238 relations: Abbreviation, Acoustic location, Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System, Aegis Combat System, Air Defence of Great Britain, Air Defense Artillery Branch, Air force, Air supremacy, Air-to-air missile, Airborne early warning and control, Aircraft, Allies of World War II, Amyas Borton, Anti-Aircraft Command, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-radiation missile, Anti-submarine warfare, Aperture, Army, Artillery, Atmospheric pressure, Attack aircraft, Autocannon, Automation, Aviation Week, Balloon (aeronautics), Barr and Stroud, Barrage balloon, Battle of Berlin, Battle of Britain, Battle of Mogadishu (1993), Battle of Mosul (2016–2017), Battle of Sedan, Bell Labs, Berlin, Bethnal Green tube station, Bistatic radar, Blockhouse, Blowpipe (missile), Bofors, Bofors 40 mm gun, Bomber, British Army, Buk missile system, Carrier battle group, CIM-10 Bomarc, Close-in weapon system, Coincidence rangefinder, Cold War, Combat air patrol, ..., Convair F-102 Delta Dagger, Convair F-106 Delta Dart, Cyrillic script, Eagle, Electromagnetic radiation, Electronic counter-countermeasure, Electronic countermeasure, Fairey Stooge, Falklands War, Fighter aircraft, FIM-92 Stinger, Fire-control system, First Balkan War, Flak tower, Flaming onion, Fliegerfaust, Franco-Prussian War, Frederick Alfred Pile, Fuse (explosives), Gatling gun, GAU-8 Avenger, George Robey, German Navy, Goalkeeper CIWS, Gotha G.V, Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-30, Gulf War, Gun laying, Half-track, History of radar, Hydraulics, Identification friend or foe, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, John Browning, Joint Force Air Component Commander, Kamikaze, Kashtan CIWS, Keerbergen, Kerrison Predictor, Kragujevac, Krupp, Laser, List of anti-aircraft weapons, List of German guided weapons of World War II, Low-frequency radar, M2 Browning, M3 Half-track, M45 Quadmount, M51 Skysweeper, Machine gun, Malta, Man-portable air-defense system, Manfred von Richthofen, Maunsell Forts, Maxim gun, Micronation, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25, MIM-104 Patriot, MIM-23 Hawk, MIM-3 Nike Ajax, MIT Radiation Laboratory, Music hall, Nathan Crook Twining, NATO, NATO Integrated Air Defense System, Navy, Nazi Germany, Normandy landings, North Sea, Nuclear weapon, Oerlikon GDF, Offensive counter air, Operation Chastise, Optics, Optoelectronics, Percy Scott, Point-defence, Popular Mechanics, Principality of Sealand, Private (rank), Project Nike, Proximity fuze, QF 1-pounder pom-pom, QF 13-pounder 6 cwt AA gun, QF 13-pounder 9 cwt, QF 2-pounder naval gun, QF 3-inch 20 cwt, QF 3.7-inch AA gun, QF 4 inch Mk V naval gun, Quantum well infrared photodetector, Radar, Radar cross-section, Radar picket, Radio telescope, Radoje Ljutovac, RAF Regiment, Railgun, Rapier (missile), Rate of fire, RBS 70, RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile, RIM-162 ESSM, RIM-67 Standard, Rocket-propelled grenade, Roland (missile), Rotary cannon, Royal Air Force, Royal Flying Corps, Royal Garrison Artillery, Royal Marines, Royal Naval Reserve, Royal Navy, Royal Observer Corps, Russo-Georgian War, S-300 missile system, S-400 missile system, S-75 Dvina, SAM-N-2 Lark, Satellite, Schneider-Creusot, SCR-584 radar, Sea Dart, Sea Wolf (missile), Seacat (missile), Searchlight, Seaslug (missile), Self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon, September 2012 raid on Camp Bastion, Serbian Army, Shell (projectile), Short range air defense, Shotgun, Shrapnel shell, Siege of Paris (1870–71), Signals intelligence, Singapore in the Straits Settlements, Smoke screen, Soviet Air Defence Forces, Soviet Union, Spanish Civil War, Spelling alphabet, Stealth aircraft, Stealth technology, Strategic bombing, Suez Canal, Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses, Surface-to-air missile, Sweden, Swedish Navy, Tactical High Energy Laser, Thames Estuary, The bomber will always get through, Thermographic camera, Thermonuclear weapon, Tomahawk (missile), Transporter erector launcher, Treaty of Versailles, Type 212 submarine, Union Army Balloon Corps, United States Air Force, United States Army, United States Navy, Unmanned aerial vehicle, V-1 flying bomb, Vickers, Vickers machine gun, Vietnam War, Wasserfall, Würzburg radar, Weather forecasting, World War I, World War II, Zeppelin, .50 BMG, 1.1"/75 caliber gun, 120 mm M1 gun, 2 cm Flak 30/38/Flakvierling, 20 mm caliber, 25 mm automatic air defense gun M1940 (72-K), 2K22 Tunguska, 3"/23 caliber gun, 37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K), 5"/38 caliber gun, 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41, 90 mm Gun M1/M2/M3, 9K33 Osa, 9K38 Igla. Expand index (188 more) » « Shrink index
