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Index Fortification

A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime. [1]

315 relations: Abatis, Adobe, Aerial warfare, Afghanistan, Agra, Agra Fort, Air raid shelter, American frontier, American Indian Wars, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Archipelago, Assyria, Athens, Atlantic Wall, Aurelian, Aurelian Walls, Babylon, Banquette, Banu Qurayza, Barbed tape, Barbed wire, Bartizan, Bastion, Bastion fort, Battle, Battle of Hürtgen Forest, Battle of Hunayn, Battle of Kursk, Battle of the Trench, Battlement, Beijing, Beijing city fortifications, Berm, Bernard de Gomme, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Bibracte, Blockhouse, Borġ in-Nadur, Border barrier, Breastwork (fortification), British Raj, Bronze Age, Bruneian Empire, Building, Bulgaria, Bunker, Bunker buster, Camel cavalry, Camp Leatherneck, ..., Camp Shorabak, Campus Martius, Canadian Armed Forces, Canadian Army Command and Staff College, Canadian Militia, Cannon, Capital (fortification), Caponier, Carcassonne, Carolingian Empire, Casemate, Castellum, Castle, Castra, Cavalry, Cavin, César Cui, Celts, Central Europe, Chania, Cheyenne Mountain Complex, Chinese city wall, Chittor Fort, Citadel, Citadelle of Quebec, City Wall of Nanjing, City Wall of Suzhou, Classical antiquity, Coastal artillery, Coastal defence and fortification, Company (military unit), Compound (fortification), Concrete, Constantinople, Construction, Cotabato City, Counterscarp, Curtain wall (fortification), Cyclopean masonry, Czech hedgehog, Defence in depth, Defensive fighting position, Defensive wall, Delhi, Demilitarized zone, Diades of Pella, Diaolou, Diplomatic career of Muhammad, Ditch, Ditch (fortification), Early Middle Ages, Earthworks (engineering), Eastern Europe, Embrasure, English language, Europe, Fire department, Fire support base, Flak tower, Forbidden City, Fort Bourtange, Fort Campbell (Malta), Fort Frontenac, Fort Necessity National Battlefield, Fortification, Fortifications of Rhodes, Fortifications of Xi'an, Fortified church, Fortress church, Fortress Study Group, Forward operating base, Francesco Laparelli, Fritz Todt, Fur trade, Gabion, Garrison, Geometry, Germany, Gibraltar, Glacis, Gord (archaeology), Great Britain, Great Wall of China, Greece, Guantanamo Bay detention camp, Gun turret, Gunpowder, Gusuku, Gwalior Fort, Hadrian, Hadrian's Wall, Hangzhou City Walls, Helsinki, Henri Alexis Brialmont, Hesco bastion, Heuneburg, Hillfort, History of China, Hudson's Bay Company, Igorot people, Indonesia, Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, Indus River, Indus Valley Civilisation, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Internment, Intramuros, Ishtar Gate, Italy, James of Saint George, Jolo, Sulu, Keep, Korean fortress, Kot Diji, Kuruwa, Land mine, Landmark, Later Stone Age, Latin, Latrine, Lincoln, England, List of fortifications, List of forts, List of Roman emperors, Long Walls, Lumber, Lunette (fortification), Madhya Pradesh, Magazine (artillery), Maginot Line, Maharashtra, Malta, Manila, Maratha Empire, Martello tower, Maximilian von Welsch, Mechanical engineering, Medieval fortification, Medieval warfare, Mediterranean Sea, Mehrangarh, Menno van Coehoorn, Mesopotamia, Military, Military air base, Military camp, Military engineering, Military history, Mindanao, Ming dynasty, Missile launch facility, Monarch, Mortar (masonry), Mozi, Mudbrick, Muhammad, Mundigak, Muslim, Mycenae, Mycenaean Greece, Nebuchadnezzar II, Ness of Brodgar, Newport Arch, Nicosia, Nobility, Northern England, Northern Europe, Nuclear submarine, Nuclear weapon, Obsolescence, Old City (Shanghai), Open terrain, Oppidum, Oppidum of Manching, Ostsiedlung, Ottoman Empire, Outwork, Oxford University Press, Palace, Palisade, Parapet, Pasig River, , Peel tower, Pillbox (military), Piraeus, Platoon, Poliorcetics, Polygonal fort, Porta Nigra, Postern, Prison, Probus (emperor), Promontory fort, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Provadia, Qin dynasty, Radiation, Rajahnate of Maynila, Rajasthan, Rammed earth, Rampart (fortification), Ramparts of Quebec City, Ranthambore Fort, Ravelin, Red Fort, Redoubt, Renaissance, Revetment, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman legion, Rome, Sandbag, Sangar (fortification), Sanskrit, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Séré de Rivières system, Scotland, Sesklo, Seven hills of Rome, Shang dynasty, Shell (projectile), Shivaji, Siege, Siege engine, Siege of Ta'if, Siegfried Line, Soil, Solnitsata, Soviet Union, Sparta, Stalin Line, Steel, Stockade, Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultanate of Sulu, Sumer, Suomenlinna, Supermax prison, Tang dynasty, Terrain, Theresienstadt concentration camp, Tiber, Tower of London, Trading post, Trastevere, Trench warfare, Trier, Tunnel, Turret, United States, United States Army, United States Marine Corps, Uruk, W. Montgomery Watt, Walled villages of Hong Kong, Walls of Constantinople, War, Warring States period, Wire obstacle, World War I, World War II, Yongle Emperor, Zwinger. Expand index (265 more) »


An abatis, abattis, or abbattis is a field fortification consisting of an obstacle formed (in the modern era) of the branches of trees laid in a row, with the sharpened tops directed outwards, towards the enemy.

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Adobe is a building material made from earth and other organic materials.

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Aerial warfare

Aerial warfare is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

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Agra Fort

Agra Fort is a historical fort in the city of Agra in India.

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Air raid shelter

Air raid shelters, also known as bomb shelters, are structures for the protection of non-combatants as well as combatants against enemy attacks from the air.

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American frontier

The American frontier comprises the geography, history, folklore, and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912.

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American Indian Wars

The American Indian Wars (or Indian Wars) is the collective name for the various armed conflicts fought by European governments and colonists, and later the United States government and American settlers, against various American Indian tribes.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Atlantic Wall

The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom during World War II.

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Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.

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Aurelian Walls

The Aurelian Walls (Mura aureliane) are a line of city walls built between 271 AD and 275 AD in Rome, Italy, during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian and Probus.

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Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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A banquette is a small foot path or elevated step along the inside of a rampart or parapet of a fortification.

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Banu Qurayza

The Banu Qurayza (بنو قريظة, בני קוריט'ה; alternate spellings include Quraiza, Qurayzah, Quraytha, and the archaic Koreiza) were a Jewish tribe which lived in northern Arabia, at the oasis of Yathrib (now known as Medina), until the 7th century, when their alleged violation of a pact brokered by Muhammad led to their massacre.

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Barbed tape

Barbed tape or razor wire is a mesh of metal strips with sharp edges whose purpose is to prevent passage by humans.

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Barbed wire

Barbed wire, also known as barb wire, less often as bob wire or, in the southeastern United States, bobbed wire, is a type of steel fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s).

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A bartizan, (an alteration of bratticing), also called a guerite or échauguette, or spelled bartisan, is an overhanging, wall-mounted turret projecting from the walls of late medieval and early-modern fortifications from the early 14th century up to the 18th century.

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A bastion or bulwark is a structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly angular in shape and positioned at the corners.

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Bastion fort

A bastion fort, a type of trace Italienne (literally, Italian outline), is a fortification in a style that evolved during the early modern period of gunpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield.

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A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants.

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Battle of Hürtgen Forest

The Battle of Hürtgen Forest (Schlacht im Hürtgenwald) was a series of fierce battles fought from 19 September to 16 December 1944 between American and German forces on the Western Front during World War II in the Hürtgen Forest about east of the Belgian–German border.

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Battle of Hunayn

The Battle of Hunayn (غَـزوة حُـنـيـن, Ghazwat Hunayn) was fought by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers against the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin and its subsection the Thaqif, in 630 CE, in the Hunayn valley, on the route from Mecca to At-Ta’if.

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Battle of Kursk

The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.

