80 relations: Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, Agonist, Alpha and beta carbon, Alpha,N-DMT, Alpha-Ethyltryptamine, Alpha-Methylserotonin, Ammonium acetate, Amphetamine, Antidepressant, Anxiety, Binding selectivity, Bucindolol, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Dopamine, Dosage form, Drug, Empathogen–entactogen, Empathy, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Erowid, Euphoria, Free base, Harmaline, Headache, Hydroxylamine, In vitro, In vivo, Indole-3-carboxaldehyde, Insufflation (medicine), Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Α,N,N-Trimethyltryptamine, Laboratory rat, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lysergic acid diethylamide, MDMA, Mechanism of action, Methyl group, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase A, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine releasing agent, Mouth, Muscle tone, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Nausea, Neurotransmitter, Nitromethane, ..., Norepinephrine, Phenethylamine, Psilocybin, Psychedelic drug, Psychedelic experience, Pupillary response, Rectum, Reuptake inhibitor, Reversible reaction, Riksdag, Russia, Serotonin, Serotonin releasing agent, Side effect, Smoking, Stimulant, Substituent, Tachycardia, TiHKAL, Trismus, Tryptamine, Upjohn, Vaporizer (inhalation device), Vomiting, 4-Me-αMT, 5-Fluoro-AMT, 5-HT receptor, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, 5-MeO-aMT, 5-MeO-DALT. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) is a British statutory advisory non-departmental public body, which was established under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.
Alpha,N-DMT, or α,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a lesser-known psychedelic drug.
α-Ethyltryptamine (αET, AET), also known as etryptamine (INN, BAN, USAN), is a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogenic drug of the tryptamine class.
α-Methylserotonin (αMS), also known as α-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (α-methyl-5-HT) or 5-hydroxy-α-methyltryptamine (5-HO-αMT), is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT).
Ammonium acetate, also known as spirit of Mindererus in aqueous solution, is a chemical compound with the formula NH4CH3CO2.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Binding selectivity is defined with respect to the binding of ligands to a substrate forming a complex.
Bucindolol is a non-selective beta blocker with additional weak alpha-blocking properties and some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.
The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Loi réglementant certaines drogues et autres substances) (the Act) is Canada's federal drug control statute.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Erowid, also called Erowid Center, is a 501(c)(3) non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals as well as activities and technologies that can produce altered states of consciousness such as meditation, lucid dreaming, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and electroceuticals.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.
Harmaline is a fluorescent psychoactive indole alkaloid from the group of harmala alkaloids and beta-carbolines.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Hydroxylamine is an inorganic compound with the formula NH2OH.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Indole-3-carboxaldehyde (I3A), also known as indole-3-aldehyde and 3-formylindole, is a metabolite of dietary which is synthesized by human gastrointestinal bacteria, particularly species of the Lactobacillus genus.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
α,N,N-Trimethyltryptamine (α,N,N-TMT, α-TMT, ATMT) is a psychoactive drug of the tryptamine chemical class which acts as a psychedelic hallucinogen.
A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) which is bred and kept for scientific research.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nitromethane is an organic compound with the chemical formula.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
A psychedelic experience (or 'trip') is a temporary altered state of consciousness induced by the consumption of psychedelic drugs (such as mescaline, LSD, psilocybin, and DMT).
Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
A reversible reaction is a reaction where the reactants form products, which react together to give the reactants back.
The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin releasing agent (SRA) is a type of drug that induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
TIHKAL: The Continuation is a 1997 book written by Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about a family of psychoactive drugs known as tryptamines.
Trismus, also called lockjaw, is reduced opening of the jaws (limited jaw range of motion).
Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.
The Upjohn Company was a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm founded in 1886 in Kalamazoo, Michigan by Dr. William E. Upjohn, an 1875 graduate of the University of Michigan medical school.
A vaporizer or vaporiser (a ‘vape’) is a device used to vaporize substances for inhalation.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
4-Methyl-αMT (4-Me-αMT), also known as 4,α-dimethyltryptamine (4,α-DMT), and MP-809, is a drug belonging to the tryptamine class that was investigated as an antidepressant in the early 1960s but was never marketed.
5-Fluoro-α-methyltryptamine (5-Fluoro-αMT), also known as PAL-544, is a putative stimulant, entactogen, and psychedelic tryptamine derivative related to α-methyltryptamine (αMT).
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
5-MeO-aMT or 5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine, α,O-Dimethylserotonin (Alpha-O) is a potent psychedelic tryptamine.
5-MeO-DALT or N,N-di allyl-5-methoxy tryptamine is a psychedelic tryptamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin.