292 relations: Acid house, Acute kidney injury, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Addiction, Adrenaline, Adulterant, Agitator (device), Alexander Shulgin, Alpha-Methyldopamine, American Civil Liberties Union, Amphetamine, Anethole, Anhedonia, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Anterograde amnesia, Anton Köllisch, Appetite, Austin, Texas, Australian dollar, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Axon terminal, Baltimore, Bath salts (drug), Bayer, Benzoic acid, Benzylpiperazine, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Blood sugar level, Blood–brain barrier, Boston, Brain damage, Breakthrough therapy, British Columbia, Bruxism, California Pacific Medical Center, Cannabis (drug), Capsule (pharmacy), Cardiotoxicity, Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Central nervous system, Cerebral edema, Chemical classification, Chemical synapse, Chirality (chemistry), Circulatory system, Clandestine chemistry, Clinical trial, Cocaine, Cognitive deficit, ..., Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984, Concentration, Confusion, Controlled Substances Act, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Convulsion, Cycloserine, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Cytosol, Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Dance party, David E. Nichols, David Nutt, Dehydration, Depression (mood), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diarrhea, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Dopamine, Dopamine transporter, Dow Chemical Company, Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug interaction, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, Drugs, Inc., EDMA, Electrolyte, Electronic dance music, Empathogen–entactogen, Empathy, Enantiomer, Endocytosis, Entheogen, Enzyme, Ephedrine, Erectile dysfunction, Ethnography, Ethylone, Euphoria, Euro, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Excretion, Fatigue, Fever, Food and Drug Administration, FOSB, Free base, Genitourinary system, Glycine, Grey matter, Hallucination, Heart rate, Hepatitis, Heroin, Hippocampus, House party, Human musculoskeletal system, Hydrastinine, Hyperreflexia, Hypertension, Hyperthermia, Hypertonia, Hyponatremia, Hypotension, Immunosuppression, In utero, Indication (medicine), Indonesia, Ingestion, Inhalation, Injection (medicine), Insomnia, Insufflation (medicine), International nonproprietary name, Intracranial hemorrhage, Isomerization, Isosafrole, John C. Lawn, Just Say No, Ketamine, Kidney, Leo Zeff, Lester Grinspoon, Liver, Lloyd Bentsen, Logo, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Maastricht University, Membrane transport protein, Menthol, Mephedrone, Merck Group, Mescaline, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methamphetamine, Methylenedioxy, Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, Methylone, Microvessel, Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, MMDA (drug), Moclobemide, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine releasing agent, Monoamine transporter, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, Mydriasis, Nancy Reagan, National Health and Medical Research Council, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Neurodegeneration, Neuroimmune system, Neuroplasticity, Neurotoxicity, Neurotransmitter, New Age, Newsweek, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine transporter, Nucleus accumbens, Occipital lobe, Ocotea cymbarum, Opioid, Oral administration, Oxytocin, Palladium, Para-Methoxyamphetamine, Paradise Garage, Paranoia, Pathogen, Paul Grof, Pentylone, Peripheral nervous system, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Phases of clinical research, Phenelzine, Phosphorylation, Physical dependence, PiHKAL, Piperonal, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prefrontal cortex, Prescription drug, Priority review, Profile Books, Protein kinase A, Protein kinase C, Psilocybin, Psilocybin mushroom, Psychedelic drug, Psychoactive drug, Psychological dependence, Psychopharmacology, Psychotherapy, Racemic mixture, Rate equation, Rave, Reaction intermediate, Recreational drug use, Rectal administration, Reductive amination, Respiratory system, Retrograde amnesia, Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Reverse transport, Rhabdomyolysis, Ritonavir, Ronin Publishing, Safrole, SAGE Publications, San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco State University, Sassafras, Serotonergic, Serotonin, Serotonin syndrome, Serotonin transporter, Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent, Serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Shaun the Sheep, Sigma receptor, South Carolina, Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons, Stimulant, Stimulant psychosis, Striatum, Structural analog, Studio 54, Substance dependence, Substituted amphetamine, Substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine, Sympathetic nervous system, Sympathomimetic drug, Synaptic vesicle, Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, Synergy, TAAR1, Tachycardia, Teratology, Toxicity, Transnational organized crime, Tranylcypromine, Trismus, Unconsciousness, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United States Army, United States dollar, University of Chicago, University of Michigan, University of San Francisco, Urine, Vaporization, Vascular smooth muscle, Vesicular monoamine transporter, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2, Wacker process, Wayne State University, Well-being, Western Australia, White matter, World Health Organization, Yuppie, Zürich, 2,3-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-hydroxyamphetamine, 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-Methylenedioxyphenylpropan-2-one, 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine, 5-HT1 receptor, 5-HT2 receptor. 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Acid house is a subgenre of house music developed around the mid-1980s by DJs from Chicago.