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Battle of the Trench

The Battle of the Trench (Ghazwat al-Khandaq) also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Ghazwat al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000. The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution. The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.

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A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet (i.e., a defensive low wall between chest-height and head-height), in which gaps or indentations, which are often rectangular, occur at intervals to allow for the launch of arrows or other projectiles from within the defences.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Beijing city fortifications

The Beijing city fortifications were built between the early 15th century to 1553.

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A berm is a level space, shelf, or raised barrier (usually made of compacted soil) separating two areas.

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Bernard de Gomme

Sir Bernard de Gomme (1620 – 23 November 1685) was a Dutch military engineer.

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Berwick-upon-Tweed (Sooth Berwick, Bearaig a Deas) is a town in the county of Northumberland.

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Bibracte, a Gaulish oppidum or fortified city, was the capital of the Aedui and one of the most important hillforts in Gaul.

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In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions.

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Borġ in-Nadur

Borġ in-Nadur is an archaeological site located in open fields overlooking St George's Bay, near Birżebbuġa, Malta.

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Border barrier

A border barrier is a separation barrier that runs along an international border.

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Breastwork (fortification)

A breastwork is a temporary fortification, often an earthwork thrown up to breast height to provide protection to defenders firing over it from a standing position.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bruneian Empire

The Bruneian Empire or Empire of Brunei, also known as Sultanate of Brunei or Negara Brunei, was a Malay sultanate, centred in Brunei on the northern coast of Borneo island in Southeast Asia.

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A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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A bunker is a defensive military fortification designed to protect people or valued materials from falling bombs or other attacks.

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Bunker buster

A bunker buster is a type of munition that is designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground, such as military bunkers.

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Camel cavalry

Camel cavalry, or camelry, is a generic designation for armed forces using camels as a means of transportation.

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Camp Leatherneck

Camp Leatherneck is a 1,600 acre Afghan Armed Forces base in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.

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Camp Shorabak

Camp Shorabak (formerly Camp Bastion) is a former British Army airbase, located northwest of the city of Lashkar Gah in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, until 27 October 2014 when the British Army handed over control to the Afghan Ministry of Defense.

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Campus Martius

The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars", Italian Campo Marzio), was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about in extent.

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Canadian Armed Forces

The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; Forces armées canadiennes, FAC), or Canadian Forces (CF) (Forces canadiennes, FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces." This unified institution consists of sea, land, and air elements referred to as the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).

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Canadian Army Command and Staff College

The Canadian Army Command and Staff College (CACSC), formerly the Canadian Land Force Command and Staff College, is a school for officers of the Canadian Forces, specializing in staff and army operations courses.

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Canadian Militia

The Canadian Militia is a traditional title given to volunteer forces raised from local communities for the defence of Canada.

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A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.

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Capital (fortification)

In fortification, the capital of a bastion is a line drawn either from the angle of the polygon to the point of the bastion, or from the point of the bastion to the middle of the gorge.

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A caponier is a type of defensive structure in a fortification.

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Carcassonne (Carcaso) is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie.

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Carolingian Empire

The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.

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A casemate, sometimes erroneously rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired.

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A castellum in Latin is usually.

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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.

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In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.

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Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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In fortification, a cavin is a hollow way, adapted to cover troops, and facilitate their approach to a place.

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César Cui

César Antonovich Cui (Це́зарь Анто́нович Кюи́; 13 March 1918) was a Russian composer and music critic of French, Polish and Lithuanian descent.

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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Chania (Χανιά,, Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania regional unit.

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Cheyenne Mountain Complex

The Cheyenne Mountain Complex is a military installation and defensive bunker located in unincorporated El Paso County, Colorado, next to Colorado Springs, at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, which hosts the activities of several tenant units.

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Chinese city wall

Chinese city walls refer to defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times.

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Chittor Fort

The Chittor Fort or Chittorgarh is one of the largest forts in India.

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A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.

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Citadelle of Quebec

The Citadelle of Quebec (Citadelle de Québec), also known as La Citadelle, is an active military installation and the secondary official residence of both the Canadian monarch and the Governor General of Canada.

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City Wall of Nanjing

The City Wall of Nanjing was designed by Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang (r. 1328–1398) after he founded the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) and established Nanjing as the capital 600 years ago.

