The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
The ADM-3A was one of the first video display terminals.
On IBM compatible personal computers, many characters not directly associated with a key can be entered using the Alt Numpad input method or Alt code: pressing and holding the ''Alt'' key while typing the number identifying the character with the keyboard's numeric keypad.
The Alt key (pronounced or) on a computer keyboard is used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed keys.
Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.
AltGr (also Alt Graph, or Right Alt) is a modifier key found on some computer keyboards and is primarily used to type characters that are unusual for the locale of the keyboard layout, such as currency symbols and accented letters.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Apache Groovy is a Java-syntax-compatible object-oriented programming language for the Java platform.
APL (named after the book A Programming Language) is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson.
The programming language APL is distinctive in being symbolic rather than lexical: its primitives are denoted by symbols, not words.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
An approximation is anything that is similar but not exactly equal to something else.
The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including i'jam -, consonant pointing and tashkil -, supplementary diacritics.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.
In mathematical analysis, asymptotic analysis, also known as asymptotics, is a method of describing limiting behavior.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
AWK is a programming language designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool.
Ñ (lower case ñ, eñe, Phonetic Alphabet: "énye") is a letter of the modern Latin alphabet, formed by placing a tilde (called a virgulilla in Spanish) on top of an upper- or lowercase N. It became part of the Spanish alphabet in the eighteenth century when it was first formally defined, but it is also used in other languages such as Galician, Asturian, the Aragonese Grafía de Uesca, Basque, Chavacano, Filipino, Chamorro, Guarani, Quechua, Mapudungun, Mandinka, and Tetum alphabets, as well as in Latin transliteration of Tocharian and Sanskrit, where it represents.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cantillation is the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.
Chamorro (Finu' Chamoru) is an Austronesian language spoken by about 58,000 people (about 25,800 people on Guam and about 32,200 in the Northern Mariana Islands and the rest of the United States).
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
The, also known as,,, or Katakana-Hiragana Prolonged Sound Mark by the Unicode Consortium, is a Japanese symbol that indicates a chōon, or a long vowel of two morae in length.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
In object-oriented programming, a class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods).
Classic Mac OS is a colloquial term used to describe a series of operating systems developed for the Macintosh family of personal computers by Apple Inc. from 1984 until 2001.
The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
CNN en Español is CNN's 24-hour Spanish language television and radio news channel which broadcasts to the United States of America and Latin America.
In computing, a code page is a table of values that describes the character set used for encoding a particular set of characters, usually combined with a number of control characters.
Microsoft Windows code page 932 (abbreviated MS932, Windows-932 or ambiguously CP932), also called Windows-31J amongst other names (see § Terminology below), is the Microsoft Windows code page for the Japanese language, which is an extended variant of the Shift JIS Japanese character encoding.
The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.
In digital typography, combining characters are characters that are intended to modify other characters.
Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)).
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings end-to-end.
In geometry, two figures or objects are congruent if they have the same shape and size, or if one has the same shape and size as the mirror image of the other.
Many programming language type systems support subtyping.
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
D is an object-oriented, imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language created by Walter Bright of Digital Mars and released in 2001.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The dash is a punctuation mark that is similar in appearance to and, but differs from these symbols in both length and height.
A dead key is a special kind of a modifier key on a mechanical typewriter, or computer keyboard, that is typically used to attach a specific diacritic to a base letter.
In object-oriented programming, a destructor (dtor) is a method which is automatically invoked when the object is destroyed.
Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
In computing, a directory is a file system cataloging structure which contains references to other computer files, and possibly other directories.
Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard is a keyboard layout patented during 1936 by Dr.
Eberhard Nestle (May 1, 1851, Stuttgart – March 9, 1913, Stuttgart) was a German biblical scholar, textual critic, orientalist, editor of Novum Testamentum Graece, and the father of Erwin Nestle.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
Eiffel is an object-oriented programming language designed by Bertrand Meyer (an object-orientation proponent and author of Object-Oriented Software Construction) and Eiffel Software.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
Emacs is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value, or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object.
