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Index Money

Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context. [1]

198 relations: American Gold Eagle, American Public Media, Anna Schwartz, Archimedes' principle, Augusto Graziani, Australian Gold Nugget, Automated teller machine, Bank account, Bank of England, Bank of Japan, Bank reserves, Banknote, Barley, Barter, Beenz.com, Bi Sheng, Bid–ask spread, Bimetallism, Bitcoin, Black's Law Dictionary, Board of directors, Boundless (company), Bretton Woods Conference, Bretton Woods system, Brill Publishers, Broad money, Bullion coin, Calculation in kind, California Gold Rush, Capitoline Hill, Cash, Central bank, Cheque, Coin, Coin of account, Coinage of India, Coincidence of wants, Columbia University Press, Commercial bank, Commodity, Commodity money, Commons-based peer production, Conch, Conflation, Counterfeit money, Couplet, Cowry, Credit, Cryptocurrency, David Hume, ..., David Laidler, Debasement, Debt, Deflation, Demand deposit, Deposit account, Devaluation, Digital currency, Dinar, Dot-com bubble, Durability, Economics, Euro, European Central Bank, Eurozone, Exchange rate, Face value, Federal Open Market Committee, Federal Reserve Act, Federal Reserve Note, Federal Reserve System, Fiat money, Financial institution, Financial instrument, Financial ratio, Fineness, Flooz.com, Forbes, Foreign exchange market, Fourrée, Fractional-reserve banking, Free market, Fungibility, Gift economy, Gold coin, Gold mining, Gold rush, Gold standard, Goods and services, Government debt, Government spending, Grain (unit), Gresham's law, Herodotus, History of China, History of the Soviet Union (1982–91), Hyperinflation, Intelligent banknote neutralisation system, Interest rate, International sanctions, Intrinsic theory of value, Islamic Golden Age, Jiaozi (currency), Joint-stock company, Juno (mythology), Krugerrand, Labour voucher, Legal tender, Leper colony money, Liberty, Local exchange trading system, Lydians, Mahajanapada, Marcel Mauss, Marco Polo, Market economy, Market liquidity, Market price, Marketplace (radio program), Medium of exchange, Mesopotamia, Middle Ages, Milton Friedman, Mint (facility), Modern Monetary Theory, Moneta, Monetarism, Monetary authority, Monetary base, Monetary system, Money bag, Money creation, Money multiplier, Money supply, Monopoly, Movable type, Naked Capitalism, Nazism, New World, Numismatics, Online banking, Orders of magnitude (currency), Payment, PDF, People's Bank of China, Precious metal, Price system, Princeton University Press, Private currency, Promissory note, Purchasing power, Receipt, Recession, Representative money, Reserve requirement, Savings account, Seigniorage, Share (finance), Shekel, Shell money, Silver coin, Silver standard, Slang terms for money, Social capital, Song dynasty, Stagflation, Standard of deferred payment, Standing army, Steve Keen, Stock, Stockholms Banco, Store of value, Superdollar, Sweden, Tang dynasty, Tax evasion, Terrorism financing, The Theory of Money and Credit, The Travels of Marco Polo, Thomas H. Greco Jr., Time deposit, Token coin, Tradability, Transaction account, Transaction cost, Trust law, Uni (mythology), Unit of account, United States dollar, United States Note, Use value, Wampum, William of Rubruck, William Stanley Jevons, Woodblock printing, World currency, World War II, Yuan dynasty. Expand index (148 more) »

American Gold Eagle

The American Gold Eagle is an official gold bullion coin of the United States.

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American Public Media

American Public Media (APM) is the second largest producer and distributor of public radio programs in the United States after NPR.

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Anna Schwartz

Anna Jacobson Schwartz (/ʃwɔːrts/; November 11, 1915 – June 21, 2012) was an American economist who worked at the National Bureau of Economic Research in New York City and a writer for the New York Times.

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Archimedes' principle

Archimedes' principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and acts in the upward direction at the center of mass of the displaced fluid.

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Augusto Graziani

Augusto Graziani (4 May 1933 – 5 January 2014) was an Italian economist, Professor in Political Economy at University la Sapienza, most known for his contribution to monetary economics in founding monetary circuit theory.

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Australian Gold Nugget

The Australian Gold Nugget is a gold bullion coin minted by the Perth Mint.

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Automated teller machine

An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.

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Bank account

A bank account is a financial account maintained by a bank for a customer.