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City Wall of Suzhou

The City Wall of Suzhou is the city wall surrounding Suzhou city.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Coastal artillery

Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications.

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Coastal defence and fortification

Castillo San Felipe de Barajas in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, an example of an Early Modern coastal defense Coastal defence (or defense) and coastal fortification are measures taken to provide protection against military attack at or near a coastline (or other shoreline), for example, fortification and coastal artillery.

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Company (military unit)

A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.

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Compound (fortification)

In military science, a compound is a type of fortification made up of walls or fences surrounding several buildings in the center of a large piece of land.

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Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

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Cotabato City

Cotabato City, officially the City of Cotabato (Maguindanaon: Kuta Wato; Dakbayan sa Cotabato; Lungsod ng Cotabato), is a city in the Philippines in the province of Maguindanao.

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A scarp and a counterscarp are the inner and outer sides of a ditch or moat used in fortifications.

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Curtain wall (fortification)

A curtain wall is a defensive wall between two towers (bastions) of a castle, fortress, or town.

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Cyclopean masonry

Cyclopean masonry is a type of stonework found in Mycenaean architecture, built with massive limestone boulders, roughly fitted together with minimal clearance between adjacent stones and no use of mortar.

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Czech hedgehog

The Czech hedgehog (rozsocháč or ježek) is a static anti-tank obstacle defense made of metal angle beams or I-beams (that is, lengths with an L- or I-shaped cross section).

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Defence in depth

Defence in depth (also known as deep or elastic defence) is a military strategy that seeks to delay rather than prevent the advance of an attacker, buying time and causing additional casualties by yielding space.

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Defensive fighting position

A defensive fighting position (DFP) is a type of earthwork constructed in a military context, generally large enough to accommodate anything from one man to a small number of soldiers.

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Defensive wall

A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.

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Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.

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Demilitarized zone

A demilitarized zone, DMZ or DZ is an area in which treaties or agreements between nations, military powers or contending groups forbid military installations, activities or personnel.

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Diades of Pella

Diades of Pella (Διάδης Πελλαίος), surnamed the "Besieger" (Πολιορκητής), was a Thessalian inventor of many siege engines, student of Philip II's military engineer Polyidus of Thessaly.

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Diaolous formerly romanized as Clock Towers, are fortified multi-storey watchtowers in village countryside, generally made of reinforced concrete.

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Diplomatic career of Muhammad

Muhammad (c. 22 April, 571–11 June, 632) is documented as having engaged as a diplomat during his propagation of Islam and leadership over the growing Muslim Ummah (community).

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A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water.

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Ditch (fortification)

A ditch in military engineering is an obstacle, designed to slow down or break up an attacking force, while a trench is intended to provide cover to the defenders.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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Earthworks (engineering)

Earthworks are engineering works created through the processing of parts of the earth's surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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In military architecture, an embrasure is the opening in a crenellation or battlement between the two raised solid portions or merlons, sometimes called a crenel or crenelle.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fire department

A fire department (American English) or fire brigade (British English), also known as a fire protection district, fire authority or fire and rescue service is an organization that primarily provides firefighting services for a specific geographic area.

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Fire support base

A fire support base (FSB, firebase or FB) is a temporary military encampment to provide artillery fire support to infantry operating in areas beyond the normal range of fire support from their own base camps.

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Flak tower

Flak towers (Flaktürme) were eight complexes of large, above-ground, anti-aircraft gun blockhouse towers constructed by Nazi Germany in the cities of Berlin (3), Hamburg (2), and Vienna (3) from 1940 onwards.

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Forbidden City

The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.

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Fort Bourtange

Fort Bourtange (Vesting Bourtange) is a star fort in the village of Bourtange, Groningen, Netherlands.

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Fort Campbell (Malta)

Fort Campbell (Forti Campbell or Fortizza ta' Campbell), also known locally as Il-Fortizza ta' Selmun, is a former fort in Mellieħa, Malta.

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Fort Frontenac

Fort Frontenac was a French trading post and military fort built in 1673 at the mouth of the Cataraqui River where the St. Lawrence River leaves Lake Ontario (at what is now the western end of the La Salle Causeway), in a location traditionally known as Cataraqui.

