270 relations: Absheron Peninsula, Aerial bomb, Alexander Nevsky, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Anchor, Angarsk, Animal husbandry, Apatite, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Aspen, Atlantic cod, Atlantic herring, Atlantic salmon, Åland Islands, Baltic Klint, Baltic Pipeline System-II, Baltic Sea, Baltic Shield, Battle of Gangut, Battle of Hogland, Battle of Lyndanisse, Beryozovye Islands, Big port Saint Petersburg, Birch, Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, Blicca bjoerkna, Bolshoy Tyuters, Border Security Zone of Russia, Brown trout, Burbot, Byzantine Empire, Cambrian, Carex acuta, Cenozoic, Cherepovets, Chud, Common bleak, Common bream, Common dace, Common minnow, Common rudd, Copper, Coregonus, Coregonus albula, Coregonus lavaretus, Crucian carp, Cyclopterus lumpus, Daniil Shchenya, Dardanelles, ..., Deciduous, Destroyer, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donbass, Duchy of Estonia (1219–1346), East Slavs, Eastern Europe, Ediacaran, Eric of Pomerania, Espoo, Estonia, Estonian Institute, Estonian War of Independence, Estonians, Estonica, European eel, European perch, European smelt, European sprat, Eutrophication, Ferrous, Financial Times, Finland, Finnish Declaration of Independence, Finnish War, Finno-Ugric peoples, Floods in Saint Petersburg, Fort Alexander (Saint Petersburg), Fort Ino, Frederick II of Denmark, Garfish, Gobio gobio, Goby, Gogland, Grand Duchy of Finland, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Granite, Great Northern War, Great Russian Encyclopedia, Greenpeace, Greenstone belt, Greifswald, Grey seal, Guard ship, Gunboat, Gustav I of Sweden, Hamina, Hanko, Hanko Peninsula, Helsinki, Herring, Humid continental climate, Ide (fish), Ingria, Ingrian War, International Hydrographic Organization, Ivan Aivazovsky, Izhorians, Kaliningrad, Karelia, Karelian Isthmus, Karelians, Kökar, Keila (river), Kimitoön (island), Kirkkonummi, Kola Peninsula, Komarovo, Saint Petersburg, Kotka, Kotlin Island, Krasnaya Gorka fort, Krivichs, Kronstadt, Kunda, Estonia, Kuznetsk Basin, Kven Sea, Kymi (river), Lake Ladoga, Lamprey, Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant, Leucaspius delineatus, Limestone, Littorina Sea, Livonian War, Loksa, Lomonosov, Russia, Loviisa, Luga River, Lumber, Maardu, Maly Vysotsky Island, Mariehamn, Marshal, Mercury (element), Minesweeper, Misgurnus, Moshchny Island, Motor Torpedo Boat, Naissaar, Najas marina, Narva River, Narva-Jõesuu, Naval mine, Neolithic, Neva Bay, Neva River, Nord Stream, Northern pike, Novgorod Republic, Novgorod Slavs, Novouralsk, Nuphar lutea, Nymphaea alba, Oil refinery, Old Finland, Ordovician, Osmussaar, Pakri Islands, Paldiski, Parliament of Finland, Pelecus cultratus, Perch, Pesticide, Peter the Great, Peter the Great's Naval Fortress, Petergof, Petroleum product, Phenols, Phragmites, Picea abies, Pine, Pinophyta, Pipefish, Pirita (river), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Porkkalanniemi, Porvoo, Porvoonjoki, Potassium chloride, Primorsk, Leningrad Oblast, Pyrite, Quartz, Quaternary glaciation, Radioactive waste, Ringed seal, River incision, Rostock, Rowan, Royal charter, Ruffe, Ruppia, Russia, Russian Civil War, Russo-Swedish War (1495–97), Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790), Rutilus, Saaremaa, Saimaa, Saimaa Canal, Saint George's Night Uprising, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Dam, Salinity, Scandinavia, Seskar, Sestra River (Leningrad Oblast), Sestroretsk, Ship graveyard, Sillamäe, Silver, Skerry, Slash-and-burn, Solikamsk, Sommers, Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad Oblast, Soviet evacuation of Tallinn, Spawn (biology), Spiegel Online, Spined loach, Spithami, Squalius cephalus, St. Olaf's Church, Tallinn, Stickleback, Stockholm, Submarine, Sweden, Swedish Ingria, Swedish Livonia, Tallinn, Tench, Teredo navalis, Terra Mariana, Teutonic Order, Thaler, Torkel Knutsson, Treaty of Fredrikshamn, Treaty of Nöteborg, Treaty of Nystad, Treaty of Stolbovo, Turku, Typha, Uranium hexafluoride, Ust-Luga, Ust-Luga Multimodal Complex, Vantaa (river), Vasilyevsky Island, Veliky Novgorod, Viviparous eelpout, Volga River, Volga–Baltic Waterway, Vologda Oblast, Votes, Vyborg, Vyborg Castle, Vysotsk, White Sea–Baltic Canal, Willow, Winter War, Zander, Zelenogorsk, Saint Petersburg. Expand index (220 more) » « Shrink index
The Absheron Peninsula (Abşeron yarımadası) is a peninsula in Azerbaijan.