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
Acoustic location is the use of sound to determine the distance and direction of its source or reflector.
The Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System (Aegis BMD or ABMD) is a United States Department of Defense Missile Defense Agency program developed to provide missile defense against short to intermediate-range ballistic missiles.
The Aegis Combat System is an American integrated naval weapons system developed by the Missile and Surface Radar Division of RCA, and now produced by Lockheed Martin.
The Air Defence of Great Britain (ADGB) was a RAF command comprising substantial army and RAF elements responsible for the air defence of the British Isles.
The Air Defense Artillery branch of the United States Army that specializes in anti-aircraft weapons (such as surface to air missiles).
An air force, also known in some countries as an aerospace force or air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare.
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
Python family of AAM for comparisons, Python-5 (displayed lower-front) and Shafrir-1 (upper-back) An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft.
An airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system is an airborne radar picket system designed to detect aircraft, ships and vehicles at long ranges and perform command and control of the battlespace in an air engagement by directing fighter and attack aircraft strikes.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Air Vice Marshal Amyas Eden Borton, (20 September 1886 – 15 August 1969) was a pilot and commander in the Royal Flying Corps during the First World War and a senior commander in the Royal Air Force during the 1920s.
Anti-Aircraft Command (AA Command, or "Ack-Ack Command") was a British Army command of the Second World War that controlled the Territorial Army anti-aircraft artillery and searchlight formations and units defending the United Kingdom.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
An anti-radiation missile (ARM) is a missile designed to detect and home in on an enemy radio emission source.
Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines.
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
An attack aircraft, strike aircraft, or attack bomber, is a tactical military aircraft that has a primary role of carrying out airstrikes with greater precision than bombers, and is prepared to encounter strong low-level air defenses while pressing the attack.
An autocannon or automatic cannon is a large, fully automatic, rapid-fire projectile weapon that fires armour-piercing or explosive shells, as opposed to the bullet fired by a machine gun.
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.
The Aviation Week Network is a New-York based B2B publishing and event production company.
In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy.
Barr & Stroud Limited was a pioneering Glasgow optical engineering firm.
A barrage balloon is a large kite balloon used to defend against aircraft attack by raising aloft cables which pose a collision risk, making the attacker's approach more difficult.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
The Battle of Mogadishu, or Day of the Rangers (Maalintii Rangers), was part of Operation Gothic Serpent.
The Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) (معركة الموصل, Ma‘rakat al-Mawṣil; شەڕی مووسڵ, Şeriy Mûsil) was a major military campaign launched by the Iraqi Government forces with allied militias, the Kurdistan Regional Government, and international forces to retake the city of Mosul from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), which had seized the city in June 2014.
The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War from 1 to 2 September 1870.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bethnal Green is a London Underground station in Bethnal Green, Greater London, England, and is served by the Central line between Liverpool Street and Mile End.