The equals sign or equality sign is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality.
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Estonian language.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
Extended Unix Code (EUC) is a multibyte character encoding system used primarily for Japanese, Korean, and simplified Chinese.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
File Allocation Table (FAT) is a computer file system architecture and a family of industry-standard file systems utilizing it.
The process of filename mangling, in computing, involves a translation of the file name for compatibility at the operating system level.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
In mathematics and computer science, the floor function is the function that takes as input a real number x and gives as output the greatest integer less than or equal to x, denoted \operatorname(x).
The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
G̃ / g̃ is a letter which combines the common letter G with a tilde.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
The Government of Spain (Gobierno de España) is the central government which leads the executive branch and the General State Administration of Spain.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
In ISO/IEC 646 (commonly known as ASCII) and related standards including ISO 8859 and Unicode, a graphic character is any character intended to be written, printed, or otherwise displayed in a form that can be read by humans.
Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period.
Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.
In mathematics, the harmonic mean (sometimes called the subcontrary mean) is one of several kinds of average, and in particular one of the Pythagorean means.
Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
A home directory is a file system directory on a multi-user operating system containing files for a given user of the system.
HTML5 is a markup language used for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
The Iñupiat (or Inupiaq) are a native Alaskan people, whose traditional territory spans Norton Sound on the Bering Sea to the Canada–United States border.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive, pronounced) is a series of proprietary Unix operating systems developed and sold by IBM for several of its computer platforms.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
In mathematics, an inequality is a relation that holds between two values when they are different (see also: equality).
The infinity symbol (sometimes called the lemniscate) is a mathematical symbol representing the concept of infinity.
Infix notation is the notation commonly used in arithmetical and logical formulae and statements.
Inform is a programming language and design system for interactive fiction originally created in 1993 by Graham Nelson.
The Cervantes Institute is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set.
Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle (̑), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘).
Irony punctuation is any proposed form of notation used to denote irony or sarcasm in text.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The Jargon File is a glossary and usage dictionary of slang used by computer programmers.
JIS X 0213 is a Japanese Industrial Standard defining coded character sets for encoding the characters used in Japan.
Juggling notation is the written depiction of concepts and practices in juggling.
Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.
KS X 1001 (Korean Graphic Character Set for Information Interchange), formerly called KS C 5601, is a South Korean coded character set standard to represent hangul and hanja characters on a computer.
The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.
LaTeX (or; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Lear Siegler Incorporated (LSI) is a diverse American corporation established in 1962.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups.
In the branch of mathematics called category theory, given a morphism f from an object X to an object Y, and a morphism g from an object Z to Y, a lift or lifting of f to Z is a morphism h from X to Z such that f.
A line printer prints one entire line of text before advancing to another line.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
The Manor of Molland was a medieval manor in North Devon, England.
Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is a language isolate spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks.
Max is a visual programming language for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling '74.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
MediaWiki is a free and open-source wiki software.
A method in object-oriented programming (OOP) is a procedure associated with a message and an object.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
In toss juggling, Mills Mess is a popular juggling pattern, typically performed with three balls although the props used and the number of objects can be different.
A mirror image (in a plane mirror) is a reflected duplication of an object that appears almost identical, but is reversed in the direction perpendicular to the mirror surface.
A monospaced font, also called a fixed-pitch, fixed-width, or non-proportional font, is a font whose letters and characters each occupy the same amount of horizontal space.
There are two names given in Spanish to the Spanish language: español ("Spanish") and castellano ("Castilian").
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.
The Nheengatu language, often spelled Nhengatu, is an indigenous language of the Americas from the Tupi–Guarani language family.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.
In object-oriented programming (OOP), the object lifetime (or life cycle) of an object is the time between an object's creation and its destruction.
The Object REXX programming language is an object-oriented scripting language initially produced by IBM for OS/2.