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Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Bank of Japan

The is the central bank of Japan.

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Bank reserves

Bank reserves are a commercial banks' holdings of deposits in accounts with a central bank (for instance the European Central Bank or the applicable branch bank of the Federal Reserve System, in the latter case including federal funds), plus currency that is physically held in the bank's vault ("vault cash").

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A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.

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Beenz.com was a web site that allowed consumers to earn beenz, a type of online currency, for performing activities such as visiting a web site, shopping online, or logging on through an Internet service provider.

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Bi Sheng

Bì Shēng (990–1051 AD) was a Chinese artisan and inventor of the world's first movable type technology, one of the Four Great Inventions of Ancient China.

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Bid–ask spread

The bid–ask spread (also bid–offer or bid/ask and buy/sell in the case of a market maker), is the difference between the prices quoted (either by a single market maker or in a limit order book) for an immediate sale (offer) and an immediate purchase (bid) for stocks, futures contracts, options, or currency pairs.

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Bimetallism is the economic term for a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent to certain quantities of two metals, typically gold and silver, creating a fixed rate of exchange between them.

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Bitcoin (₿) is the world's first cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash.

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Black's Law Dictionary

Black's Law is the most widely used law dictionary in the United States.

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Board of directors

A board of directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.

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Boundless (company)

Boundless was an American company, founded in 2011, which created free and low-cost textbooks and distributed them online.

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Bretton Woods Conference

The Bretton Woods Conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was the gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.

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Bretton Woods system

The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Broad money

In economics, broad money is a term denoting a certain measure of the amount of money (of the money supply) in a national economy, and it is used depending on the local practice.

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Bullion coin

A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment, rather than used in day-to-day commerce.

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Calculation in kind

Calculation in kind or calculation in nature is a way of valuating resources and a system of accounting that uses disaggregated physical magnitudes as opposed to a common unit of calculation.

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California Gold Rush

The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.

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Capitoline Hill

The Capitoline Hill (Mōns Capitōlīnus; Campidoglio), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the Seven Hills of Rome.

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In economics, cash is money in the physical form of currency, such as banknotes and coins.

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Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

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A cheque, or check (American English; see spelling differences), is a document that orders a bank to pay a specific amount of money from a person's account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued.

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A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.

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Coin of account

A coin of account is a unit of money that does not exist as an actual coin (that is, a metal disk) but is used in figuring prices or other amounts of money.

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Coinage of India

Coinage of India, issued by imperial dynasties and middle kingdoms, began anywhere between the 1st millennium BCE to the 6th century BCE, and consisted mainly of copper and silver coins in its initial stage.

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Coincidence of wants

The coincidence of wants (often known as double coincidence of wants) is the situation where the supplier of good A wants good B and the supplier of good B wants good A. It is an important category of transaction costs that impose severe limitations on economies lacking a medium of exchange (such as money), which have to rely on barter or other in-kind transactions.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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Commercial bank

A commercial bank is an institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, providing business loans, and offering basic investment products.

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In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

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Commodity money

Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made.

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Commons-based peer production

Commons-based peer production (CBPP) is a term coined by Harvard Law School professor Yochai Benkler.

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Conch is a common name that is applied to a number of different medium to large-sized shells.

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Conflation happens when the identities of two or more individuals, concepts, or places, sharing some characteristics of one another, seem to be a single identity, and the differences appear to become lost.

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Counterfeit money

Counterfeit money is imitation currency produced without the legal sanction of the state or government.

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A couplet is a pair of successive lines of metre in poetry.

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Cowry or cowrie, plural cowries, is the common name for a group of small to large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries.

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Credit (from Latin credit, "(he/she/it) believes") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date.

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A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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David Laidler

David Ernest William Laidler (born 12 August 1938, England) is an economist who has been one of the foremost scholars of monetarism.

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Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency.

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Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.

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In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.

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Demand deposit

Demand deposits, bank money or scriptural money are funds held in demand deposit accounts in commercial banks.

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Deposit account

A deposit account is a savings account, current account or any other type of bank account that allows money to be deposited and withdrawn by the account holder.

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In modern monetary policy, a devaluation is an official lowering of the value of a country's currency within a fixed exchange rate system, by which the monetary authority formally sets a new fixed rate with respect to a foreign reference currency or currency basket.

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Digital currency

Digital currency (digital money or electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available only in digital form, not in physical (such as banknotes and coins).

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The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries which were formerly territories of the Ottoman Empire, and was used historically in several more.

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Dot-com bubble

The dot-com bubble (also known as the dot-com boom, the dot-com crash, the Y2K crash, the Y2K bubble, the tech bubble, the Internet bubble, the dot-com collapse, and the information technology bubble) was a historic economic bubble and period of excessive speculation that occurred roughly from 1997 to 2001, a period of extreme growth in the usage and adaptation of the Internet.

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Durability is the ability of a physical product to remain functional, without requiring excessive maintenance or repair, when faced with the challenges of normal operation over its design lifetime.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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European Central Bank

The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.

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No description.

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Exchange rate

In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.

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Face value

The face value is the value of a coin, stamp or paper money, as printed on the coin, stamp or bill itself by the issuing authority.

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Federal Open Market Committee

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), a committee within the Federal Reserve System (the Fed), is charged under the United States law with overseeing the nation's open market operations (e.g., the Fed's buying and selling of United States Treasury securities).

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Federal Reserve Act

The Federal Reserve Act (ch. 6,, enacted December 23, 1913) is an Act of Congress that created and established the Federal Reserve System (the central banking system of the United States), and which created the authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes (commonly known as the US Dollar) as legal tender.

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Federal Reserve Note

Federal Reserve Notes, also United States banknotes or U.S. banknotes, are the banknotes currently used in the United States of America.

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Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.

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Fiat money

Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.

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Financial institution

Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporations which provide services as intermediaries of financial markets.

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Financial instrument

Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties.

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Financial ratio

A financial ratio or accounting ratio is a relative magnitude of two selected numerical values taken from an enterprise's financial statements.

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The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.

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Flooz.com was a dot-com venture, now defunct, based in New York City that went online in February 1999, promoted by comic actress Whoopi Goldberg in a series of television advertisements.

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Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Foreign exchange market

The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.

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A fourrée is a coin, most often a counterfeit, that is made from a base metal core that has been plated with a precious metal to look like its solid metal counterpart.

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Fractional-reserve banking

Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, but is required to hold reserves equal to only a fraction of its deposit liabilities.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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In economics, fungibility is the property of a good or a commodity whose individual units are essentially interchangeable.

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Gift economy

A gift economy, gift culture, or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards.

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Gold coin

A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold.

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Gold mining

Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining.

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Gold rush

A gold rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune.

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Gold standard

A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.

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Goods and services

Goods are items that are tangible, such as pens, salt, apples, oganesson, and hats.

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Government debt

Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.

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Government spending

Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.

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Grain (unit)

A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly.

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Gresham's law

In economics, Gresham's law is a monetary principle stating that "bad money drives out good".

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of the Soviet Union (1982–91)

The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.

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Intelligent banknote neutralisation system

An intelligent banknote neutralisation system (IBNS) is a security system which protects valuables against unauthorised access to its contents by rendering it unusable by marking all the cash as stolen by a degradation agent when an attempted attack on the system is detected.

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Interest rate

An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).

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International sanctions

International sanctions are political and economic decisions that are part of diplomatic efforts by countries, multilateral or regional organizations against states or organizations either to protect national security interests, or to protect international law, and defend against threats to international peace and security.

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Intrinsic theory of value

An intrinsic theory of value (also called theory of objective value) is any theory of value in economics which holds that the value of an object, good or service, is intrinsic, meaning that it can be estimated using objective measures.

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.

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Jiaozi (currency)

Jiaozi was a form of promissory banknote which appeared around the 11th century in the Sichuan capital of Chengdu, China.

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Joint-stock company

A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.

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Juno (mythology)

Juno (Latin: IVNO, Iūnō) is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state.

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For the Ian McNabb album, see Krugerrands. The Krugerrand is a South African gold coin, first minted in 1967 to help market South African gold and produced by the South African Mint.

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Labour voucher

Labour vouchers (also known as labour cheques, labour certificates, and personal credit) are a device proposed to govern demand for goods in some models of socialism, unlike money does under capitalism.

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Legal tender

Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.

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Leper colony money

Leper colony money was special money (scrip or vouchers) which circulated only in leper colonies (sanatoriums for people with leprosy) due to the fear that money could carry leprosy and infect other people.

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Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.

