works, but usually as "EOC") was a British armaments manufacturing company of the late 19th and early 20th century.
An engine, or motor, is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.
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The engineering design process is a methodical series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes.
Escalade is the act of scaling defensive walls or ramparts with the aid of ladders, and was a prominent feature of siege warfare in medieval times.
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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
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An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
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The Fall of Constantinople (Άλωση της Κωνσταντινούπολης, Alōsē tēs Kōnstantinoupolēs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday, 29 May 1453.
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The FH70 (field howitzer for the 1970s) is a towed howitzer in use with several nations.
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Field artillery is a category of mobile artillery used to support armies in the field.
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In the land-based field artillery, the field artillery team is organized to direct and control indirect artillery fire on the battlefield.
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A field gun is an artillery piece.
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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east; Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland.
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Firepower is the military capability to direct force at an enemy.
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Flintlock is the general term for any firearm based on the flintlock mechanism.
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Fortifications are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time.
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The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War (1798–1799) was a war in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company under the Earl of Mornington.
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery shell, bomb, grenade, etc.
Fujian, formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, or Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
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In an explosive, pyrotechnic device or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function.
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In military munitions, a fuze is the part of the device that initiates function.
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The G6 self-propelled howitzer is a South African artillery piece, developed around the ordnance of the G5 howitzer.
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The gauge of a firearm is a unit of measurement used to express the diameter of the barrel.
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A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers or letters.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces — not including the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Kaiserliche Marine — of the German Empire.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
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The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.
A guidance system is a virtual or physical device, or a group of devices implementing a guidance process used for controlling the movement of a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or any other moving object.
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A gun barrel is the tube, usually metal, through which a deflagration or rapid expansion of gases are released in order to propel a projectile out of the end at a high velocity.
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A gun carriage is a frame and mount that supports the gun barrel of an artillery piece, allowing it to be manoeuvred and fired.
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Gun laying is the process of aiming an artillery piece, such as a gun, howitzer or mortar on land, or at sea, against surface or air targets.
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Gun-howitzer (also referred to as gun howitzer) is a type of artillery weapon that is intended to fulfil both the role of ordinary cannon or field gun, and that of a howitzer.
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Gunpowder, also known as black powder, is a chemical explosive—the earliest known.
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Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.); widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, or as Gustavus Adolphus the Great (Gustav Adolf den store, Gustavus Adolphus Magnus, a formal posthumous distinction passed by the Riksdag of the Estates in 1634); was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 and is credited as the founder of Sweden as a Great Power (Stormaktstiden).
A gyroscope (from Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a spinning wheel or disc in which the axis of rotation is free to assume any orientation.
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Han Shizhong (韓世忠) (1089–1151) was a Chinese general of the late Northern Song Dynasty and the early Southern Song Dynasty.
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A hand cannon or gonne (also spelled handgonne to distinguish the device from modern handguns) (Chinese: 手銃; مدفع; пищаль) is one of the early forms of firearm.
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Harassing fire is a form of psychological warfare in which an enemy force is subjected to random, unpredictable and intermittent small-arms or artillery fire over an extended period of time (usually at night and times of low conflict intensity) in an effort to undermine morale, increase the enemy's stress levels and deny them the opportunity for sleep, rest and resupply.
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Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Hugh Tudor KCB, CMG (1871–1965) was a British soldier who fought as a junior officer in the Second Boer War (1899–1902), and as a senior officer in the First World War (1914–18), but is now remembered chiefly for his part in the Irish War of Independence (1919–21) and the Palestine Police.
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A high-explosive anti-tank warhead (HEAT) is a munition made of an explosive shaped charge that uses the Munroe effect to create a very high-velocity partial stream of metal in a state of superplasticity, which is used to penetrate solid vehicle armour.
The History of Song or Song Shi is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China that records the history of the Song dynasty (960–1279).
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The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII and is the second oldest military organisation in the world (behind the Vatican's Pontifical Swiss Guard).
Horse artillery was a type of light, fast-moving, and fast-firing artillery which provided highly mobile fire support, especially to cavalry units.
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A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a team of horses.
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A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles at relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
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Human Intelligence (frequently abbreviated HUMINT) is intelligence gathered by means of interpersonal contact, as opposed to the more technical intelligence gathering disciplines such as signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT) and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT).
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the latter kingdom.
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The Huǒchòng was a tube-like, projection firearm.
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The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered by its translator into English as Fire Drake Manual; in modern English, Fire Dragon Manual) is a 14th-century military treatise that was compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) in China.
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The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the Hussites (the followers of Bohemian priest and reformer Jan Hus) and various monarchs who sought to enforce the authority of the Roman Catholic Church against the Hussites, and also between Hussite factions.
