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Brown dwarf

Index Brown dwarf

Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about. [1]

172 relations: Adaptive optics, Alkali, Alkali metal, Ammonia, Arecibo Observatory, Atmosphere, Bipolar outflow, Black dwarf, Blue dwarf (red-dwarf stage), Brown dwarf, Brown-dwarf desert, Calcium hydride, California Institute of Technology, Carbon monoxide, Carbon planet, Celsius, Centaurus, Cetus, CFBDS J005910.90-011401.3, Cha 110913-773444, ChaHα8, Chamaeleon, Chamaeleon complex, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Chromium hydride, Chuo University, Circumstellar disc, Circumstellar habitable zone, Compact star, Convection, Coronagraph, COROT-3b, Coulomb barrier, Dark matter, Deep Near Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky, Degenerate matter, DENIS-P J020529.0-115925, Deuterium, Deuterium fusion, Doppler spectroscopy, Eccentricity (mathematics), Electron degeneracy pressure, Epsilon Indi, Exoplanet, Exoplanet Data Explorer, Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia, Fornax, Gas giant, GD 165, Gemini (constellation), ..., Gliese 229, Greenhouse effect, Hale Telescope, Helium, Helium-4, HR 2562 b, Hubble Space Telescope, Hydride, Hydrogen, Hydrostatic equilibrium, Infrared, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, International Astronomical Union, Iron(I) hydride, Isotopes of hydrogen, Isotopes of lithium, Jill Tarter, Jupiter, Jupiter mass, Kelu-1, Kelvin, Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism, Kilogram, Lagoon Nebula, Lepus (constellation), Lightning, List of transiting exoplanets, Lithium, Lithium burning, LP 944-20, LSR J1835+3259, Luhman 16, Luminosity, Magenta, Magnesium hydride, Magnetic field, Magnetosphere, Main sequence, Metallicity, Methane, Methods of detecting exoplanets, Micrometer, MOA-2007-BLG-192Lb, Monte Carlo method, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Myr, NASA, Nature (journal), Nebula, Nemesis (hypothetical star), Neptune, Nuclear fusion, Oort cloud, Orbit, Osmium, OTS 44, Palomar Mountain, Palomar Observatory, PDF, Pennsylvania State University, Physics Today, Planet, Planetary habitability, Pleiades, Potassium, Proton, Protoplanetary disk, Protostar, Radial velocity, Red dwarf, Red giant, Room temperature, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Saturn, Scholarpedia, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Sodium, Solar cycle, Solar mass, Space Telescope Science Institute, Spectrum, Spitzer Space Telescope, Star, Star cluster, Star formation, Stellar classification, Stellar evolution, Stellar population, Sub-brown dwarf, Subdwarf, Substellar object, Sun, Super-Jupiter, Taurus (constellation), Teegarden's Star, Teide 1, Teide Observatory, The Astrophysical Journal, Thermonuclear fusion, Tidal force, Titan (moon), Titanium(II) oxide, UGPS J0722-0540, ULAS J003402.77−005206.7, ULAS J133553.45+113005.2, Ultra-cool dwarf, Vanadium(II) oxide, Very Large Array, Visual perception, WD 0137-349, White dwarf, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, WISE 0855−0714, WISE 1828+2650, WISE J031624.35+430709.1, X-ray, 2M1207, 2M1207b, 2MASS, 2MASS 0532+8246, 2MASS J04414489+2301513, 2MASS J22282889-4310262. Expand index (122 more) »

Adaptive optics

Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion.

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Arecibo Observatory

The Arecibo Observatory is a radio telescope in the municipality of Arecibo, Puerto Rico.

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An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Bipolar outflow

A bipolar outflow comprises two continuous flows of gas from the poles of a star.

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Black dwarf

A black dwarf is a theoretical stellar remnant, specifically a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently that it no longer emits significant heat or light.

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Blue dwarf (red-dwarf stage)

A blue dwarf is a predicted class of star that develops from a red dwarf after it has exhausted much of its hydrogen fuel supply.

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Brown dwarf

Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.

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Brown-dwarf desert

The brown-dwarf desert is a theorized range of orbits around a star on which brown dwarfs cannot exist as a companion object.

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Calcium hydride

Calcium hydride is the chemical compound with the formula CaH2, and is therefore an alkaline earth hydride.

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California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon planet

A carbon planet is a theoretical type of planet that contains more carbon (''Z''.

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The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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Centaurus is a bright constellation in the southern sky.

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Cetus is a constellation.

