128 relations: ?:, Abbreviation, Abdominal pain, Aelius Donatus, Alcuin, Algebraic notation (chess), Alt key, Ampersand, Arabic, Armenian alphabet, ASCII, Asterisk, BASIC, Basque language, BBC BASIC, Bi-directional text, Blunder (chess), Boolean domain, C (programming language), C Sharp (programming language), Capital Community College, Catalan language, CBS News, Character (computing), Character encoding, Chess annotation symbols, Chinese language, Church Slavonic language, Classic Mac OS, Closed captioning, Code point, Compose key, Computer programming, Computing, Content clause, Control key, Diacritic, Diagnosis, Diverticulitis, Doubt, Early Middle Ages, Eats, Shoots & Leaves, Exclamation mark, Full stop, Galician language, Glottal stop, GNOME, Greek language, Halfwidth and fullwidth forms, Hebrew language, ..., Henry Denham, Inquiry, International Phonetic Alphabet, Internet Archive, Interrobang, Interrogative, Intonation (linguistics), Inverted question and exclamation marks, Irony punctuation, Japanese language, Journalism, Language, Latin, Linear logic, Linux, Lynne Truss, MacOS, Mathematics, Meaning (philosophy of language), Meta, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows, Middle Ages, Minkowski's question-mark function, N'Ko alphabet, Neume, Null coalescing operator, Nullable type, OCaml, Option key, Option type, Perl, Persian language, Plenken, POSIX, Programming language, Punctuation, Python (programming language), Query string, Question, Regular expression, Rhetorical question, Right-to-left, Royal Spanish Academy, Ruby (programming language), SAMPA, Scheme (programming language), Scrabble, Semicolon, Shift key, Space (punctuation), Spanish language, Specials (Unicode block), Stanley Elkin, String (computer science), Swift (programming language), Syriac alphabet, Syriac language, Terminal punctuation, Thaana, Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, Tilde, Titlo, Truth-conditional semantics, Typographic ligature, Unicode, Unicode equivalence, University, University of California Press, Urdu, URL, Web browser, Western culture, Wildcard character, X Window System, X.Org Server, XFree86, Yiddish. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
In computer programming, ?: is a ternary operator that is part of the syntax for basic conditional expressions in several programming languages.
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
Aelius Donatus (fl. mid-fourth century AD) was a Roman grammarian and teacher of rhetoric.
Alcuin of York (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.
Algebraic notation (or AN) is a method for recording and describing the moves in a game of chess.
The Alt key (pronounced or) on a computer keyboard is used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed keys.
The ampersand is the logogram &, representing the conjunction "and".
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
An asterisk (*); from Late Latin asteriscus, from Ancient Greek ἀστερίσκος, asteriskos, "little star") is a typographical symbol or glyph. It is so called because it resembles a conventional image of a star. Computer scientists and mathematicians often vocalize it as star (as, for example, in the A* search algorithm or C*-algebra). In English, an asterisk is usually five-pointed in sans-serif typefaces, six-pointed in serif typefaces, and six- or eight-pointed when handwritten. It is often used to censor offensive words, and on the Internet, to indicate a correction to a previous message. The asterisk is derived from the need of the printers of family trees in feudal times for a symbol to indicate date of birth. The original shape was seven-armed, each arm like a teardrop shooting from the center. In computer science, the asterisk is commonly used as a wildcard character, or to denote pointers, repetition, or multiplication.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
BBC BASIC is a programming language, developed in 1981 as a native programming language for the MOS Technology 6502 based Acorn BBC Micro home/personal computer.
Bi-directional text is text containing text in both text directionalities, both right-to-left (RTL or dextrosinistral) and left-to-right (LTR or sinistrodextral).
In chess, a blunder is a very bad move.
In mathematics and abstract algebra, a Boolean domain is a set consisting of exactly two elements whose interpretations include false and true.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
Capital Community College is a community college in Hartford, Connecticut, United States.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
When annotating chess games, commentators frequently use widely recognized annotation symbols.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.
Classic Mac OS is a colloquial term used to describe a series of operating systems developed for the Macintosh family of personal computers by Apple Inc. from 1984 until 2001.
Closed captioning (CC) and subtitling are both processes of displaying text on a television, video screen, or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information.
In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the code space.
A compose key (sometimes called multi key) is a key on a computer keyboard that indicates that the following (usually 2 or more) keystrokes trigger the insertion of an alternate character, typically a precomposed character or a symbol.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.
In grammar, a content clause is a subordinate clause that provides content implied or commented upon by its main clause.
In computing, a Control key is a modifier key which, when pressed in conjunction with another key, performs a special operation (for example, C); similar to the Shift key, the Control key rarely performs any function when pressed by itself.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
Diverticulitis, specifically colonic diverticulitis, is a gastrointestinal disease characterized by inflammation of abnormal pouches - diverticuli - which can develop in the wall of the large intestine.
Doubt is a mental state in which the mind remains suspended between two or more contradictory propositions, unable to assent to any of them.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation is a non-fiction book written by Lynne Truss, the former host of BBC Radio 4's Cutting a Dash programme.
The exclamation mark (British English) or exclamation point (some dialects of American English) is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), or show emphasis, and often marks the end of a sentence.