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A Hydraulic recoil mechanism is a way of hindering recoil and adding to the accuracy and firepower of an artillery piece.
Imagery intelligence (IMINT) is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and aerial photography.
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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Indirect fire is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire.
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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
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The infantry is the branch of a military force that fights on foot.
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Infantry support guns or battalion guns are artillery weapons designed and used to increase firepower of infantry units they are intrinsic to; offering immediate tactical response to the needs of the unit's commanding officer.
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James II (Middle Scots: Iames Stewart; 16 October 1430 – 3 August 1460), who reigned as king of Scots from 1437 on, was the son of James I and Joan Beaufort.
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Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha (Johann Ziska; John Zizka of Trocnov and the Chalice) (c. 1360–1424), Czech general and Hussite leader, follower of Jan Hus, was born in the small village of Trocnov (now part of Borovany) in Bohemia, into a gentried family.
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The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.
Lieutenant General Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (15 September 1715 – 9 May 1789) was a French artillery officer and engineer who revolutionized French cannon, creating a new production system that allowed lighter, more uniform guns without sacrificing range.
Jeep is a brand of American automobiles that is a division of FCA US LLC (formerly Chrysler Group, LLC), a wholly owned subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.
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Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc,; c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boullainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans) is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
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Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan OBE FRSL (15 May 1934 – 2 August 2012) was a British military historian, lecturer, writer and journalist.
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Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
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Sir Joseph Whitworth, 1st Baronet (21 December 1803 – 22 January 1887) was an English engineer, entrepreneur, inventor and philanthropist.
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The, officially, abbreviated as, and used as a verb as, were suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than was possible with conventional attacks.
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Kazimierz Siemienowicz (Casimirus Siemienowicz, Kazimierz Siemienowicz, Kazimieras Simonavičius, born c. 1600 - c. 1651), was a Polish-Lithuanian general of artillery, gunsmith, military engineer, artillery specialist and pioneer of rocketry.
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The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, which was ruled by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire. With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire (c.
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Laser ignition is an alternative method for igniting compressed gaseous mixture of fuel and air.
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A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder which uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object.
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The light-gas gun is an apparatus for physics experiments, a highly specialized gun designed to generate very high velocities.
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Artillery has been a primary weapon of war since before the Napoleonic Era.
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A live fire exercise or LFX is any military exercise in which a realistic scenario for the use of specific equipment is demonstrated.
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Major-general (or major general) is a military rank used in many countries.
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Martin von Wahrendorff (1789–1861) was a Swedish diplomat and inventor.
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Mehmed II (محمد ثانى,; II.; also known as, الفاتح, "the Conqueror" in Ottoman Turkish; in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Han; also called Mahomet II in early modern Europe), also known as Muhammed bin Murad, Mehmed the Conqueror, Grand Turk, Kayser-i Rûm (Caesar of Rome) and Turcarum Imperator, and Fatih Sultan Mehmed (30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), was an Ottoman sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.
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Military doctrine is the expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements.
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A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
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Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
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Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
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Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare.
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The Ming dynasty, or the Great Ming, also called the Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
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The Minié ball, or Minie ball, is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilized rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle.
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In modern usage, a missile is a self-propelled precision-guided munition system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
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Modern history, also referred to as the modern period or the modern era, is the historiographical approach to the timeframe after the post-classical era (known as the Middle Ages).
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The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles), existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
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Mongol invasions and conquests progressed throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which, by 1300, covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
A mortar is a weapon that fires explosive projectiles known as (mortar) bombs at low velocities, short ranges, and high-arcing ballistic trajectories.
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A motor vehicle is a self-propelled road vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams.
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Mountain guns are artillery pieces designed for use in mountain warfare and areas where usual wheeled transport is not possible.
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The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire established and ruled by a Persianate dynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin that extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan.
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A multiple rocket launcher (MRL) or multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) is a type of rocket artillery system.
Muzzle velocity is the speed a projectile has at the moment it leaves the muzzle of the gun.
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A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (i.e., from the forward, open end of the gun's barrel).
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Mysorean rockets were pioneering Indian weapons as they were the first iron-cased rockets that were successfully deployed for military use in the world.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
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The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions.
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Naval artillery is artillery mounted on a warship, originally used only for naval warfare, later also for naval gunfire support against targets on land, and for anti-aircraft use.
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Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia (1499/1500, Brescia – 13 December 1557, Venice) was an Italian mathematician, engineer (designing fortifications), a surveyor (of topography, seeking the best means of defense or offense) and a bookkeeper from the then-Republic of Venice (now part of Italy).
Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
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Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
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Nitroguanidine is an organic compound with the formula (NH2)2CNNO2.