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Fort Necessity National Battlefield

Fort Necessity National Battlefield is a National Battlefield Site in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, United States, which preserves the site of the Battle of Fort Necessity.

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A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.

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Fortifications of Rhodes

The fortifications of the town of Rhodes are shaped like a defensive crescent around the medieval town and consist mostly in a modern fortification composed of a huge wall made of an embankment encased in stone, equipped with scarp, bastions, moat, counterscarp and glacis.

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Fortifications of Xi'an

The fortifications of Xi'an, also known as Xi'an City Wall, in Xi'an, an ancient capital of China, represent one of the oldest, largest and best preserved Chinese city walls.

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Fortified church

A fortified church is a church that is built to play a defensive role in times of war.

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Fortress church

A fortress church (Kirchenburg) is particular type of church that, in addition to its religious functions is also used by the local population as a retreat and defensive position, similar to a refuge castle.

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Fortress Study Group

The Fortress Study Group is an international charity registered in the UK, which aims to further the understanding of military fortifications, particularly those designed after the introduction of gunpowder artillery.

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Forward operating base

A forward operating base (FOB) is any secured forward military position, commonly a military base, that is used to support tactical operations.

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Francesco Laparelli

Francesco Laparelli da Cortona (5 April 1521 – 20 October 1570) was an Italian architect.

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Fritz Todt

Fritz Todt (4 September 1891 – 8 February 1942) was a German construction engineer, senior Nazi figure, who rose from "Inspector General for German Roadways" where he oversaw the construction of German Autobahnen (Reichsautobahnen) to Reich Minister for Armaments and Ammunition where he led the entire war military economy.

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Fur trade

The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.

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A gabion (from Italian gabbione meaning "big cage"; from Italian gabbia and Latin cavea meaning "cage") is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, military applications and landscaping.

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Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.

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A glacis in military engineering is an artificial slope as part of a medieval castle or in early modern fortresses.

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Gord (archaeology)

A gord is a medieval Slavic fortified wooden settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German term for such sites.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.

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No description.

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Guantanamo Bay detention camp

The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a United States military prison located within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base,, The Independent, 29 April 2006 also referred to as Guantánamo or GTMO, which is on the coast of Guantánamo Bay in Cuba.

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Gun turret

A gun turret is a location from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility, and some cone of fire.

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Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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often refers to castles or fortresses in the Ryukyu Islands that feature stone walls.

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Gwalior Fort

Gwalior Fort (ग्वालियर क़िला Gwalior Qila) is a hill fort near Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, central India.

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Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.

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Hadrian's Wall

Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.

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Hangzhou City Walls

The first defensive barrier in the Hangzhou area can be traced back 5000 years to the Neolithic jade-carving Liangzhu Culture.

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Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.

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Henri Alexis Brialmont

Henri-Alexis Brialmont (Venlo, 25 May 1821 – Brussels, 21 July 1903), nicknamed The Belgian Vauban after the French architect Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, was a Belgian army officer, politician and writer of the 19th century, best known as a military architect and designer of fortifications.

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Hesco bastion

The HESCO MIL is a modern gabion primarily used for flood control and military fortifications.

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The Heuneburg is a prehistoric hillfort by the river Danube in Hundersingen near Herbertingen, between Ulm and Sigmaringen, Baden-Württemberg, in the south of Germany, close to the modern borders with Switzerland and Austria.

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A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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Hudson's Bay Company

The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.

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Igorot people

Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in the Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation

The Indonesian–Malaysian confrontation or Borneo confrontation (also known by its Indonesian/Malay name, Konfrontasi) was a violent conflict from 1963–66 that stemmed from Indonesia's opposition to the creation of Malaysia.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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Intercontinental ballistic missile

An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).

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Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.

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Intramuros (Latin for "within the walls") is the historic walled area within the modern city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines.

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Ishtar Gate

The Ishtar Gate (بوابة عشتار) was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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James of Saint George

Master James of Saint George (c. 1230 – 1309), also known as Master James of Savoy and in French Maitre Jacques de Saint-Georges d'Espéranche, was an architect from Savoy, described by historian Marc Morris as "one of the greatest architects of the European Middle Ages".