OCaml, originally named Objective Caml, is the main implementation of the programming language Caml, created by Xavier Leroy, Jérôme Vouillon, Damien Doligez, Didier Rémy, Ascánder Suárez and others in 1996.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
This is a list of operators in the C and C++ programming languages.
The Option key is a modifier key (ALT) present on Apple keyboards.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
An overline, overscore, or overbar, is a typographical feature of a horizontal line drawn immediately above the text.
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Percent-encoding, also known as URL encoding, is a mechanism for encoding information in a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) under certain circumstances.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
Perl 6 is a member of the Perl family of programming languages.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
PostgreSQL, often simply Postgres, is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) with an emphasis on extensibility and standards compliance.
A precomposed character (alternatively composite character or decomposable character) is a Unicode entity that can also be defined as a sequence of one or more other characters.
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.
A programmer, developer, dev, coder, or software engineer is a person who creates computer software.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.
Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
In probability and statistics, a random variable, random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable is a variable whose possible values are outcomes of a random phenomenon.
A regular expression, regex or regexp (sometimes called a rational expression) is, in theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a sequence of characters that define a search pattern.
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
In supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model of physics, a sfermion is a hypothetical spin-0 superpartner particle (sparticle) of its associated fermion.
--> Shift JIS (Shift Japanese Industrial Standards, also SJIS, MIME name Shift_JIS) is a character encoding for the Japanese language, originally developed by a Japanese company called ASCII Corporation in conjunction with Microsoft and standardized as JIS X 0208 Appendix 1.
Two geometrical objects are called similar if they both have the same shape, or one has the same shape as the mirror image of the other.
A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
In typesetting by hand compositing, a sort or type is a piece of type representing a particular letter or symbol, cast from a matrix mold and assembled with other sorts bearing additional letters into lines of type to make up a form from which a page is printed.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish national basketball team is organized and run by the Spanish Basketball Federation.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
SQL (S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).
Standard ML (SML; "Standard Meta Language") is a general-purpose, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.
Superimposition is the placement of one thing over another, typically so that both are still evident.
In particle physics, a superpartner (also sparticle) is a hypothetical elementary particle.
In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
Tags is a Unicode block containing formatting tag characters (language tag and ASCII character tags).
Tetum, also Tetun, is an Austronesian language spoken on the island of Timor.
Text-based user interface (TUI), also called textual user interface or terminal user interface, is a retronym coined sometime after the invention of graphical user interfaces.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot on a lowercase i or j. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of i and j, but diacritic dots can appear over other letters in various languages.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Transact-SQL (T-SQL) is Microsoft's and Sybase's proprietary extension to the SQL (Structured Query Language) used to interact with relational databases.
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.
Tsinnorit (Hebrew צִנּוֹרִת֘) is a cantillation mark in the Hebrew Bible, found at the 3 poetic books, also known as the א״מת books (Job or אִיוֹב in Hebrew, Proverbs or מִשְלֵי, and Psalms or תְהִלִּים).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
In computer science, type safety is the extent to which a programming language discourages or prevents type errors.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
The symbol underscore (_), also called underline, low line or low dash, is a character that originally appeared on the typewriter and was primarily used to underline words.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Unified Hangul Code (UHC, language|Tonghabhyeong Hangeul Kodeu), also known under Microsoft Windows as Code Page 949 (Windows-949), is the Microsoft Windows code page for the Korean language.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription or notational system used predominantly for the transcription and reconstruction of Uralic languages.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
A component of software configuration management, version control, also known as revision control or source control, is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of information.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Wave dash (Unicode U+301C) is a fullwidth character represented in Japanese character encoding, usually used to represent a range.
The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) is a community of people interested in evolving HTML and related technologies.
Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
Zarka or zarqa (Hebrew: זַרְקָא֮, with variant English spellings) is a cantillation mark found in the Torah, Haftarah, and other books of the Hebrew Bible.
An 8.3 filename (also called a short filename or SFN) is a filename convention used by old versions of DOS and versions of Microsoft Windows prior to Windows 95 and Windows NT 3.5.