219 relations: Abacá, ABCorp (American Banknote Corporation), Alaskan parchment scrip, American Revolution, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Chinese coinage, Anhui, Assignat, Austria, Austrian schilling, Austro-Hungarian krone, Automated teller machine, Bangladesh, Bank, Bank Charter Act 1844, Bank of England, Banknote counter, Banknotes of Northern Ireland, Banknotes of the Hong Kong dollar, Banknotes of the pound sterling, Banque Internationale à Luxembourg, Bermudian dollar, Bielefeld, Bisphenol S, Bohemia, Borna, Leipzig, Bradvek, Brazilian real, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cape Verdean escudo, Card money, Cash-in-transit, Central bank, Central Powers, Chao (currency), Chengdu, Cheque, Chile, Circulation (currency), Cocaine, Coin, Commercial bank, Confederate state currencies, Confederate States of America, Contaminated currency, Continental Congress, Copper, Costa Rica, Cotton, ..., Cotton paper, Count of Flanders, Counterfeit, Counterfeit money, Countries of the United Kingdom, Crane Currency, Credit risk, CSIRO, Currency, Currency union, Danske Bank (Northern Ireland), De La Rue, Digital currency, Dollar coin (United States), Dominican Republic, DuPont, Dye pack, Dynamic Intelligent Currency Encryption, Early American currency, EBay, Edgeworthia chrysantha, Emperor Huizong of Song, Endocrine disruptor, England and Wales, Euro, Federal government of the United States, Federal Reserve Note, Fiat money, Finance, First Bank of the United States, Floating exchange rate, Foreign exchange market, Forgery, Fractional currency, Fractional-reserve banking, France, French Revolution, Giesecke & Devrient, Goldsmith, Haiti, Han dynasty, Hangzhou, Hell money, Holography, Hudson's Bay Company, Huizhou, Huizhou (region), Hyperinflation, Ibrahim ibn Yaqub, Image scanner, Inflation, Intaglio (printmaking), Intelligent banknote neutralisation system, IOU, Isle of Man, Israel, Israeli new shekel, Italy, J. S. G. Boggs, Jiaozi (currency), John Law (economist), Khaki, Kinebar, Kublai Khan, Legal tender, Linen, List of motifs on banknotes, List of national legal systems, List of people on banknotes, London, Louis XIV of France, Luxembourg, Luxembourgish franc, Macanese pataca, Macau, Marco Polo, Mexico, Middle Ages, Monarchy of Sweden, Monetary Authority of Singapore, Money, Money creation, Money supply, Mongol Empire, Morus (plant), Napoleon, Negotiable instrument, Nicholas Barbon, Nigeria, Nine Years' War, Northern Ireland, Notaphily, Notgeld, Nuestra Señora de Atocha, Numismatics, Optical variable device, Overprint, Paraguay, Payment, Pärnu, Photocopier, Polymer banknote, Polypropylene, Pontiac's War, Precious metal, Price revolution, Printing, Promissory note, Province of Massachusetts Bay, Receipt, Representative money, Reserve Bank of Australia, Romania, Russian America, Samoa, Scotland, Second Bank of the United States, Second Boer War, Security printing, Seigniorage, She County, Anhui, Siege, Signature, Silver, Singapore dollar, Solomon Islands, Song dynasty, Souvenir, Special administrative regions of China, Sri Lankan rupee, SS Central America, Stamp collecting, Stockholms Banco, Superdollar, Sveriges Riksbank, Swiss franc, Tallinn, Tang dynasty, Tartu, Thailand, The Travels of Marco Polo, Trevett v. Weeden, Tribute, Turkestan, Tyvek, Ulster Bank, Ultraviolet, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of the Treasury, United States Note, Used note, Võru, Vending machine, Venezuelan bolívar, Viola Desmond, Washi, Watermark, Wear and tear, Wholesaling, William of Rubruck, William Phips, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Woodblock printing, Xinjiang, Yuan dynasty, Yugoslav dinar, Zambia, 2018 Canada banknote series. Expand index (169 more) » « Shrink index
Abacá (Abaka), binomial name Musa textilis, is a species of banana native to the Philippines, grown as a commercial crop in the Philippines, Ecuador, and Costa Rica.
ABCorp (American Banknote Corporation) is an American corporation and world leader providing secure payment, retail and ID cards, vital record and transaction documents, systems and services to governments and financial institutions - and is one of the largest producers of plastic transaction cards in the world.
Alaskan parchment scrip was in circulation from 1816 to 1867, issued by the Russian-American Company (RAC) in the colony of Russian America.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
Ancient Chinese coinage includes some of the earliest known coins.
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.