An aerial bomb is a type of explosive or incendiary weapon intended to travel through the air on a predictable trajectory, usually designed to be dropped from an aircraft.
Alnus glutinosa, the common alder, black alder, European alder or just alder, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to most of Europe, southwest Asia and northern Africa.
Alnus incana, the grey alder or speckled alder, is a species of alder with a wide range across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere.
An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to wind or current.
Angarsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Angarsky District of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Kitoy River, from Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.
Arkhangelsk Oblast (Арха́нгельская о́бласть, Arkhangelskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Aspen is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section ''Populus'', of the Populus genus.
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a benthopelagic fish of the family Gadidae, widely consumed by humans.
Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) is a herring in the family Clupeidae.
The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
The Baltic Klint (Clint, Glint; Balti klint, Балтийско-Ладожский уступ, Глинт) is an erosional limestone escarpment on several islands of the Baltic Sea, in Estonia, in Leningrad Oblast of Russia and in the islands of Gotland and Öland of Sweden.
The Baltic Pipeline System-2 (BPS-2) is a second trunk line of the Baltic Pipeline System.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic Shield (or Fennoscandian Shield) is a segment of the Earth's crust belonging to the East European Craton, representing a large part of Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and the northern Baltic Sea.
The Battle of Gangut (Гангутское сражение, Riilahden taistelu, Finland Swedish: Slaget vid Rilax, Sjöslaget vid Hangöudd) took place on 27 JulyJul./ 7 August 1714Greg. during the Great Northern War (1700–21), in the waters of Riilahti Bay, north of the Hanko Peninsula, near the site of the modern-day city of Hanko, Finland, between the Swedish Navy and Imperial Russian Navy.
The naval Battle of Hogland took place on 17 July (6 July OS) 1788 during the Russo-Swedish War (1788-1790).
The Battle of Lindanise was a battle which helped King Valdemar II of Denmark establish the territory of Danish Estonia during the Northern Crusades, which were undertaken in response to calls from the Pope.
Beryozovye Islands (Берёзовые острова, Finnish: Koivisto, Swedish: Björkö; literally: "Birch Islands"), alternatively spelled Berezovye Islands, is an island group in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Big port Saint Petersburg (Russian Большой порт Санкт-Петербург, official name is Federal official body "Administration of seaport the Big port St.-Petersburg") is the state enterprise providing the organisation of trading navigation in sea port Saint Petersburg and behind its limits in established zones of responsibility of the Russian Federation.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese and semi-independent prince-bishopric (parto of Terra Mariana, i.e. Livonia) in the Holy Roman Empire, covering what are now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia.
Blicca bjoerkna, alternatively called the white bream or the silver bream, is a European species of freshwater fish in the Cyprinidae family.
Bolshoi Tyuters (Большой Тютерс; Tytärsaari; Suur Tütarsaar; Tyterskär) is an island in the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, located away from the coast of Finland, to the south-east from Hogland.
A Border Security Zone in Russia is the designation of a strip of land (usually, though not always, along a Russian federation external border) where economic activity and access are restricted in line with the Frontier Regime Regulations set by the Federal Security Service.
The brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a European species of salmonid fish that has been widely introduced into suitable environments globally.