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Jolo, Sulu

, officially the, (Tausūg: Lupah Sūg, Filipino: Bayan ng Holo), is a settlement_text and capital of the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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A keep (from the Middle English kype) is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility.

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Korean fortress

Korean fortresses are fortifications constructed by Koreans since the Three Kingdoms of Korea period.

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Kot Diji

The ancient site at Kot Diji (کوٹ ڈیجی) was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization.

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is a Japanese term that refers to the walls of a Japanese castle, and the regions bounded by the arrangement of those walls.

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Land mine

A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

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A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances.

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Later Stone Age

The Later Stone Age (or LSA) is a period in African prehistory that follows the Middle Stone Age.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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A latrine is a toilet or an even simpler facility which is used as a toilet within a sanitation system.

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Lincoln, England

Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.

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List of fortifications

This is a list of fortifications past and present, a fortification being a major physical defensive structure often composed of a more or less wall-connected series of forts.

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List of forts

This is a list for articles on notable historic forts which may or may not be under current active use by a military.

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List of Roman emperors

The Roman Emperors were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens and military.

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Long Walls

Although long walls were built at several locations in ancient Greece, notably Corinth and Megara, the term Long Walls (Μακρὰ Τείχη) generally refers to the walls that connected Athens to its ports at Piraeus and Phalerum.

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Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.

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Lunette (fortification)

In fortification, a lunette was originally an outwork of half-moon shape; later it became a redan with short flanks, in trace somewhat resembling a bastion standing by itself without curtains on either side.

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Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.

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Magazine (artillery)

Magazine is the name for an item or place within which ammunition or other explosive material is stored.

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Maginot Line

The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.

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Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.

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Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.

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Maratha Empire

The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.

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Martello tower

Martello towers, sometimes known simply as Martellos, are small defensive forts that were built across the British Empire during the 19th century, from the time of the French Revolutionary Wars onwards.

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Maximilian von Welsch

Johann Maximilian von Welsch (1671 – 15 October 1745) was a German architect, construction director and fortress master builder.

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Mechanical engineering

Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.

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Medieval fortification

Medieval fortification refers to medieval military methods that cover the development of fortification construction and use in Europe, roughly from the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Renaissance.

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Medieval warfare

Medieval warfare is the European warfare of the Middle Ages.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mehrangarh (Mehran Fort), located in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, is one of the largest forts in India.

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Menno van Coehoorn

Menno, Baron van Coehoorn (March 1641 – 17 March 1704) was a Dutch soldier and engineer regarded as one of the most significant figures in Dutch military history.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Military air base

A military air base (sometimes referred to as a military airfield, military airport, air force station, air force base or short air base) is an aerodrome (military base) used by a military force for the operation of military aircraft.

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Military camp

A military camp or bivouac (see Bivouac shelter) is a semi-permanent facility for the lodging of an army.

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Military engineering

Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications.

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Military history

Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing local and international relationships.

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Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Missile launch facility

A missile launch facility, also known as an underground missile silo, launch facility (LF), or nuclear silo, is a vertical cylindrical structure constructed underground, for the storage and launching of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).

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A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Mortar (masonry)

Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.

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Mozi (Latinized as Micius; c. 470 – c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (墨翟), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).

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A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Mundigak (مونډي ګاګ), in Kandahar, Afghanistan, is an archaeological site in Kandahar province in Afghanistan.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.

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Mycenaean Greece

Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.

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Nebuchadnezzar II

Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.

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Ness of Brodgar

The Ness of Brodgar is an archaeological site covering between the Ring of Brodgar and the Stones of Stenness in the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site in Orkney, Scotland.

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Newport Arch

Newport Arch is the name given to the remains of a 3rd-century Roman gate in the city of Lincoln, Lincolnshire.

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Nicosia (Λευκωσία; Lefkoşa) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus.

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Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.

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Northern England

Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Nuclear submarine

A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Obsolescence is the state of being which occurs when an object, service, or practice is no longer wanted even though it may still be in good working order.

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Old City (Shanghai)

The Old City of Shanghai (Shanghainese: Zånhae Loh Senshian), also formerly known as the Chinese city, is the traditional urban core of Shanghai, China.

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Open terrain

Open terrain, open country or open ground is terrain which is mostly flat and free of obstructions such as trees and buildings.

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An oppidum (plural oppida) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement.