An assignat was a type of a monetary instrument used during the time of the French Revolution, and the French Revolutionary Wars.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Schilling (German: Österreichischer Schilling) was the currency of Austria from 1925 to 1938 and from 1945 to 1999, and the circulating currency until 2002.
The Krone or korona (Krone, Hungarian and Polish korona, krona, kruna, Czech and koruna) was the official currency of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1892 (when it replaced the gulden, forint, florén or zlatka as part of the adoption of the gold standard) until the dissolution of the empire in 1918.
An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
The Bank Charter Act 1844 (7 & 8 Vict. c. 32), sometimes referred to as the Peel Banking Act of 1844, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed under the government of Robert Peel, which restricted the powers of British banks and gave exclusive note-issuing powers to the central Bank of England.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
A banknote counter (or bill counter) is a device designed primarily to accurately count a quantity of banknotes.
Banknotes have been issued for use specifically in Northern Ireland since 1929, and are denominated in pounds sterling.
The issue of banknotes of the Hong Kong dollar is governed in the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA), the governmental currency board of Hong Kong.
Sterling banknotes are the banknotes in circulation in the United Kingdom and its related territories, denominated in pounds sterling (symbol: £; ISO 4217 currency code GBP). Sterling banknotes are official currency in the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, British Antarctic Territory, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and Tristan da Cunha in St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
Banque Internationale à Luxembourg S.A. (BIL) is a Luxembourgish bank.
The Bermudian dollar (symbol: $; code: BMD; also abbreviated BD$; informally called the Bermuda dollar) is the official currency of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda.
Bielefeld is a city in the Ostwestfalen-Lippe Region in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Bisphenol S (BPS) is an organic compound with the formula (HOC6H4)2SO2.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Borna is a town in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, capital of the Leipzig district.
Bradvek was a form of Tyvek polymer, produced by Du Pont.
The Brazilian real (real, pl. reais; sign: R$; code: BRL) is the official currency of Brazil.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The escudo (sign: \mathrm\!\!\!\Vert-->; ISO 4217: CVE) is the currency of the Republic of Cape Verde.
Card money is a type of fiat money printed on plain cardboard or playing cards, which was used at times as currency in several colonies and countries (including Dutch Guiana, New France, and France) from the 17th century to the early 19th century.
Cash-in-transit (CIT) or cash/valuables-in-transit (CVIT) is the physical transfer of banknotes, coins, credit cards and items of value from one location to another.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
The chao was the official banknote of the Yuan dynasty in China.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
A cheque, or check (American English; see spelling differences), is a document that orders a bank to pay a specific amount of money from a person's account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
In monetary economics, circulation is the continuing use of individual units of a currency for transactions.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
A commercial bank is an institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, providing business loans, and offering basic investment products.
The individual Confederate States of America issued many denominations of banknotes during the American Civil War.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
Most banknotes have traces of cocaine on them; this has been confirmed by studies done in several countries.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Cotton paper, also known as rag paper, is made using cotton linters or cotton from used cloth (rags) as the primary material.
The Count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
Counterfeit money is imitation currency produced without the legal sanction of the state or government.
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
Crane Currency is a manufacturer of cotton-based paper products used in the printing of national currencies, passports and banknotes.
A credit risk is the risk of default on a debt that may arise from a borrower failing to make required payments.
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
A currency union (also known as monetary union) involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration (such as an economic and monetary union, which would have, in addition, a customs union and a single market).
Danske Bank UK (formally Northern Bank) is a commercial bank in Northern Ireland.
De La Rue plc is a British banknote manufacturing, security printing of passports and tax stamps, brand authentication and paper-making company with headquarters in Basingstoke, Hampshire, England.
Digital currency (digital money or electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available only in digital form, not in physical (such as banknotes and coins).
The dollar coin is a United States coin worth one United States dollar.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
A dye pack is a radio-controlled incendiary device used by banks to foil a bank robbery by causing stolen cash to be permanently marked with dye shortly after a robbery.
Dynamic Intelligent Currency Encryption (DICE) is an AI-controlled security technology, which devaluates banknotes and assets remotely that have been stolen or are illegal.
Early American currency went through several stages of development in colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States.
eBay Inc. is a multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website.
Edgeworthia chrysantha (common names: Oriental paperbush, mitsumata) is a plant in the family Thymelaeaceae.
Emperor Huizong of Song (7 June 1082 – 4 June 1135), personal name Zhao Ji, was the eighth emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Federal Reserve Notes, also United States banknotes or U.S. banknotes, are the banknotes currently used in the United States of America.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
The President, Directors and Company, of the Bank of the United States, commonly known as the First Bank of the United States, was a national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791.