The burbot (Lota lota) is the only gadiform (cod-like) freshwater fish.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Carex acuta, the acute sedge, slender tufted-sedge, or slim sedge, can be found growing on the margins of rivers and lakes in the Palaearctic terrestrial ecoregions in beds of wet, alkaline or slightly acid depressions with mineral soil.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Cherepovets (p) is a city in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located in the west of the oblast on the banks of the Sheksna River (a tributary of the Volga River) and on the shores of the Rybinsk Reservoir.
Chud or Chude (чудь, in Finnic languages: tshuudi, tšuudi, čuđit) is a term historically applied in the early Russian annals to several Finnic peoples in the area of what is now Estonia, Karelia and Northwestern Russia.
The common bleak (Alburnus alburnus) is a small freshwater coarse fish of the cyprinid family.
The common bream, freshwater bream, bream, bronze bream or carp bream (Abramis brama), is a European species of freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae.
The common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), the dace or the Eurasian dace, is a fresh- or brackish-water fish belonging to the family Cyprinidae.
The Eurasian minnow, minnow, or common minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) is a small species of freshwater fish in the carp family Cyprinidae.
The common rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus is a bentho-pelagic freshwater fish, widely spread in Europe and middle Asia, around the basins of the North, Baltic, Black, Caspian and Aral seas.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Coregonus is a diverse genus of fish in the salmon family (Salmonidae).
Coregonus albula, known as the vendace or as the European cisco, is a species of freshwater whitefish in the family Salmonidae.
Coregonus lavaretus is a species of freshwater whitefish, in the family Salmonidae.
The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is a medium-sized member of the common carp family Cyprinidae.
Cyclopterus lumpus, the lumpsucker or lumpfish, is a species of marine fish in the family Cyclopteridae (lumpsuckers).
Prince Daniil Vasiliyevich Shchenya (? – no later than 1519) was a leading Russian military leader during the reigns of Ivan III and Vasili III.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
The Donbass (Донба́сс) or Donbas (Донба́с) is a historical, cultural, and economic region in eastern Ukraine and southwestern Russia.
The Duchy of Estonia (Hertugdømmet Estland Ducatus Estonie), also known as Danish Estonia, was a direct dominion (dominium directum) of the King of Denmark from 1219 until 1346 when it was sold to the Teutonic Order and became part of the Ordenstaat.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.
Eric of Pomerania KG (1381 or 1382 – 24 September 1459) was the ruler of the Kalmar Union from 1396 until 1439, succeeding his adoptive mother, Queen Margaret I. He is numbered Eric III as King of Norway (1389–1442), Eric VII as King of Denmark (1396–1439) and Eric XIII as King of Sweden (1396–1434, 1436–39).
Espoo (Esbo) is the second largest city and municipality in Finland.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonian Institute is a non-governmental and non-profit organisation based in Tallinn aiming to promote Estonian culture abroad.
The Estonian War of Independence (Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army and its allies, most notably the White Russian Northwestern Army, Latvia, and the United Kingdom, against the Soviet Western Front offensive and the aggression of the Baltische Landeswehr.
Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.
Estonica is a comprehensive encyclopædia on topics relating to Estonia, particularly the culture and history of Estonia.
The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a species of eel, a snake-like, catadromous fish.
Perca fluviatilis, commonly known as the European perch, perch, redfin perch, big-scaled redfin, English perch, Eurasian perch, Eurasian river perch or common perch, is a predatory species of perch found in Europe and northern Asia.
The smelt or European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) is a species of fish in the family Osmeridae.
The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus), also known as bristling, brisling or skipper, is a small, herring-like, marine fish.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
In chemistry, ferrous (Fe2+), indicates a divalent iron compound (+2 oxidation state), as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound (+3 oxidation state).
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnish Declaration of Independence (Suomen itsenäisyysjulistus; Finlands självständighetsförklaring; Провозглашение независимости Финляндии) was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917.
The Finnish War (Finska kriget, Финляндская война, Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809.
The Finno-Ugric peoples are any of several peoples of North-West Eurasia who speak languages of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, such as the Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians, Maris, Mordvins, Sámi, Estonians, Karelians, Finns, Udmurts and Komis.
Floods in Saint Petersburg refer to a rise of water on the territory of St. Petersburg, a major city in Russia and its former capital.
Fort Alexander, also Fort Alexander I, or Plague Fort (Форт Александр Первый Fort Aleksandr Perviy or Чумной форт Chumnoy fort, English: "Plague fort") is a naval fortress on an artificial island in the Gulf of Finland near St. Petersburg and Kronstadt.