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Oppidum of Manching

The Oppidum of Manching (Oppidum von Manching) was a large Celtic proto-urban or city-like settlement at modern-day Manching, near Ingolstadt, in Bavaria, Germany.

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Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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An outwork is a minor fortification built or established outside the principal fortification limits, detached or semidetached.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.

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A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is typically a fence or wall made from wooden stakes or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure.

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A parapet is a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway or other structure.

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Pasig River

The Pasig River (Ilog Pasig and Río Pásig) is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay.

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The word pā (IPA) can refer to any Māori village or defensive settlement, but often refers to hill forts – fortified settlements with palisades and defensive terraces – and also to fortified villages.

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Peel tower

Peel towers (also spelt pele) are small fortified keeps or tower houses, built along the English and Scottish borders in the Scottish Marches and North of England, intended as watch towers where signal fires could be lit by the garrison to warn of approaching danger.

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Pillbox (military)

Pillboxes are concrete dug-in guard posts, normally equipped with loopholes through which to fire weapons.

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Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.

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A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two or more squads/sections/patrols.

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No description.

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Polygonal fort

A polygonal fort is a fortification in the style that appeared in the end of the eighteenth century and evolved around the middle of the nineteenth century, in response to the development of powerful explosive shells.

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Porta Nigra

The Porta Nigra (Latin for black gate) is a large Roman city gate in Trier, Germany.

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A postern is a secondary door or gate in a fortification such as a city wall or castle curtain wall.

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A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.

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Probus (emperor)

Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus; c. 19 August 232 – September/October 282), was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282.

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Promontory fort

A promontory fort is a defensive structure located above a steep cliff, often only connected to the mainland by a small neck of land, thus utilizing the topography to reduce the ramparts needed.

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Prophets and messengers in Islam

Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).

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Provadia (Провадия) is a town in northeastern Bulgaria, part of Varna Province, located in a deep karst gorge (Provadia syncline) along the Provadia River not far from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.

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Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Rajahnate of Maynila

In early Philippine history, the Tagalog Bayan ("country" or "polity") of Maynila (Bayan ng Maynila; Baybayin:; Balen ning Maynila) was a major trade hub located on the southern part of the Pasig River delta,Abinales, Patricio N. and Donna J. Amoroso, State and Society in the Philippines.

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Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).

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Rammed earth

Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé (de terre) in French, and hangtu, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.

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Rampart (fortification)

In fortification architecture, a rampart is a length of bank or wall forming part of the defensive boundary of a castle, hillfort, settlement or other fortified site.

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Ramparts of Quebec City

Located in Canada, the Ramparts of Quebec City are the only remaining fortified city walls in North America north of Mexico.

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Ranthambore Fort

Ranthambore Fort lies within the Ranthambore National Park, near the town of Sawai Madhopur, the park being the former hunting grounds of the Maharajahs of Jaipur until the time of India's Independence.

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A ravelin is a triangular fortification or detached outwork, located in front of the innerworks of a fortress (the curtain walls and bastions).

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Red Fort

Red Fort is a historic fort in the city of Delhi in India.

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A redoubt (historically redout) is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort, usually relying on earthworks, although some are constructed of stone or brick.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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In stream restoration, river engineering or coastal engineering, revetments are sloping structures placed on banks or cliffs in such a way as to absorb the energy of incoming water.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman legion

A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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A sandbag is a bag or sack made of hessian (burlap), polypropylene or other sturdy materials that is filled with sand or soil and used for such purposes as flood control, military fortification in trenches and bunkers, shielding glass windows in war zones, ballast, counterweight, and in other applications requiring mobile fortification, such as adding improvised additional protection to armoured vehicles or tanks.

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Sangar (fortification)

A sangar (or sanger) (سنگر) is a temporary fortified position with a breastwork originally constructed of stones, and now built of sandbags and similar materials.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban

Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (1 May 163330 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer who rose in the service to the king and was commissioned as a Marshal of France.

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Séré de Rivières system

The Séré de Rivières system was named after Raymond Adolphe Séré de Rivières, its originator.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Sesklo (Σέσκλο) is a village in Greece that is located near Volos, a city located within the municipality of Aisonia.