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill or critically wounded patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
An adulterant is a pejorative term for a substance found within other substances such as food, fuels or chemicals even though it is not allowed for legal or other reasons.
An agitator is a device or mechanism to put something into motion by shaking or stirring.
Alexander Theodore "Sasha" Shulgin (June 17, 1925 June 2, 2014) was an American medicinal chemist, biochemist, organic chemist, pharmacologist, psychopharmacologist, and author.
α-Methyldopamine (α-Me-DA), also known as 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (3,4-DHA), is a neurotoxin and research chemical of the catecholamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anethole (anise camphor) is an organic compound that is widely used as a flavoring substance.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County.
Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.
Anton Köllisch (16 March 1888 – September 1916) was a German chemist who, whilst working at Darmstadt for pharmaceutical giant Merck, first described the synthesis of the chemical MDMA which would later come to be known as "ecstasy".
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties.
The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.
The Autonomous University of Barcelona also known as UAB (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona;, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona) is a public university mostly located in Cerdanyola del Vallès, near the city of Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain.
Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons or terminal boutons) are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
"Bath salts" (also called "psychoactive bath salts" or "PABS") is a term used to describe a number of recreational designer drugs.
Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
Benzylpiperazine (BZP) is a recreational drug with euphoriant and stimulant properties. The effects produced by BZP are comparable to those produced by amphetamine. Adverse effects have been reported following its use including acute psychosis, renal toxicity and seizures. No deaths have been reported following a sole ingestion of BZP, although there have been at least two deaths from the combination of BZP and MDMA. Its sale is banned in several countries, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United States, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, Bulgaria, Romania and other parts of Europe.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Breakthrough therapy is a United States Food and Drug Administration designation that expedites drug development that was created by Congress under Section 902 of the 9 July 2012 Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching.
California Pacific Medical Center (CPMC) is the largest medical center of the Northern California-based Sutter Health health system and is the result of the merger of several of the longest established hospitals in San Francisco.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of dosage forms—techniques used to enclose medicines—in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories.
Cardiotoxicity is the occurrence of heart electrophysiology dysfunction or muscle damage.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.
Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clandestine chemistry is chemistry carried out in secret, and particularly in illegal drug laboratories.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
The Commission on Narcotic Drugs is one of the functional commissions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and is the central drug policy-making body within the United Nations system.
The Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 was the first comprehensive revision of the U.S. criminal code since the early 1900s.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.
Cycloserine, sold under the brand name Seromycin, is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area, the official title designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget, encompasses 13 counties within the U.S. state of Texas.
A dance party (also referred to as a dance) is a social gathering where dancing is the primary activity.
David Earl Nichols (born December 23, 1944, Covington, Kentucky) is an American pharmacologist and medicinal chemist.
David John Nutt (born 16 April 1951) is a British neuropsychopharmacologist specialising in the research of drugs that affect the brain and conditions such as addiction, anxiety, and sleep.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Drugs, Inc. is an American documentary style television series on the National Geographic Channel that explores global narcotics production and trafficking.
3,4-Ethylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (EDMA) is an entactogen drug of the amphetamine class.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electronic dance music (also known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals.
Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Ethylone, also known as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylcathinone (MDEC, βk-MDEA), is a recreational designer drug classified as an entactogen, stimulant, and psychedelic of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone chemical classes.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is an agency of the European Union located in Lisbon, Portugal.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.
Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
A house party is typically a type of party where medium to large groups of people gather at the residence of the party's host.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
Hydrastinine is a semisynthetic alkaloid from the hydrolysis of the alkaloid hydrastine, which was found naturally in small quantities in Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae).
Hyperreflexia (or hyper-reflexia) is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Hypertonia is a term sometimes used synonymously with spasticity and rigidity in the literature surrounding damage to the central nervous system, namely upper motor neuron lesions.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus".