Fort Ino or Fort Nikolaevsky (форт «Ино» or форт Николаевский) is an abandoned early 20th-century Russian coastal fortification situated on the northern shore of Neva Bay in the Gulf of Finland.
Frederick II (1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588) was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.
The garfish (Belone belone), or sea needle, is a pelagic, oceanodromous needlefish found in brackish and marine waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean, Caribbean, Black, and Baltic Seas.
Gobio gobio, or the gudgeon, is a species of fish in the Cyprinidae family.
Gobies are fishes of the family Gobiidae, one of the largest fish families comprising more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera.
Gogland or Hogland (Гогланд; Suursaari; Hogland, Suursaar, Hochland) is an island in the Gulf of Finland in the eastern Baltic Sea, about 180 km west from Saint Petersburg and 35 km from the coast of Finland (near Kotka).
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Great Russian Encyclopedia (GRE; Большая российская энциклопедия, БРЭ, transliterated as Bolshaya rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or academically as Bolšaja rossijskaja enciklopedija) is a universal Russian encyclopedia, completed in 36 volumes, published since 2004 by Great Russian Encyclopedia, JSC (Большая Российская энциклопедия ПАО, transliterated as Bolshaya Rossiyskaya Entsiklopediya PAO).
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Greenstone belts are zones of variably metamorphosed mafic to ultramafic volcanic sequences with associated sedimentary rocks that occur within Archaean and Proterozoic cratons between granite and gneiss bodies.
Greifswald, officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald (German: Universitäts- und Hansestadt Greifswald), is a city in northeastern Germany.
The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.
A guard ship is a warship assigned as a stationary guard in a port or harbour, as opposed to a coastal patrol boat which serves its protective role at sea.
A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.
Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September 1560), was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death in 1560, previously self-recognised Protector of the Realm (Riksföreståndare) from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
Hamina (Fredrikshamn) is a town and a municipality of Finland.
Hanko (Hangö) is a bilingual port town and municipality on the south coast of Finland, west of Helsinki.
The Hanko Peninsula (Finnish: Hankoniemi, Swedish: Hangö udd), also spelled Hango, is the southernmost point of mainland Finland.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
The ide (Leuciscus idus), or orfe, is a freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae found in larger rivers, ponds, and lakes across northern Europe and Asia.
Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.
The Ingrian War between Sweden and Russia, which lasted between 1610 and 1617 and can be seen as part of Russia's Time of Troubles, is mainly remembered for the attempt to put a Swedish duke on the Russian throne.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Ива́н Константи́нович Айвазо́вский; 29 July 18172 May 1900) was an Armenian-Russian Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art.
The Izhorians (Ижо́ра; ижо́рцы; sg. inkerikot, isurit, ižoralaine, inkeroine, ižora, ingermans, ingers, ingrian, pl. ižoralaizet), along with the Votes, are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous people native to Ingria.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
The Karelian Isthmus (Karelsky peresheyek; Karjalankannas; Karelska näset) is the approximately 45–110 km wide stretch of land, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia, to the north of the River Neva (between 61°21’N, 59°46’N and 27°42’E, 31°08’E).
Karelians (karjalaižet) are a Baltic-Finnic ethnic group who are native to the Northern European historical region of Karelia, which is today split between Finland and Russia.
Kökar is an island municipality to the south-east of the Åland archipelago, Finland.
The Keila is a river in Northern Estonia.
Kimitoön (Kemiönsaari) is the largest coastal island of Finland with the area of.
Kirkkonummi (Kyrkslätt) is a municipality of inhabitants in southern Finland.
The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.
Komarovo (p; Kellomäki) is a municipal settlement in Kurortny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located on the Karelian Isthmus on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, and a station of the Saint Petersburg-Vyborg railroad.
Kotka is a city and municipality of Finland.
Kotlin (or Kettle, Retusaari, Reitskär) is a Russian island, located near the head of the Gulf of Finland, west of Saint Petersburg in the Baltic Sea.
Krasnaya Gorka (Красная Горка meaning red Hill) is a coastal artillery fortress west of Lomonosov, Russia on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, opposite Kotlin Island and the Baltic Fleet's base at Kronstadt.
The Krivichs (Kryvichs) (Крывічы, Kryvičý,; p) was one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
Kronstadt (Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (Krone for "crown" and Stadt for "city"; Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland.