A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item.
Fractional currency, also referred to as shinplasters, was introduced by the United States federal government following the outbreak of the Civil War.
Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, but is required to hold reserves equal to only a fraction of its deposit liabilities.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Giesecke+Devrient (G+D) is a German company headquartered in Munich that provides banknote and securities printing, smart cards, and cash handling systems.
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
Hell money is a form of joss paper printed to resemble legal tender bank notes.The notes are not an official form of recognized currency or legal tender since their sole intended purpose is to be offered as burnt offerings to the deceased as a superstitious solution to resolve their ancestors’ financial problems.
Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.
Huìzhōu is a city in southeast Guangdong Province, China.
Huīzhōu is a historical region in southeastern China.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
Ibrahim ibn Yaqub (961–62; sometimes Ibrâhîm ibn Ya`qûb al-Tartushi or al-Ṭurṭûshî; also Abraham ben Jacob) was a 10th-century Hispano-Arabic, Sephardi Jewish traveller, probably a merchant, who may have also engaged in diplomacy and espionage.
An image scanner—often abbreviated to just scanner, although the term is ambiguous out of context (barcode scanner, CT scanner etc.)—is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting or an object and converts it to a digital image.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Intaglio is the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink.
An intelligent banknote neutralisation system (IBNS) is a security system which protects valuables against unauthorised access to its contents by rendering it unusable by marking all the cash as stolen by a degradation agent when an attempted attack on the system is detected.
An IOU (abbreviated from the phrase "I owe you") is usually an informal document acknowledging debt.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israeli new shekel (שֶׁקֶל חָדָשׁ; شيقل جديد; sign: ₪; code: ILS), also known as simply the Israeli shekel and formerly known as the New Israeli Sheqel (NIS), is the currency of Israel and is also used as a legal tender in the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
James Stephen George Boggs (January 16, 1955 – January 22, 2017) was an American artist, best known for his hand-drawn depictions of banknotes.
Jiaozi was a form of promissory banknote which appeared around the 11th century in the Sichuan capital of Chengdu, China.
John Law (baptised 21 April 1671 – 21 March 1729) was a Scottish economist who believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself and that national wealth depended on trade.
Khaki (Canada and) is a color, a light shade of yellow-brown.
A kinebar is a gold bar which contains a Kinegram to prove its authenticity.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
This is a list of current motifs on the banknotes of different countries.
The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.
This is a list of people on the banknotes of different countries.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
The Luxembourgish franc (more commonly Luxembourg Franc or LUF, franc luxembourgeois, Lëtzebuerger Frang, Luxemburger Franken) was the currency of Luxembourg between 1854 and 1999 (except during the period 1941-44).
The Macau pataca or Macanese pataca (Pataca de Macau; sign: MOP$; code: MOP) is the currency of Macau.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.
The Monetary Authority of Singapore (Abbreviation: MAS;; Malay: Penguasa Kewangan Singapura) is Singapore's central bank and financial regulatory authority.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
Money creation is the process by which the money supply of a country, or of an economic or monetary region,Such as the Eurozone or ECCAS is increased.
In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
A negotiable instrument is a document guaranteeing the payment of a specific amount of money, either on demand, or at a set time, with the payer usually named on the document.
Nicholas Barbon (1640 – 1698) was an English economist, physician, and financial speculator.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Notaphily is the study and collection of paper currency, and banknotes.
Notgeld (German for "emergency money" or "necessity money") refers to money issued by an institution in a time of economic or political crisis.
Nuestra Señora de Atocha (Our Lady of Atocha) was a Spanish treasure galleon and the most widely-known vessel of a fleet of ships that sank in a hurricane off the Florida Keys in 1622.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
An optical variable device or optically variable device (OVD) is an iridescent image that exhibits various optical effects such as movement or color changes.
An overprint is an additional layer of text or graphics added to the face of a postage stamp, banknote or postal stationery after it has been printed.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
A payment is the trade of value from one party (such as a person or company) to another for goods, or services, or to fulfill a legal obligation.
Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.
A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine) is a machine that makes paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply.
Polymer banknotes are banknotes made from a polymer such as biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP).
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Pontiac's War (also known as Pontiac's Conspiracy or Pontiac's Rebellion) was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes, primarily from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, and Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War (1754–1763).
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
The price revolution, sometimes known as the Spanish Price Revolution, was a series of economic events that occurred between the second half of the 15th century and the first half of the 17th century, and most specifically to the high rate of inflation that occurred during this period across Western Europe.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument (more particularly, a financial instrument and a debt instrument), in which one party (the maker or issuer) promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other (the payee), either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms.
The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776.
A receipt (also known as a bill of parcel, unpacking note, packaging slip, (delivery) docket, shipping list, packing list, packing slip, delivery list, manifest or customer receipt), is a document acknowledging that a person has received money or property in payment following a sale or other transfer of goods or provision of a service.
Representative money is any medium of exchange that represents something of value, but has little or no value of its own (intrinsic value).
The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), on 14 January 1960, became the Australian central bank and banknote issuing authority, when the Reserve Bank Act 1959 (23 April 1959) removed the central banking functions from the Commonwealth Bank.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Russian America (Русская Америка, Russkaya Amerika) was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867.
Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa (Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; Sāmoa) and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Second Bank of the United States, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was the second federally authorized Hamiltonian national bank in the United States during its 20-year charter from February 1816 to January 1836.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
Security printing is the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes, cheques, passports, tamper-evident labels, security tapes, product authentication, stock certificates, postage stamps and identity cards.
Seigniorage, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from Old French seigneuriage "right of the lord (seigneur) to mint money"), is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce and distribute it.
She County, or Shexian, is a county in Anhui Province, China under the jurisdiction of Huangshan City.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
A signature (from signare, "to sign") is a handwritten (and often stylized) depiction of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
The Singapore dollar (sign: S$; code: SGD) is the official currency of Singapore.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
A souvenir (from French, for a remembrance or memory), memento, keepsake, or token of remembrance is an object a person acquires for the memories the owner associates with it.
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.
The rupee (රුපියල්, ரூபாய்) (signs: රු, ரூ, Rs; code: LKR) is the currency of Sri Lanka, divided into 100 cents.
SS Central America, known as the Ship of Gold, was a sidewheel steamer that operated between Central America and the eastern coast of the United States during the 1850s.
Stamp collecting is the collecting of postage stamps and related objects.
Stockholms Banco (also known as the Bank of Palmstruch or Palmstruch Bank) in Sweden was the first European bank to print banknotes.
A superdollar (also known as a superbill or supernote) is a very high quality counterfeit United States one hundred-dollar bill, alleged by the U.S. Government to have been made by unknown organizations or governments.
Sveriges Riksbank, or simply Riksbanken, is the central bank of Sweden.
The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Book of the Marvels of the World (French: Livre des Merveilles du Monde) or Description of the World (Devisement du Monde), in Italian Il Milione (The Million) or Oriente Poliano and in English commonly called The Travels of Marco Polo, is a 13th-century travelogue written down by Rustichello da Pisa from stories told by Marco Polo, describing Polo's travels through Asia between 1271 and 1295, and his experiences at the court of Kublai Khan.
Trevett v. Weeden (1786) was a Rhode Island Supreme Court decision finding state legislation regarding paper currency was violative of the state constitution.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.
Tyvek is a brand of flashspun high-density polyethylene fibers, a synthetic material; the name is a registered trademark of DuPont.
Ulster Bank is a large commercial bank, and one of the traditional Big Four Irish banks.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
A United States Note, also known as a Legal Tender Note, is a type of paper money that was issued from 1862 to 1971 in the U.S. Having been current for more than 100 years, they were issued for longer than any other form of U.S. paper money.
A used note is a banknote that has been in circulation (as opposed to a freshly printed, uncirculated banknote).
Võru (Võro; Werro; Выру (Vyru); Veru) is a town and a municipality in south-eastern Estonia.
A vending machine is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks, beverages, cigarettes and lottery tickets to consumers after money, a credit card, or specially designed card is inserted into the machine.
The bolívar fuerte (sign: Bs.F. or Bs.; plural: bolívares fuertes; ISO 4217 code: VEF) has been the currency of Venezuela since 1 January 2008.
Viola Irene Desmond (July 6, 1914 – February 7, 1965) was a Canadian Black Nova Scotian businesswoman who challenged racial segregation at a cinema in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, in 1946.
is traditional Japanese paper.
A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light (or when viewed by reflected light, atop a dark background), caused by thickness or density variations in the paper.
Wear and tear is damage that naturally and inevitably occurs as a result of normal wear or aging.
Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers; to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users; or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.
William of Rubruck (c. 1220 – c. 1293) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer.
Sir William Phips (or Phipps; February 2, 1651 – February 18, 1695) was a shepherd boy born in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, a shipwright, ship's captain, treasure hunter, a major general, and the first royally appointed governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
The dinar (Cyrillic script: динар) was the currency of the three Yugoslav states: the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (formerly the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes), the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between 1918 and 2003.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
An eighth series of banknotes of the Canadian dollar is being released by the Bank of Canada starting in 2018.
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