In medicine, an indication is a valid reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull.
In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.
Isosafrole is an organic compound that is used in the fragrance industry.
John C. "Jack" Lawn served as Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) between 26 July 1985 and 23 March 1990.
"Just Say No" was an advertising campaign, part of the U.S. "War on Drugs", prevalent during the 1980s and early 1990s, to discourage children from engaging in illegal recreational drug use by offering various ways of saying no.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Leo Zeff (May 14, 1912 - April 13, 1988)https://www.erowid.org/culture/characters/zeff_leo/zeff_leo.shtml was an American psychologist and psychotherapist in Oakland, California who pioneered the use of LSD, ecstasy (MDMA), and other psychoactive drugs in psychotherapy in the 1970s.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. (February 11, 1921 – May 23, 2006) was an American politician who was a four-term United States Senator (1971–1993) from Texas and the Democratic Party nominee for vice president in 1988 on the Michael Dukakis ticket.
A logo (abbreviation of logotype, from λόγος logos "word" and τύπος typos "imprint") is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Maastricht University (abbreviated as UM; Universiteit Maastricht) is a public university in Maastricht, Netherlands.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from corn mint, peppermint, or other mint oils.
Mephedrone, also known as 4-methyl methcathinone (4-MMC) or 4-methyl ephedrone, is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes.
Merck KGaA, branded and commonly known as Merck, is a German multinational pharmaceutical, chemical and life sciences company headquartered in Darmstadt, with around 50,000 employees in around 70 countries.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methylenedioxy is the term used in the field of chemistry, particularly in organic chemistry, for a functional group with the structural formula R-O-CH2-O-R' which is connected to the rest of a molecule by two chemical bonds.
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a stimulant of the cathinone class which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI).
Methylone (also known as "3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone", "MDMC", "βk-MDMA" and by the slang term "M1") is an empathogen and stimulant psychoactive drug.
Microvessel or microvasculature refers to the smallest systems of blood vessels in a body, including those responsible for microcirculation, the system of smaller blood vessels that distribute blood within tissues.
The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
MMDA (3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 5-methoxy-MDA) is a psychedelic and entactogen drug of the amphetamine class.
Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix, Clobemix, Depnil and Manerix) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved in other Western countries such as the UK and Australia (TGA approved in December 2000). It is produced by affiliates of the Hoffmann–La Roche pharmaceutical company. Initially, Aurorix was also marketed by Roche in South Africa, but was withdrawn after its patent rights expired and Cipla Medpro's Depnil and Pharma Dynamic's Clorix became available at half the cost. No significant rise in blood pressure occurs when moclobemide is combined with amines such as tyramine-containing foods or pressor amine drugs, unlike with the older nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which cause a severe rise in blood pressure with such combination. Due to the lack of anticholinergic, cardiovascular, cognitive and psychomotor impairments moclobemide is advantageous in the elderly as well as those with cardiovascular disease.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.
The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a membership-based 501(c)(3) organization working to raise awareness and understanding of psychedelic substances.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins; July 6, 1921 – March 6, 2016) was an American film actress and the wife of Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States.
The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) is Australia's peak funding body for medical research, with a budget of roughly $900 million a year.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, pronounced "NITS-uh") is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. government, part of the Department of Transportation.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction." The institute has conducted an in-depth study of addiction according to its biological, behavioral and social components.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
The neuroimmune system is a system of structures and processes involving the biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the nervous system and immune system which protect neurons from pathogens.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Ocotea cymbarum is a species of Ocotea in the Lauraceae plant family.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
para-Methoxyamphetamine (PMA; "Death", "Dr. Death"), also known as 4-methoxyamphetamine (4-MA), is a designer drug of the amphetamine class with serotonergic effects.
The Paradise Garage, also known as "the Garage" or the "Gay-rage", was a discotheque in New York City notable in the history of modern dance and pop music, as well as LGBT and nightclub cultures.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Paul Grof is a psychiatrist in Canada who was a member of the World Health Organization committee that evaluated ecstasy.