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Nuclear artillery is a subset of limited-yield tactical nuclear weapons, in particular those weapons that are launched from the ground at battlefield targets.
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Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century.
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The onager was a Roman siege engine that is a type of catapult that uses a torsional force, generally from twisted rope, to store energy for the shot.
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Operation Michael was a First World War German military operation that began the Spring Offensive on 21 March 1918.
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The osprey (Pandion haliaetus), sometimes known as the fish eagle, sea hawk, river hawk, or fish hawk, is a diurnal, fish-eating bird of prey.
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Panokseon ("board roofed" or "superstructured" ship) was an oar- and sail-propelled ship that was the main class of warship used by the Korean Joseon Dynasty during the late 16th century.
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The Panzerhaubitze 2000 ("armoured howitzer 2000"), abbreviated PzH 2000, is a German 155 mm self-propelled howitzer developed by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) and Rheinmetall for the German Army.
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Parasitic drag is drag that results when an object is moved through a fluid medium (in the case of aerodynamic drag, a gaseous medium, more specifically, the atmosphere).
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Paris (UK:; US:; French) is the capital and most-populous city of France.
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The Paris Gun (Paris-Geschütz) was the name given to a type of German long-range siege gun, several of which were used to bombard Paris during World War I. They were in service from March to August 1918.
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Patria Plc (Patria Oyj, Patria Abp) is a Finnish provider of defence, security and aviation life-cycle support services and technology solutions.
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Pen and Sword Books is a British publisher which specializes in printing and distributing books on military history and other niche subjects.
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Penetrating trauma is an injury that occurs when an object pierces the skin and enters a tissue of the body, creating an open wound.
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The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of China under the leadership of the Communist Party (CPC).
Picric acid is the chemical compound formally called 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP).
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In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (or indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents.
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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe.
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Precision engineering is a subdiscipline of electrical engineering, software engineering, electronics engineering, mechanical engineering, and optical engineering concerned with designing machines, fixtures, and other structures that have exceptionally low tolerances, are repeatable, and are stable over time.
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Predicted fire (originally called map shooting) is a tactical technique for the use of artillery, enabling it to fire for effect without alerting the enemy with ranging shots or a lengthy preliminary bombardment.
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Project Babylon was a project with unknown objectives commissioned by the then Iraqi president Saddam Hussein to build a series of "superguns".
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A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
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A proximity fuze is a fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value.
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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
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A railgun is an electrically powered electromagnetic projectile launcher based on similar principles to the homopolar motor.
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A railway gun, also called a railroad gun, is a large artillery piece, often surplus naval artillery, mounted on, transported by, and fired from a specially designed railway wagon.
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The Armstrong Breech Loading 12 pounder 8 cwt, later known as RBL 12 pounder 8 cwt, was an early modern 3-inch rifled breech-loading field gun of 1859.
Recoil (often called knockback, kickback or simply kick) is the backward momentum of a gun when it is discharged.
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A Ribauldequin, also known as a rabauld, ribault, ribaudkin, infernal machine or organ gun, was a late medieval volley gun with many small-caliber iron barrels set up parallel on a platform, in use during the 14th and 15th centuries.
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Rifling consists of helical grooves in the barrel of a gun or firearm, which imparts a spin to a projectile around its long axis.
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A rocket (Italian rocchetta‚ "little fuse") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
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Rocket artillery is a type of artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional guns or mortars.
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A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens.
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The Royal Arsenal, Woolwich carried out armaments manufacture, ammunition proofing, and explosives research for the British armed forces at a site on the south bank of the River Thames in Woolwich in south-east London, England.
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The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA), is the artillery arm of the British Army.
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The regiments of the Royal Horse Artillery (RHA), dating from 1793, are part of the Royal Regiment of Artillery (commonly termed Royal Artillery) of the British Army.
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A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.
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The Second Anglo–Mysore War (1780–1784) was a conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company.
The Second Boer War (Tweede Boerenoorlog, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, literally "Second Freedom War") otherwise known as the Second Anglo-Boer War, was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State.
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Self-propelled artillery (also called mobile artillery or locomotive artillery) is artillery equipped with its own propulsion system to move towards its target.
The Seven Years' War was fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763.
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The NATO Army Armaments Group (NAAG) Integrated Capability Group Indirect Fires (ICGIF), formerly Land Group 4, and their Sub Group 2 (SG2) on Surface to Surface Ballistics has created a widely used set of shareable fire control software using the Ada programming language.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile which, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and proof shot).
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Shoot-and-scoot (alternatively, fire-and-displace or fire-and-move) is an artillery tactic of firing at a target and then immediately moving away from the location from where the shots were fired to avoid counter-battery fire (e.g. from enemy artillery).