Bistatic radar is the name given to a radar system comprising a transmitter and receiver that are separated by a distance comparable to the expected target distance.
In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions.
The Shorts Blowpipe is a man-portable surface-to-air missile that was in use with the British Army and Royal Marines from 1975.
Bofors AB is a Swedish arms manufacturer.
--> The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The Buk missile system ("Бук"; “beech” (tree)) is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, and designed to counter cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.
A carrier battle group (CVBG) consists of an aircraft carrier (designated CV) and its large number of escorts, together defining the group.
The Boeing CIM-10 Bomarc (IM-99 Weapon System prior to September 1962) was a supersonic long-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) used during the Cold War for the air defense of North America.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A close-in weapon system (CIWS), is a point-defense weapon system for detecting and destroying short-range incoming missiles and enemy aircraft which have penetrated the outer defenses, typically mounted shipboard in a naval capacity.
A coincidence rangefinder (stereoscopic, parallax, or split-image rangefinder) is a type of rangefinder that uses mechanical and optical principles to allow an operator to determine the distance to a visible object.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Combat air patrol (CAP) is a type of flying mission for fighter aircraft.
The Convair F-102 Delta Dagger was an American interceptor aircraft that was built as part of the backbone of the United States Air Force's air defenses in the late 1950s.
The Convair F-106 Delta Dart was the primary all-weather interceptor aircraft of the United States Air Force from the 1960s through the 1980s.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) is a part of electronic warfare which includes a variety of practices which attempt to reduce or eliminate the effect of electronic countermeasures (ECM) on electronic sensors aboard vehicles, ships and aircraft and weapons such as missiles.
An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers.
The Fairey Aviation Stooge was a command guided surface-to-air missile (SAM) development project carried out in the United Kingdom starting in World War II.
The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
The FIM-92 Stinger is a Man-Portable Air-Defense System (MANPADS) that operates as an infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM).
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target.
The First Balkan War (Балканска война; Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Први балкански рат, Prvi Balkanski rat; Birinci Balkan Savaşı), lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League (the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire.
Flak towers (Flaktürme) were eight complexes of large, above-ground, anti-aircraft gun blockhouse towers constructed by Nazi Germany in the cities of Berlin (3), Hamburg (2), and Vienna (3) from 1940 onwards.
The flaming onion was a 37 mm revolving-barrel anti-aircraft gun used by the German army during World War I, the name referring to both the gun, and especially the flares it fired.
The Fliegerfaust (lit. "pilot fist" or "plane fist"), also known as the "Luftfaust" (lit. "air fist"), was a German prototype of an unguided, man-portable, and multi-barreled ground-to-air rocket launcher, designed to destroy enemy ground attack planes.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
General Sir Frederick Alfred Pile, 2nd Baronet, (14 September 1884 – 14 November 1976) was a senior British Army officer who served in both World Wars.
In an explosive, pyrotechnic device, or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function.
The Gatling gun is one of the best-known early rapid-fire spring loaded, hand cranked weapons and a forerunner of the modern machine gun.
The General Electric GAU-8/A Avenger is a 30 mm hydraulically driven seven-barrel Gatling-type autocannon that is typically mounted in the United States Air Force's Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II.
Sir George Edward Wade, CBE (20 September 1869 – 29 November 1954),Harding, James.
The German Navy (Deutsche Marine or simply Marine—) is the navy of Germany and part of the unified Bundeswehr ("Federal Defense"), the German Armed Forces.
Goalkeeper is a Dutch close-in weapon system (CIWS) introduced in 1979.
The Gotha G.V was a heavy bomber used by the Luftstreitkräfte (Imperial German Air Service) during World War I. Designed for long-range service, the Gotha G.V was used principally as a night bomber.
The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-30 (Russian: Грязев-Шипунов ГШ-6-30) is a Russian 30 mm Gatling-style aircraft-mounted and naval autocannon used by Soviet and later CIS military aircraft.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Gun laying is the process of aiming an artillery piece, such as a gun, howitzer or mortar, on land or at sea, against surface or air targets.