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Local exchange trading system

A local exchange trading system (also local employment and trading system or local energy transfer system; abbreviated LETS) is a locally initiated, democratically organised, not-for-profit community enterprise that provides a community information service and records transactions of members exchanging goods and services by using locally created currency.

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The Lydians were an Anatolian people living in Lydia, a region in western Anatolia, who spoke the distinctive Lydian language, an Indo-European language of the Anatolian group.

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Mahājanapada (lit, from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe, country") was one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.

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Marcel Mauss

Marcel Mauss (10 May 1872 – 10 February 1950) was a French sociologist.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Market economy

A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.

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Market liquidity

In business, economics or investment, market liquidity is a market's feature whereby an individual or firm can quickly purchase or sell an asset without causing a drastic change in the asset's price.

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Market price

In economics, market price is the economic price for which a good or service is offered in the marketplace.

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Marketplace (radio program)

Marketplace is a radio program that focuses on business, the economy, and events that influence them.

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Medium of exchange

A medium of exchange is a tradeable entity used to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.

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Mint (facility)

A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.

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Modern Monetary Theory

Modern Monetary Theory (MMT or Modern Money Theory) is a macroeconomic theory that describes and analyses modern economies in which the national currency is fiat money, established and created by a sovereign government.

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In Roman mythology, Moneta (Latin Monēta) was a title given to two separate goddesses: the goddess of memory (identified with the Greek goddess Mnemosyne) and an epithet of Juno, called Juno Moneta (Latin Iūno Monēta).

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Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.

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Monetary authority

In finance and economics, a monetary authority is the entity which controls the money supply of a given currency, often with the objective of controlling inflation or interest rates.

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Monetary base

In economics, the monetary base (also base money, money base, high-powered money, reserve money, outside money, central bank money or, in the UK, narrow money) in a country is defined as the portion of a commercial bank's reserves that consist of the commercial bank's accounts with its central bank plus the total currency circulating in the public, plus the currency, also known as vault cash, that is physically held in the bank's vault.

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Monetary system

A monetary system is the set of institutions by which a government provides money in a country's economy.

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Money bag

A money bag (moneybag, bag of money, money sack, sack of money, bag of gold, gold bag, sack of gold, etc.) is a bag (normally with a drawstring) of money (or gold) used to hold and transport coins and banknotes from/to a mint, bank, ATM, vending machine, business, or other institution.

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Money creation

Money creation is the process by which the money supply of a country, or of an economic or monetary region,Such as the Eurozone or ECCAS is increased.

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Money multiplier

In monetary economics, a money multiplier is one of various closely related ratios of commercial bank money to central bank money under a fractional-reserve banking system.

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Money supply

In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.

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A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

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Movable type

Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.

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Naked Capitalism

Naked Capitalism is an American financial news and analysis blog that "chronicles the large scale, concerted campaign to reduce the bargaining power and pay of ordinary workers relative to investors and elite technocrats".

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National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.

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Online banking

Online banking, also known as internet banking, it is an electronic payment system that enables customers of a bank or other financial institution to conduct a range of financial transactions through the financial institution's website.

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Orders of magnitude (currency)

This page is a progressive list of currency orders of magnitude, with examples.

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A payment is the trade of value from one party (such as a person or company) to another for goods, or services, or to fulfill a legal obligation.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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People's Bank of China

The People's Bank of China (PBC or PBOC) is the central bank of the People's Republic of China responsible for carrying out monetary policy and regulation of financial institutions in mainland China, as determined by Bank Law.

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Precious metal

A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.

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Price system

In economics, a price system is a component of any economic system that uses prices expressed in any form of money for the valuation and distribution of goods and services and the factors of production.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Private currency

A private currency is a currency issued by a private entity, be it an individual, a commercial business or a nonprofit enterprise.

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Promissory note

A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument (more particularly, a financial instrument and a debt instrument), in which one party (the maker or issuer) promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other (the payee), either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms.

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Purchasing power

Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number and quality or value of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.

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A receipt (also known as a bill of parcel, unpacking note, packaging slip, (delivery) docket, shipping list, packing list, packing slip, delivery list, manifest or customer receipt), is a document acknowledging that a person has received money or property in payment following a sale or other transfer of goods or provision of a service.

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In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

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Representative money

Representative money is any medium of exchange that represents something of value, but has little or no value of its own (intrinsic value).

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Reserve requirement

The reserve requirement (or cash reserve ratio) is a central bank regulation employed by most, but not all, of the world's central banks, that sets the minimum amount of reserves that must be held by a commercial bank.