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CFBDS J005910.90-011401.3

CFBDS J005910.90−011401.3 (also CFBDS J0059−0114 or CFBDS0059) is a brown dwarf with a low temperature of only 625 K, located in constellation Cetus about 30 light-years away.

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Cha 110913-773444

Cha 110913-773444 (sometimes abbreviated Cha 110913) is an astronomical object surrounded by what appears to be a protoplanetary disk.

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ChaHα8 (also written ChaHa8 when Greek letters are unavailable) is a brown dwarf 522 light years from Earth discovered in 2000.

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Chamaeleon is a small constellation in the southern sky.

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Chamaeleon complex

The Chamaeleon complex is a large star forming region (SFR) that includes the Chamaeleon I, Chamaeleon II, and Chamaeleon III dark clouds.

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Chandra X-ray Observatory

The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.

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Chromium hydride

Chromium hydrides are compounds of chromium and hydrogen, and possibly other elements.

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Chuo University

, commonly referred to as or, is a private flagship research university in Tokyo, Japan.

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Circumstellar disc

A circumstellar disc (or circumstellar disk) is a torus, pancake or ring-shaped accumulation of matter composed of gas, dust, planetesimals, asteroids or collision fragments in orbit around a star.

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Circumstellar habitable zone

In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone, is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure.

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Compact star

In astronomy, the term "compact star" (or "compact object") refers collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes.

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Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).

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A coronagraph is a telescopic attachment designed to block out the direct light from a star so that nearby objects – which otherwise would be hidden in the star's bright glare – can be resolved.

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COROT-3b (formerly known as COROT-Exo-3b) is a brown dwarf or massive extrasolar planet with a mass 21.66 times that of Jupiter.

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Coulomb barrier

The Coulomb barrier, named after Coulomb's law, which is in turn named after physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, is the energy barrier due to electrostatic interaction that two nuclei need to overcome so they can get close enough to undergo a nuclear reaction.

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Dark matter

Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.

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Deep Near Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky

The Deep Near Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS) was a deep astronomical survey of the southern sky in the near-infrared and optical wavelengths, using a ESO 1-meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory.

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Degenerate matter

Degenerate matter is a highly dense state of matter in which particles must occupy high states of kinetic energy in order to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle.

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DENIS-P J020529.0-115925

DENIS-P J020529.0-115925 is a star system in the constellation of Cetus.

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Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

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Deuterium fusion

Deuterium fusion, also called deuterium burning, is a nuclear fusion reaction that occurs in stars and some substellar objects, in which a deuterium nucleus and a proton combine to form a helium-3 nucleus.

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Doppler spectroscopy

Doppler spectroscopy (also known as the radial-velocity method, or colloquially, the wobble method) is an indirect method for finding extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs from radial-velocity measurements via observation of Doppler shifts in the spectrum of the planet's parent star.

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Eccentricity (mathematics)

In mathematics, the eccentricity, denoted e or \varepsilon, is a parameter associated with every conic section.

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Electron degeneracy pressure

Electron degeneracy pressure is a particular manifestation of the more general phenomenon of quantum degeneracy pressure.

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Epsilon Indi

Epsilon Indi (ε Indi, ε Ind) is a star system approximately 12 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Indus consisting of a K-type main-sequence star, ε Indi A, and two brown dwarfs, ε Indi Ba and ε Indi Bb, in a wide orbit around it.

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An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.

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Exoplanet Data Explorer

The Exoplanet Data Explorer / Exoplanet Orbit Database lists extrasolar planets up to 24 Jupiter masses.

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Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia

The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia is an astronomy website, founded in Paris, France at the Meudon Observatory by Jean Schneider in February 1995, which maintains a database of all the currently known and candidate extrasolar planets, with individual pages for each planet and a full list interactive catalog spreadsheet.

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Fornax is a constellation in the southern sky, partly ringed by the celestial river Eridanus.

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Gas giant

A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

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GD 165

GD 165 is a system of a white dwarf and a brown dwarf of spectral types DA4 + L4, located in constellation Boötes at approximately 103 light-years from Earth.

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Gemini (constellation)

Gemini is one of the constellations of the zodiac.

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Gliese 229

Gliese 229 (also written as Gl 229 or GJ 229) is a red dwarf about 19 light years away in the constellation Lepus.

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Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.

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Hale Telescope

The Hale telescope is a, f/3.3 reflecting telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California, US, named after astronomer George Ellery Hale.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Helium-4 is a non-radioactive isotope of the element helium.

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HR 2562 b

HR 2526b is a substellar companion of debris disk host star HR 2562.

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Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.

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In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrostatic equilibrium

In fluid mechanics, a fluid is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance when it is at rest, or when the flow velocity at each point is constant over time.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias

The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) is an astrophysical research institute located in the Canary Islands.

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International Astronomical Union

The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.

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Iron(I) hydride

Iron(I) hydride, systematically named iron hydride and poly(hydridoiron) is a solid inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written or FeH).

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Isotopes of hydrogen

Hydrogen (1H) has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H.

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Isotopes of lithium

Naturally occurring lithium (3Li) is composed of two stable isotopes, lithium-6 and lithium-7, with the latter being far more abundant: about 92.5 percent of the atoms.

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Jill Tarter

Jill Cornell Tarter (born January 16, 1944) is an American astronomer best known for her work on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Jupiter mass

Jupiter mass, also called Jovian mass is the unit of mass equal to the total mass of the planet Jupiter.

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Kelu-1 is a system of two brown dwarfs of spectral types L2 and L4 located in constellation Hydra at approximately 61 light-years from Earth.

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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism

The Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism is an astronomical process that occurs when the surface of a star or a planet cools.

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The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

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Lagoon Nebula

The Lagoon Nebula (catalogued as Messier 8 or M8, NGC 6523, Sharpless 25, RCW 146, and Gum 72) is a giant interstellar cloud in the constellation Sagittarius.

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Lepus (constellation)

Lepus is a constellation lying just south of the celestial equator.

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Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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List of transiting exoplanets

This is the list of 232 transiting extrasolar planets sorted by orbital periods.

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Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Lithium burning

Lithium burning is a nucleosynthetic process in which lithium is depleted in a star.

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LP 944-20

No description.

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LSR J1835+3259

No description.

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Luhman 16

Luhman 16 (WISE 1049−5319, WISE J104915.57−531906.1) is a binary brown-dwarf system in the southern constellation Vela at a distance of approximately from the Sun.

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In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object.

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Magenta is a color that is variously defined as purplish-red, reddish-purple, purplish, or mauvish-crimson.

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Magnesium hydride

Magnesium hydride is the chemical compound with the molecular formula MgH2.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.

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Main sequence

In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.

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In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methods of detecting exoplanets

Any planet is an extremely faint light source compared to its parent star.

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A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers.

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MOA-2007-BLG-192Lb, occasionally shortened to MOA-192 b, is an extrasolar planet approximately 3,000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius.

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Monte Carlo method

Monte Carlo methods (or Monte Carlo experiments) are a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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The abbreviation myr, "million years", is a unit of a quantity of (i.e.) years, or 31.6 teraseconds.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.

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Nemesis (hypothetical star)

Nemesis is a hypothetical red dwarf or brown dwarf, originally postulated in 1984 to be orbiting the Sun at a distance of about 95,000 AU (1.5 light-years), somewhat beyond the Oort cloud, to explain a perceived cycle of mass extinctions in the geological record, which seem to occur more often at intervals of 26 million years.

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Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Oort cloud

The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.

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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.

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OTS 44

OTS 44 is a free-floating planetary-mass object or brown dwarf located at in the constellation Chamaeleon.

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Palomar Mountain

Palomar Mountain is a mountain ridge in the Peninsular Ranges in northern San Diego County.

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Palomar Observatory

Palomar Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in San Diego County, California, United States, southeast of Los Angeles, California, in the Palomar Mountain Range.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.

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Physics Today

Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.

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A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Planetary habitability

Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.

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The Pleiades (also known as the Seven Sisters and Messier 45), are an open star cluster containing middle-aged, hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Protoplanetary disk

A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.

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A protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud.

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Radial velocity

The radial velocity of an object with respect to a given point is the rate of change of the distance between the object and the point.

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Red dwarf

A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.

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Red giant

A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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Roque de los Muchachos Observatory

Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Spanish: Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, ORM) is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands.

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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.

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Sloan Digital Sky Survey

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey or SDSS is a major multi-spectral imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey using a dedicated 2.5-m wide-angle optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, United States.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Solar cycle

The solar cycle or solar magnetic activity cycle is the nearly periodic 11-year change in the Sun's activity (including changes in the levels of solar radiation and ejection of solar material) and appearance (changes in the number and size of sunspots, flares, and other manifestations).

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Solar mass

The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.

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Space Telescope Science Institute

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST; in orbit since 1990) and for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST; scheduled to be launched in March 2021).

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A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.

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Spitzer Space Telescope

The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.

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A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Star cluster

Star clusters are groups of stars.