A half-track is a civilian or military vehicle with regular wheels at the front for steering and continuous tracks at the back to propel the vehicle and carry most of the load.
The history of radar (where radar stands for RAdio Detection And Ranging) started with experiments by Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century that showed that radio waves were reflected by metallic objects.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
Identification, friend or foe (IFF) is an identification system designed for command and control.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
John Moses Browning (January 23, 1855 – November 26, 1926) was an American firearms designer who developed many varieties of military and civilian firearms, cartridges, and gun mechanisms, many of which are still in use around the world.
Joint force air component commander (JFACC) is a United States Department of Defense doctrinal term.
, officially, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than possible with conventional air attacks.
The Kashtan (Каштан, English: Chestnut) close-in weapon system (CIWS) is a modern naval air defence gun-missile system deployed by the Russian Navy.
Keerbergen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant.
The Kerrison Predictor was one of the first fully automated anti-aircraft fire-control systems.
Kragujevac (Крагујевац) is the fourth largest city of Serbia and the administrative center of the Šumadija District in central Serbia.
The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
List of antiaircraft weapons.
During World War II, Nazi Germany developed many missile and precision-guided munition systems.
Low-frequency radar is radar which uses frequencies lower than 1 GHz such as L-band, UHF, VHF, and HF, as opposed to the usual radar bands, which range from 2 GHz and up, and the maximum is 40 GHz.The radar cross section of any target depends on the radar transmitted frequency.
The M2 Machine Gun or Browning.50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed toward the end of World War I by John Browning.
The M3 Half-track, known officially as the Carrier, Personnel Half-track M3, was an American armored personnel carrier half-track widely used by the Allies during World War II and in the Cold War.
The M45 Quadmount (nicknamed the "meat chopper" and "Krautmower"Rottman, Gordon L.,, Osprey Publishing (2010),, p. 19-20 for its high rate of fire) was a weapon mounting consisting of four of the "HB", or "heavy barrel".50 caliber M2 Browning machine guns (of the M2 Turret Type (TT) variant) mounted in pairs on each side of an open, electrically powered turret.
. Skysweeper (Gun, M51, Antiaircraft or Gun automatic, 75-mm T83E6, and E7, recoil mechanism, and loader rammer) was an anti-aircraft gun deployed in the early 1950s by both the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SLSAMs).
Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 1892 – 21 April 1918), also known as the "Red Baron", was a fighter pilot with the German Air Force during World War I. He is considered the ace-of-aces of the war, being officially credited with 80 air combat victories.
The Maunsell Forts are armed towers built in the Thames and Mersey estuaries during the Second World War to help defend the United Kingdom.
The Maxim gun was a weapon invented by American-born British inventor Hiram Stevens Maxim in 1884: it was the first recoil-operated machine gun in production.
A micronation, sometimes referred to as a model country or new country project, is an entity that claims to be an independent nation or state but is not recognized by world governments or major international organizations.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-25; NATO reporting name: Foxbat) is a supersonic interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft that was among the fastest military aircraft to enter service.
The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations.
The Raytheon MIM-23 Hawk is an American medium-range surface-to-air missile.
The United States Army's Nike Ajax was the world's first operational surface-to-air missile (SAM), entering service in 1954.
The Radiation Laboratory, commonly called the Rad Lab, was a microwave and radar research laboratory located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (US).
Music hall is a type of British theatrical entertainment that was popular from the early Victorian era circa 1850 and lasting until 1960.
Nathan Crook Twining (17 January 1869 – 4 July 1924) was a rear admiral of the United States Navy.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
NATO's NATO Integrated Air Defense System (short: NATINADS) is a command and control compound (structure or system) of the alliance's air defence forces, subordinated to the NATO command authorities, already in peace time as well as in crisis and war.