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Savings account

A savings account is a deposit account held at a retail bank that pays interest but cannot be used directly as money in the narrow sense of a medium of exchange (for example, by writing a cheque).

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Seigniorage, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from Old French seigneuriage "right of the lord (seigneur) to mint money"), is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce and distribute it.

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Share (finance)

In financial markets, a share is a unit used as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts.

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Shekel (Akkadian: šiqlu or siqlu; שקל,. shekels or sheqalim) is any of several ancient units of weight or of currency.

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Shell money

Shell money is a medium of exchange similar to coin money and other forms of commodity money, and was once commonly used in many parts of the world.

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Silver coin

Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage.

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Silver standard

The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver.

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Slang terms for money

Slang terms for money often derive from the appearance and features of banknotes or coins, their values, historical associations or the units of currency concerned.

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Social capital

Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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In economics, stagflation, a portmanteau of stagnation and inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high.

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Standard of deferred payment

A standard of deferred payment is the accepted way, in a given market, to settle a debt – a deferred payment is not as widely used as other terms for functions of money, namely medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account, though it is distinguished in some works.

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Standing army

A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.

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Steve Keen

Steve Keen (born 28 March 1953) is an Australian economist and author.

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The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.

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Stockholms Banco

Stockholms Banco (also known as the Bank of Palmstruch or Palmstruch Bank) in Sweden was the first European bank to print banknotes.

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Store of value

A store of value is the function of an asset that can be saved, retrieved and exchanged at a later time, and be predictably useful when retrieved.

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A superdollar (also known as a superbill or supernote) is a very high quality counterfeit United States one hundred-dollar bill, alleged by the U.S. Government to have been made by unknown organizations or governments.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tax evasion

Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts.

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Terrorism financing

Terrorism financing refers to activities that provide financing or financial support to individual terrorists or non state actors.

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The Theory of Money and Credit

The Theory of Money and Credit is a 1912 economics book written by Ludwig von Mises, originally published in German as Theorie des Geldes und der Umlaufsmittel.

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The Travels of Marco Polo

Book of the Marvels of the World (French: Livre des Merveilles du Monde) or Description of the World (Devisement du Monde), in Italian Il Milione (The Million) or Oriente Poliano and in English commonly called The Travels of Marco Polo, is a 13th-century travelogue written down by Rustichello da Pisa from stories told by Marco Polo, describing Polo's travels through Asia between 1271 and 1295, and his experiences at the court of Kublai Khan.

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Thomas H. Greco Jr.

Thomas Henry Greco Jr. (born October 9, 1936) is a community economist, who blogs, writes, and speaks on the subject of free market alternative currency and monetary systems.

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Time deposit

A time deposit or term deposit (also known as a certificate of deposit in the United States) is a deposit with a specified period of maturity and earns interest.

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Token coin

In the study of numismatics, token coins or trade tokens are coin-like objects used instead of coins.

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Tradability is the property of a good or service that can be sold in another location distant from where it was produced.

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Transaction account

A transaction account, checking account, current account, demand deposit account, or share draft account (at credit unions) is a deposit account held at a bank or other financial institution.

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Transaction cost

In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost in making any economic trade when participating in a market.

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Trust law

A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.

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Uni (mythology)

Uni was the supreme goddess of the Etruscan pantheon and the patron goddess of Perugia.

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Unit of account

A unit of account in economics is a nominal monetary unit of measure or currency used to represent the real value (or cost) of any economic item; i.e. goods, services, assets, liabilities, income, expenses.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United States Note

A United States Note, also known as a Legal Tender Note, is a type of paper money that was issued from 1862 to 1971 in the U.S. Having been current for more than 100 years, they were issued for longer than any other form of U.S. paper money.

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Use value

Use value (German: Gebrauchswert) or value in use is the utility of consuming a good—the want-satisfying power of a good or service in classical political economy.

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Wampum is a traditional shell bead of the Eastern Woodlands tribes of American Indians.

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William of Rubruck

William of Rubruck (c. 1220 – c. 1293) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer.

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William Stanley Jevons

William Stanley Jevons FRS (1 September 1835 – 13 August 1882) was an English economist and logician.

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Woodblock printing

Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.

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World currency

In the foreign exchange market and international finance, a world currency, supranational currency, or global currency refers to a currency that is transacted internationally, with no set borders.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Money

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