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Star formation

Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.

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Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

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Stellar evolution

Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.

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Stellar population

During 1944, Walter Baade categorized groups of stars within the Milky Way into bluer stars associated with the spiral arms and the general position of yellow stars near the central galactic bulge or within globular star clusters.

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Sub-brown dwarf

A sub-brown dwarf or planetary-mass brown dwarf is an astronomical object that formed in the same manner as stars and brown dwarfs (i.e. through the collapse of a gas cloud) but that has a mass below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium (about). Some researchers call them free-floating planets whereas others call them planetary-mass brown dwarfs.

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A subdwarf, sometimes denoted by "sd", is a star with luminosity class VI under the Yerkes spectral classification system.

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Substellar object

A substellar object, sometimes called a substar, is an astronomical object whose mass is smaller than the smallest mass at which hydrogen fusion can be sustained (approximately 0.08 solar masses).

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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A super-Jupiter is an astronomical object that is more massive than the planet Jupiter.

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Taurus (constellation)

Taurus (Latin for "the Bull") is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic.

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Teegarden's Star

Teegarden's Star (SO J025300.5+165258, 2MASS J02530084+1652532, LSPM J0253+1652) is an M-type red dwarf in the constellation Aries, about 12 light-years from the Solar System.

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Teide 1

Teide 1 was the first brown dwarf to be verified, in 1995.

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Teide Observatory

Teide Observatory (Observatorio del Teide), IAU code 954, is an astronomical observatory on Mount Teide at, located on Tenerife, Spain.

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The Astrophysical Journal

The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

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Thermonuclear fusion

Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.

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Tidal force

The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.

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Titan (moon)

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.

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Titanium(II) oxide

Titanium(II) oxide (TiO) is an inorganic chemical compound of titanium and oxygen.

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UGPS J0722-0540

UGPS J072227.51-054031.2 (designation often abbreviated to UGPS 0722-05) is a brown dwarf of late T type, located approximately from Earth.

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ULAS J003402.77−005206.7

ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 (also ULAS J0034-00) is a T-type brown dwarf in the constellation of Cetus.

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ULAS J133553.45+113005.2

ULAS J133553.45+113005.2 (also called ULAS1335) is a T-type brown dwarf in the constellation of Virgo.

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Ultra-cool dwarf

An ultra-cool dwarf is a stellar or sub-stellar object of spectral class M that has an effective temperature under.

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Vanadium(II) oxide

Vanadium(II) oxide, VO, is one of the many oxides of vanadium.

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Very Large Array

The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) is a centimeter-wavelength radio astronomy observatory located in central New Mexico on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, ~50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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WD 0137-349

WD 0137-349 is a binary star in the constellation of Sculptor.

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White dwarf

A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.

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Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011.

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WISE 0855−0714

WISE 0855−0714 (full designation WISE J085510.83−071442.5) is a (sub-) brown dwarf from Earth, whose discovery was announced in April 2014 by Kevin Luhman using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE).

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WISE 1828+2650

WISE 1828+2650 (full designation WISEPA J182831.08+265037.8) is a brown dwarf or rogue planet of spectral class >Y2, located in constellation Lyra at approximately 47 light-years from Earth.

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WISE J031624.35+430709.1

WISE J031624.35+430709.1 is a brown dwarf of spectral class T8, located in constellation Perseus at approximately 106 light-years from Earth.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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2M1207, 2M1207A or 2MASS J12073346-3932539 is a brown dwarf located in the constellation Centaurus; a companion object, 2M1207b, may be the first extrasolar planetary-mass companion to be directly imaged, and is the first discovered orbiting a brown dwarf.

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2M1207b is a planetary-mass object orbiting the brown dwarf 2M1207, in the constellation Centaurus, approximately 170 light-years from Earth.

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The Two Micron All-Sky Survey, or 2MASS, was an astronomical survey of the whole sky in the infrared spectrum and one of the most ambitious such projects.

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2MASS 0532+8246

2MASS 0532+8246 (full designation 2MASS J05325346+8246465) is possibly the first brown dwarf observed in the galactic halo of the Milky Way, and the first known substellar subdwarf star.

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2MASS J04414489+2301513

2MASS J04414489+2301513 (often abbreviated as 2M J044144) is a young brown dwarf approximately 470 light years (145 parsecs) away with an orbiting companion about 5–10 times the mass of Jupiter.

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2MASS J22282889-4310262

2MASS J22282889-4310262 is a brown dwarf discovered by The Hubble Space Telescope and The Spitzer Space Telescope in 2013.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_dwarf

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