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Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually.
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A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by attrition or assault.
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A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
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The 1792 Siege of Seringapatam was a battle and siege of the Mysorean capital city of Seringapatam (Srirangapatna) at the end of the Third Anglo-Mysore War.
The Siege of Seringapatam (5 April – 4 May 1799) was the final confrontation of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore.
There have been at least sixteen sieges of Stirling Castle, a strategically important fortification in Stirling, Scotland.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
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Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a country in Central Europe.
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In international arms control, small arms include revolvers and pistols, rifles and carbines, assault rifles, submachine guns and light machine guns.
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A smoothbore weapon is one which has a barrel without rifling.
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SMS Königsberg ("His Majesty's Ship Königsberg)"SMS" stands for "Seiner Majestät Schiff" (His Majesty's Ship).
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A soldier is one who fights as part of an organized land-based armed force.
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The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
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In land warfare, sound ranging is a method of determining the coordinates of a hostile artillery battery using data derived from the sound of its guns (or mortar or rockets) firing.
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South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.
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In military science, suppressive fire (commonly called covering fire) is "fire that degrades the performance of an enemy force below the level needed to fulfill their mission.
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Modern naval warfare is divided into four operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare, submarine warfare and information warfare.
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Swaging (pronunciation note below) is a forging process in which the dimensions of an item are altered using dies into which the item is forced.
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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
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, also, was a type of matchlock or arquebus firearm introduced to Japan through the Portuguese in 1543.
Tangier (also in English: Tangiers; طنجة Ṭanja; Berber: Ṭanja, ⵟⴰⵏⵊⴰ; archaic Berber name: Tingi or Tinigi; Tingis; Tanger) is a major city in northern Morocco with a population of approximately 974,000.
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Targeting is the process of selecting objects or installations to be attacked, taken, or destroyed in warfare.
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A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages from point to point and point to multipoint over various types of communications channels.
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The Third Anglo–Mysore War (1789–92) was a war in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the East India Company and its allies, including the Maratha Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad.
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Time On Target (TOT) is the military co-ordination of artillery fire by many weapons so that all the munitions arrive at the target at precisely the same time.
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A trebuchet (French trébuchet) is a type of catapult that was used as a siege engine in the Middle Ages.
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A truck (United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, called a lorry in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Indian Subcontinent) is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.
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A trunnion (from Old French "trognon", trunk) is a cylindrical protrusion used as a mounting and/or pivoting point.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The V-1 flying bomb (Vergeltungswaffe 1)—also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, and in Germany as Kirschkern (cherrystone) or Maikäfer (maybug)—was an early pulsejet-powered cruise missile.
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Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.
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The War in Afghanistan is the period in which the United States invaded Afghanistan after the September 11 attacks.
The War of 1812 was a military conflict, lasting for two and a half years, fought by the United States of America against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, its North American colonies, and its Native American allies.
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A weapons platform is generally any structure or system on which a weapon can be mounted.
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William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong, CB, FRS (26 November 1810 – 27 December 1900) was an English industrialist who founded the Armstrong Whitworth manufacturing concern on Tyneside.
Woolwich is an area of south east London within the Royal Borough of Greenwich.
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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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A worm is a device used to remove unspent powder bag remnants from a cannon or other piece of muzzle-loading field artillery.
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puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%), and has fibrous inclusions known as slag up to 2% by weight.
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The XM2001 Crusader was to be the United States Army's next-generation self-propelled howitzer (SPH), designed to improve the survivability, lethality, mobility, and effectiveness of the artillery as well as the overall force.
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12-pounder gun or 12-pdr, usually denotes a gun which fired a projectile of approximately 12 pounds.
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The A-222 Bereg (Берег; "Coast") is a Russian 130 mm self-propelled coastal artillery gun, which was developed in the 1980s and first shown to the public in 1993 at an arms fair in Abu Dhabi.
ZUZANA - 155 mm Self-propelled Gun Howitzer is a modern Slovak artillery system with a 45-caliber gun and automatic loader for loading of both, a projectile and charge.
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The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 (commonly called the eighty-eight) was a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.
Artelliry, Artilery, Artillary, Artillerie, Artillery (military), Artillery Cannon, Artillery piece, Artilleryman, Artillerymen, Division Artillery, Division artillery, Gunner (artillery), Gunnery Officer, Gunnery officer, Heavy artillery, Heavy field artillery, History of artillery, Horse drawn artillery, King of the battlefield, Light Artillery, Light artillery, Multiple Rounds Simultaneous Impact, Pieces of artillery, Shellfire, Supporting artillery fire, Time Over Target, Time on Target, Time-on-target.