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Seven hills of Rome

The seven hills of Rome (Sette colli di Roma, Septem colles/ montes Romae) east of the river Tiber form the geographical heart of Rome, within the walls of the city.

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Shang dynasty

The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.

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Shell (projectile)

A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.

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Shivaji Bhonsle (c. 1627/1630 – 3 April 1680) was an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.

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A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.

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Siege engine

A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.

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Siege of Ta'if

The Siege of Ta'if took place in 630, as the Muslims besieged the city of Ta'if after their victory in the Battle of Hunayn and Autas.

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Siegfried Line

The term Siegfried Line refers to two different German defensive lines, one during the First World War and the other during the Second World War.

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Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Solnitsata (Солницата, "The Saltworks") was an ancient town located in present-day Bulgaria, near the modern city of Provadia.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.

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Stalin Line

The Stalin Line was a line of fortifications along the western border of the Soviet Union.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened as a defensive wall.

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Sultanate of Maguindanao

The Sultanate of Maguindanao (Maguindanaoan: Kasultanan sa Magindanaw; Jawi: كسولتانن ماڬوايندنااو; Filipino: Kasultanan ng Maguindanao; Malay: Kesultanan Maguindanaw; سلطنة ماجوينداناو) was a Sultanate state that ruled parts of the island of Mindanao, in southern Philippines, especially in modern-day Maguindanao province and Davao City.

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Sultanate of Sulu

The Sultanate of Sulu (Tausūg: Kasultanan sin Sūg, Jawi: کسلطانن سولو دار الإسلام, Kesultanan Sulu, سلطنة سولك) was a Muslim state that ruled the islands in the Sulu Archipelago, parts of Mindanao, certain portions of Palawan and north-eastern Borneo (present-day the certain parts of Sabah and North Kalimantan).

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Suomenlinna (Finnish), or Sveaborg (Swedish), literal translation Finland Castle, until 1918 Viapori (Finnish), is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands (Kustaanmiekka (sv:Vargskär / Gustavssvärd), Susisaari (sv:Vargö), Iso-Mustasaari (sv:Stora Östersvartö), Pikku-Mustasaari (sv:Lilla Östersvartö), Länsi-Mustasaari (sv:Västersvartö), and Långören) and which now forms part of the city of Helsinki, the capital of Finland.

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Supermax prison

Supermax (super-maximum security or administrative maximum (ADX)) is a term used to describe "control-unit" prisons, or units within prisons, which represent the most secure levels of custody in the prison systems of certain countries.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.

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Theresienstadt concentration camp

Theresienstadt concentration camp, also referred to as Theresienstadt ghetto, was a concentration camp established by the SS during World War II in the garrison city of Terezín (Theresienstadt), located in German-occupied Czechoslovakia.

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The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.

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Tower of London

The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.

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Trading post

A trading post, trading station, or trading house was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America, although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans.

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Trastevere is the 13th rione of Rome, on the west bank of the Tiber, south of Vatican City, and within Municipio I. Its name comes from the Latin trans Tiberim, meaning literally "beyond the Tiber".

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Trench warfare

Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.

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Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.

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A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.

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In architecture, a turret (from Italian: torretta, little tower; Latin: turris, tower) is a small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.

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Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.

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W. Montgomery Watt

William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.

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Walled villages of Hong Kong

Once common throughout China, walled villages can still be found in southern China and Hong Kong.

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Walls of Constantinople

The Walls of Constantinople are a series of defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great.

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War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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Wire obstacle

In the military science of fortification, wire obstacles are defensive obstacles made from barbed wire, barbed tape or concertina wire.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yongle Emperor

The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.

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A Zwinger is an open area between two defensive walls that is used for defensive purposes.

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Defensive box, Defensive works, Earthwork (military), Earthworks (fortification), Earthworks (military), Festungen, Field fortification, Fieldwork (military), Fieldworks, Fieldworks (military), Fort, Fortalice, Fortalices, Fortifications, Fortified, Fortress, Fortresses, Forts, Horn works, Military earthworks, Military fieldwork, Military fort, Military fortification, Military fortifications, Permanent fortification, Permanent fortifications, Semipermanent fortification, Semipermanent fortifications, Stronghold, Stronghold (structure), Strongholds.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortification

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