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Oerlikon GDF or Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon is a towed anti-aircraft gun made by Oerlikon Contraves (renamed as Rheinmetall Air Defence AG following the merger with Rheinmetall in 2009).
Offensive Counter-Air (OCA) is a military term for the suppression of an enemy's military air power, primarily through ground attacks targeting enemy air bases, disabling or destroying parked aircraft, runways, fuel facilities, hangars, air traffic control facilities and other aviation infrastructure.
Operation Chastise was an attack on German dams carried out on 16–17 May 1943 by Royal Air Force No. 617 Squadron, later called the Dam Busters, using a purpose-built "bouncing bomb" developed by Barnes Wallis.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.
Admiral Sir Percy Moreton Scott, 1st Baronet, KCB, KCVO, LL.D (10 July 1853 – 18 October 1924) was a British Royal Navy officer and a pioneer in modern naval gunnery.
Point-defence (or point-defense; see spelling differences) is the defence of a single object or a limited area, e.g. a ship, building or an airfield, now usually against air attacks and guided missiles.
Popular Mechanics is a classic magazine of popular science and technology.
The Principality of Sealand, commonly known as Sealand, is a micronation that claims Roughs Tower, an offshore platform in the North Sea approximately off the coast of Suffolk, England, as its territory.
A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to NATO Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in).
Project Nike, (Greek: Νίκη, "Victory", pronounced), was a U.S. Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Laboratories, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system.
A proximity fuze is a fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value.
The QF 1 pounder, universally known as the pom-pom due to the sound of its discharge, was a 37 mm British autocannon, the first of its type in the world.
The Ordnance QF 13 pounder Mk III anti-aircraft gun, also known as 13 pounder 6 cwt, was an early British improvisation in World War I to adapt the 13 pounder field gun to anti-aircraft use.
The 13 pounder 9 cwt anti-aircraft gunIn the name, 13 pounder referred to the approximate weight of the standard shell, and 9 cwt referred to the weight of the barrel and breech (9 × 112 lb.
The 2-pounder gun,British military of the period traditionally denoted smaller guns in terms of the approximate weight of the standard projectile, rather than by its bore diameter, which in this case was 40 mm.
The QF 3 inch 20 cwt anti-aircraft gun became the standard anti-aircraft gun used in the home defence of the United Kingdom against German airships and bombers and on the Western Front in World War I. It was also common on British warships in World War I and submarines in World War II.
The QF 3.7-inch AA was Britain's primary heavy anti-aircraft gun during World War II.
The QF 4 inch Mk V gunMk V.
A Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) is an infrared photodetector, which uses electronic intersubband transitions in quantum wells to absorb photons.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radar cross-section (RCS) is a measure of how detectable an object is by radar.
A radar picket is a radar-equipped station, ship, submarine, aircraft, or vehicle used to increase the radar detection range around a force to protect it from surprise attack, typically air attack.
A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.
Radoje Ljutovac (4 September 1887 – 25 November 1968) was Serbian soldier from the village of Poljna, Serbia.
The Royal Air Force Regiment (RAF Regiment) is part of the Royal Air Force and functions as a specialist corps founded by Royal Warrant in 1942.
A railgun is a device that uses electromagnetic force to launch high velocity projectiles, by means of a sliding armature that is accelerated along a pair of conductive rails.
Rapier is a surface-to-air missile developed for the British Army to replace their towed Bofors 40/L70 anti-aircraft guns.
Rate of fire is the frequency at which a specific weapon can fire or launch its projectiles.
RBS 70 (Robotsystem 70, "robot" meaning "missile" in this context in Swedish) is a man-portable air-defense system (MANPADS) designed for anti-aircraft warfare in all climate zones and with little to no support from other forces.
The RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) is a small, lightweight, infrared homing surface-to-air missile in use by the German, Japanese, Greek, Turkish, South Korean, Saudi Arabian, Egyptian, and U.S. navies.
The RIM-162 Evolved SeaSparrow Missile (ESSM) is a development of the RIM-7 Sea Sparrow missile used to protect ships from attacking missiles and aircraft.