Pentylone (β-Keto-Methylbenzodioxolylpentanamine, βk-Methyl-K, βk-MBDP, methylenedioxypentedrone, or 1‐(3,4‐methylenedioxyphenyl)‐2‐(methylamino)pentan‐1‐one) is a stimulant developed in the 1960s.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
The phases of clinical research are the steps in which scientists do experiments with a health intervention in an attempt to find enough evidence for a process which would be useful as a medical treatment.
Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story is a book by Dr.
Piperonal, also known as heliotropin, is an organic compound which is commonly found in fragrances and flavors.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
Priority review is a mechanism used by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite the review process for drugs that are expected to have a particularly great impact on the treatment of a disease.
Profile Books is a British independent book publishing firm founded in 1996.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 188.8.131.52), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychopharmacology (from Greek label; label; and label) is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
The rate law or rate equation for a chemical reaction is an equation that links the reaction rate with the concentrations or pressures of the reactants and constant parameters (normally rate coefficients and partial reaction orders).
A rave (from the verb: to rave) is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property typically featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music.
A reaction intermediate or an intermediate is a molecular entity that is formed from the reactants (or preceding intermediates) and reacts further to give the directly observed products of a chemical reaction.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Rectal administration uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the rectum's blood vessels,The rectum has numerous blood vessels available to absorb drugs.
Reductive amination (also known as reductive alkylation) is a form of amination that involves the conversion of a carbonyl group to an amine via an intermediate imine.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Retrograde amnesia (RA) is a loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved in the opposite direction to that of their typical movement by the transporter.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.
Ronin Publishing, Inc. is a small press in Berkeley, California, founded in 1983 and incorporated in 1985, which publishes books as tools for personal development, visionary alternatives, and expanded consciousness.
Safrole is a phenylpropene.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
San Francisco State University (commonly referred to as San Francisco State, SF State and SFSU) is a public research university located in San Francisco, California, United States.
Sassafras is a genus of three extant and one extinct species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
A serotonin–norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA), also known as a triple releasing agent (TRA), is a type of drug which induces the release of serotonin, norepinephrine/epinephrine, and dopamine in the brain and body.
A serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Shaun the Sheep is a British stop-motion animated television series and spin-off of the Wallace and Gromit franchise.
Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Stimulant psychosis, also known as stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, is a psychosis symptom which involves hallucinations, paranoia, and/or delusions and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
Studio 54 is a former nightclub and currently a Broadway theatre, located at 254 West 54th Street, between Eighth Avenue and Broadway in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Substituted methylenedioxy- phenethylamines (MDxx) are a large chemical class of derivatives of the phenethylamines, which includes many psychoactive drugs that act as entactogens, psychedelics, and/or stimulants, as well as entheogens.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is characterized by excessive unsuppressible release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) either from the posterior pituitary gland, or an abnormal non-pituitary source.
Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Transnational organized crime (TOC) is organized crime coordinated across national borders, involving groups or networks of individuals working in more than one country to plan and execute illegal business ventures.
Tranylcypromine (contracted from trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine; original trade name Parnate)Drugs.com.
Trismus, also called lockjaw, is reduced opening of the jaws (limited jaw range of motion).
Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of San Francisco (USF) is a Jesuit Catholic university located in San Francisco, California, United States.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vaporization (or vapourisation) of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor.
Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.
The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of presynaptic neurons.
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.
The Wacker process or the Hoechst-Wacker process (named after the chemical companies of the same name) refers to the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde in the presence of palladium(II) chloride as the catalyst.
Wayne State University (WSU) is a public research university located in Detroit, Michigan.
Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
"Yuppie" (short for "young urban professional" or "young, upwardly-mobile professional") is a term coined in the early 1980s for a young professional person working in a city.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
2,3-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (2,3-MDMA) is a positional isomer of the recreational drug 3,4-MDMA (commonly known as Ecstasy or Molly).
3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine ("MDEA"; also called "MDE" and colloquially, "Eve") is an empathogenic psychoactive drug.
3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-hydroxyamphetamine (MDOH, MDH, N-hydroxytenamphetamine) is an entactogen, psychedelic, and stimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), is an empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family that is encountered mainly as a recreational drug.
3,4-Methylenedioxyphenylpropan-2-one or piperonyl methyl ketone (MDP2P or PMK) is a chemical compound consisting of a phenylacetone moiety substituted with a methylenedioxy functional group.
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) is an active metabolite of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of the 5-HT serotonin receptors that bind to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT).
The 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
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