The full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
GNOME is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In CJK (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) computing, graphic characters are traditionally classed into fullwidth (in Taiwan and Hong Kong: 全形; in CJK: 全角) and halfwidth (in Taiwan and Hong Kong: 半形; in CJK: 半角) characters.
Henry Denham was one of the outstanding English printers of the sixteenth century.
An inquiry is any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
The interrobang, also known as the interabang (‽) (often represented by ?! or !?), is a nonstandard punctuation mark used in various written languages and intended to combine the functions of the question mark, or interrogative point, and the exclamation mark, or exclamation point, known in the jargon of printers and programmers as a "bang".
Interrogative is a term used in grammar to refer to features that form questions.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
Inverted question marks (¿) and exclamation marks (Commonwealth English) or exclamation points (American English) (¡) are punctuation marks used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences (or clauses), respectively, in written Spanish and sometimes also in languages which have cultural ties with Spanish, such as in older standards of Galician (now it is optional and not recommended) and the Waray language.
Irony punctuation is any proposed form of notation used to denote irony or sarcasm in text.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Linear logic is a substructural logic proposed by Jean-Yves Girard as a refinement of classical and intuitionistic logic, joining the dualities of the former with many of the constructive properties of the latter.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
Lynne Truss (born 31 May 1955) is an English author, journalist, novelist, and radio broadcaster and dramatist.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
The nature of meaning, its definition, elements, and types, was discussed by philosophers Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas.
Meta (from the Greek preposition and prefix meta- (μετά-) meaning "after", or "beyond") is a prefix used in English to indicate a concept which is an abstraction behind another concept, used to complete or add to the latter.
Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
In mathematics, the Minkowski question-mark function (or the slippery devil's staircase), denoted by, is a function possessing various unusual fractal properties, defined by.
N'Ko is both a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949, as a writing system for the Manding languages of West Africa, and the name of the literary language written in that script.
A neume (sometimes spelled neum) is the basic element of Western and Eastern systems of musical notation prior to the invention of five-line staff notation.
The null coalescing operator (called the Logical Defined-Or operator in Perl) is a binary operator that is part of the syntax for a basic conditional expression in several programming languages, including C#, Perl as of version 5.10, Swift, and PHP 7.0.0.
In programming, nullable types are a feature of the type system of some programming languages which allow the value to be set to the special value NULL instead of the usual possible values of the data type.
OCaml, originally named Objective Caml, is the main implementation of the programming language Caml, created by Xavier Leroy, Jérôme Vouillon, Damien Doligez, Didier Rémy, Ascánder Suárez and others in 1996.
The Option key is a modifier key (ALT) present on Apple keyboards.
In programming languages (more so functional programming languages) and type theory, an option type or maybe type is a polymorphic type that represents encapsulation of an optional value; e.g., it is used as the return type of functions which may or may not return a meaningful value when they are applied.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Plenken is a German typographical term for the insertion of inappropriate spaces before a punctuation mark.
The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
On the World Wide Web, a query string is the part of a uniform resource locator (URL) containing data that does not fit conveniently into a hierarchical path structure.
A question is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or the request made using such an expression.
A regular expression, regex or regexp (sometimes called a rational expression) is, in theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a sequence of characters that define a search pattern.
A rhetorical question is a figure of speech in the form of a question that is asked to make a point rather than to elicit an answer.
In a right-to-left, top-to-bottom script (commonly shortened to right to left or abbreviated RTL), writing starts from the right of the page and continues to the left.
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.
The Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (SAMPA) is a computer-readable phonetic script using 7-bit printable ASCII characters, based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.
Scrabble is a word game in which two to four players score points by placing tiles bearing a single letter onto a board divided into a 15×15 grid of squares.
The semicolon or semi colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements.
The shift key is a modifier key on a keyboard, used to type capital letters and other alternate "upper" characters.
In writing, a space ( ) is a blank area that separates words, sentences, syllables (in syllabification) and other written or printed glyphs (characters).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Specials is a short Unicode block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF.
Stanley Lawrence Elkin (May 11, 1930 – May 31, 1995) was an American novelist, short story writer, and essayist.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Terminal punctuation refers to the punctuation marks used to identify the end of a portion of text.
Thaana, Taana or Tāna (  in Tāna script) is the present writing system of the Maldivian language spoken in the Maldives.
The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) is a research center at the University of California, Irvine.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol initially used in early Cyrillic manuscripts, e.g., in Old Church Slavonic and Old East Slavic languages.
Truth-conditional semantics is an approach to semantics of natural language that sees meaning (or at least the meaning of assertions) as being the same as, or reducible to, their truth conditions.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Unicode equivalence is the specification by the Unicode character encoding standard that some sequences of code points represent essentially the same character.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
In software, a wildcard character is a kind of placeholder represented by a single character, such as an asterisk, which can be interpreted as a number of literal characters or an empty string.
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
X.Org Server is the free and open source implementation of the display server for the X Window System stewarded by the X.Org Foundation.
XFree86 was an implementation of the X Window System.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
?, ???, Eroteme, Erotimatiko, Greek question mark, Interrogation mark, Interrogation point, Interrogative-point, Interrogative-points, Mirrored question mark, Question Mark, Question Mark (computer science), Question mark (punctuation), Question marks, Question point, Questionmark, Reversed question mark, ՞, ؟, ❓, ❔, ⩻, ⩼, ︖, ﹖, ？.