The RIM-67 Standard ER (SM-1ER/SM-2ER) is an extended range surface-to-air missile (SAM) and anti ship missile originally developed for the United States Navy (USN).
A rocket-propelled grenade (often abbreviated RPG) is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead.
The Roland is a Franco-German mobile short-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) system.
A rotary cannon, rotary autocannon, or Gatling-type cannon is a rapid-firing weapon that utilizes multiple barrels in a rotating cluster to provide a sustained rate of fire greater than single-barreled machine guns or automatic cannon of equivalent caliber.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force.
The Royal Garrison Artillery (RGA) was formed in 1899 as a distinct arm of the British Army's Royal Regiment of Artillery serving alongside the other two arms of the Regiment, the Royal Field Artillery (RFA) and the Royal Horse Artillery (RHA).
The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.
The Royal Naval Reserve (RNR) is the volunteer reserve force of the Royal Navy in the United Kingdom.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Observer Corps (ROC) was a civil defence organisation intended for the visual detection, identification, tracking and reporting of aircraft over Great Britain.
The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
The S-300 (NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, based on the initial S-300P version.
The S-400 Triumf (C-400 Триумф, Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300PMU-3, is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed in the 1990s by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family.
The S-75 (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance.
The Lark project was a high-priority, solid-fuel boosted, liquid-fueled rocket surface-to-air missile developed by the United States Navy to meet the kamikaze threat.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Schneider-Creusot, or Schneider et Cie, was a historic French iron and steel-mill which became a major arms manufacturer.
The SCR-584 (short for Set, Complete, Radio # 584) was an automatic-tracking microwave radar developed by the MIT Radiation Laboratory during World War II.
Sea Dart or GWS30GWS stands for guided weapon system was a British surface-to-air missile system designed by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics in the 1960s, entering service in 1973.
Sea Wolf is a naval guided missile system designed and built by BAC, later to become British Aerospace (BAe) Dynamics (now MBDA).
Seacat was a British short-range surface-to-air missile system intended to replace the ubiquitous Bofors 40 mm gun aboard warships of all sizes.
A searchlight (or spotlight) is an apparatus that combines an extremely luminous source (traditionally a carbon arc lamp) with a mirrored parabolic reflector to project a powerful beam of light of approximately parallel rays in a particular direction, usually constructed so that it can be swiveled about.
Seaslug was a first generation surface-to-air missile designed by Armstrong Whitworth (later part of the Hawker Siddeley group) for use by the Royal Navy.
An anti-aircraft vehicle, also known as a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG) or self-propelled air defense system (SPAD), is a mobile vehicle with a dedicated anti-aircraft capability.
The Serbian Army (Копнена Војска / Kopnena Vojska, lit.) is the land-based component of the Serbian Armed Forces, responsible for defending the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Serbia from foreign hostiles; participating in peacekeeping operations; and providing humanitarian aid and disaster relief.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) is a group of anti-aircraft weapons and tactics that have to do with defense against low-altitude air threats, primarily helicopters and low-flying close air support aircraft such as the A-10 or Sukhoi Su-25.
A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug.
Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually.
The Siege of Paris, lasting from 19 September 1870 to 28 January 1871, and the consequent capture of the city by Prussian forces, led to French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and the establishment of the German Empire as well as the Paris Commune.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
Singapore in the Straits Settlements refers to a period in the history of Singapore from 1826 to 1942, during which Singapore was part of the Straits Settlements together with Penang and Malacca.
A smoke screen is smoke released to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks, aircraft or ships.
The Soviet Air Defence Forces (войска ПВО, voyska protivovozdushnoy oborony, voyska PVO, V-PVO, lit. Anti-Air Defence Troops; and formerly protivovozdushnaya oborona strany, PVO strany, lit. Anti-Air Defence of the Nation) was the air defence branch of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
A spelling alphabet, word-spelling alphabet, voice procedure alphabet, radio alphabet, or telephone alphabet is a set of words used to stand for the letters of an alphabet in oral communication.
Stealth aircraft are designed to avoid detection using a variety of technologies that reduce reflection/emission of radar, infrared, visible light, radio-frequency (RF) spectrum, and audio, collectively known as stealth technology.
Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles and satellites to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD, pronounced), also known as "Wild Weasel" and "Iron Hand" operations in the United States, are military actions to suppress enemy surface-based air defenses, including not only surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) but also interrelated systems such as early-warning radar and command, control and communication (C3) functions, while also marking other targets to be destroyed by an air strike.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swedish Royal Navy (Svenska marinen) is the naval branch of the Swedish Armed Forces.
The Tactical High-Energy Laser, or THEL, was a laser developed for military use, also known as the Nautilus laser system.
The Thames Estuary is the estuary in which the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain.
The bomber will always get through was a phrase used by Stanley Baldwin in 1932 (although the theory was originally developed by Italian General Giulio Douhet), in the speech "A Fear for the Future" to the British Parliament.
A thermographic camera (also called an infrared camera or thermal imaging camera) is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile that is primarily used by the United States Navy and Royal Navy in ship and submarine-based land-attack operations.
A transporter erector launcher (TEL) is a missile vehicle with an integrated prime mover that can carry, elevate to firing position and launch one or more missiles.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
The German Type 212 class, also Italian Todaro class, is a highly advanced design of non-nuclear submarine developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) for the German and Italian navies.
The Union Army Balloon Corps was a branch of the Union Army during the American Civil War, established by presidential appointee Thaddeus S. C. Lowe.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
The V-1 flying bomb (Vergeltungswaffe 1 "Vengeance Weapon 1")—also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, and in Germany as Kirschkern (cherrystone) or Maikäfer (maybug)—was an early cruise missile and the only production aircraft to use a pulsejet for power.
Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 1999.
The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled.303 British (7.7 mm) machine gun produced by Vickers Limited, originally for the British Army.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Wasserfall Ferngelenkte FlaRakete (Waterfall Remote-Controlled A-A Rocket), was a German guided surface-to-air missile project of World War II.
The low-UHF band Würzburg radar was the primary ground-based gun laying radar for the Luftwaffe and the Wehrmacht Heer (German Army) during World War II.
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.
The.50 Browning Machine Gun (.50 BMG, 12.7×99mm NATO and designated as the 50 Browning by the C.I.P.) is a cartridge developed for the Browning.50 caliber machine gun in the late 1910s.
The 1.1"/75 caliber gun was an American anti-aircraft (AA) weapon of World War II, used by the United States Navy.
The 120 mm Gun M1 is the United States Army's standard super-heavy anti-aircraft gun, complementing the smaller and more mobile M2 90 mm gun in service.
The Flak 30 (Flugabwehrkanone 30) and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II.
The 20 mm caliber is a specific size of cannon or autocannon ammunition.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
25 mm automatic air defense gun M1940 (72-K) (25-мм автоматическая зенитная пушка образца 1940 года (72-К)) was a Soviet 25 mm caliber anti-aircraft gun.
The 2K22 Tunguska (2К22 "Тунгуска".; Tunguska) is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system.
The 3"/23 caliber gun (spoken "three-inch-twenty-three-caliber") was the standard anti-aircraft gun for United States destroyers through World War I and the 1920s.
The 37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K) (37-мм автоматическая зенитная пушка образца 1939 года (61-К)) was a Soviet 37 mm calibre anti-aircraft gun developed during the late 1930s and used during World War II.
The Mark 12 5"/38 caliber gun was a United States naval gun.
The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.
The 90–mm Gun M1/M2/M3 is an American heavy anti-aircraft and anti-tank gun, playing a role similar to the German 8.8cm Flak 18.
The 9K33 Osa (wasp) is a highly mobile, low-altitude, short-range tactical surface-to-air missile system designed in the Soviet Union.
The 9K38 Igla (Игла́, "needle", NATO reporting name SA-18 Grouse) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM).
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