Kunda is a town (founded May 1, 1938) in Viru-Nigula Parish, in Estonia, located on the coast of the Gulf of Finland.
The Kuznetsk Basin (often abbreviated as Kuzbass or Kuzbas, Russian: Кузнецкий бассейн, Кузбасс) in southwestern Siberia, Russia, is one of the largest coal mining areas in the world, covering an area of around.
Kven Sea (Cwen sea) is mentioned as the northern border for the ancient Germania in "The Old English Orosius", the history of the world published in England in 890 CE with a commission from King Alfred the Great himself.
The Kymi (Kymijoki, Kymmene älv) is a river in Finland.
Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (Ленинградская атомная электростанция; Ленинградская АЭС) is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Sosnovy Bor in Russia's Leningrad Oblast, on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, some to the west of the city centre of Saint Petersburg.
Leucaspius delineatus, known as the sunbleak, belica or moderlieschen is a species of freshwater fish in the Cyprinidae family.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Littorina Sea (also Litorina Sea) is a geological brackish water stage of the Baltic Sea, which existed around 7500–4000 BP and followed the Mastogloia Sea, transitional stage of the Ancylus Lake.
The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.
Loksa is a town and municipality in Harju County, northern Estonia.
Lomonosov (Ломоно́сов; before 1948: Oranienbaum, Ораниенба́ум) is a municipal town in Petrodvortsovy District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, west of Saint Petersburg proper.
Loviisa (Lovisa) is a municipality and town of inhabitants on the southern coast of Finland.
The Luga River is a river in Novgorodsky and Batetsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Luzhsky, Volosovsky, Slantsevsky, and Kingiseppsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast of Russia.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Maardu is a town and a municipality in Harju County, Estonia.
Maly Vysotsky Island or Malyj Vysotskij Island is an island in northwest Russia, that was leased to Finland.
Mariehamn (Maarianhamina) is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finnish sovereignty.
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping.
Misgurnus is a genus of loaches from Europe and Asia.
Moshchny (Мощный; Lavansaari; Lövskär, Lavassaar) is an island in the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, located some 120 km west of Saint Petersburg.
Motor Torpedo Boat (MTB) was the name given to fast torpedo boats by the Royal Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy.
Naissaar (Nargen; Nargö) is an island northwest of Tallinn (but belonging to Viimsi Parish) in Estonia.
Najas marina is a species of aquatic plant known by the common names spiny water nymph, spiny naiad and holly-leaved naiad.
The Narva (Narva jõgi, Нарва) (or Narova) is a river flowing into the Baltic Sea, the largest river in Estonia by discharge.
Narva-Jõesuu (Усть-Нарва, Ust'-Narva) is a town in Ida-Viru County, in north-eastern Estonia.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neva Bay (Russian: Невская губа, Nevskaya Guba), also known as the Gulf of Kronstadt, is the easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland between Kotlin Island and the Neva River estuary where Saint Petersburg city centre is located.
The Neva (Нева́) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast (historical region of Ingria) to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland.
Nord Stream (former names: North Transgas and North European Gas Pipeline; Северный поток, Severny potok) is an offshore natural gas pipeline from Vyborg in the Russian Federation to Greifswald in Germany that is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG.
The northern pike (Esox lucius), known simply as a pike in Britain, Ireland, most of Canada, and most parts of the United States (once called luce when fully grown; also called jackfish or simply "northern" in the U.S. Upper Midwest and in Manitoba), is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox (the pikes).
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
The Novgorod Slavs or Ilmen Slavs (Ильменские словене, Il'menskiye slovene) were the northernmost tribe of the Early East Slavs, which inhabited the shores of Lake Ilmen and the basin of the rivers of Volkhov, Lovat, Msta, and the upper stream of the Mologa River in the 8th to 10th centuries.
Novouralsk (Новоура́льск, lit. new town in the Urals) is a closed town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern side of the Ural Mountains, about north of Yekaterinburg, the administrative center of the oblast.
Nuphar lutea, the yellow water-lily, or brandy-bottle, is an aquatic plant of the family Nymphaeaceae, native to temperate regions of Europe, northwest Africa, and western Asia.
Nymphaea alba, also known as the European white water lily, white water rose or white nenuphar, is an aquatic flowering plant of the family Nymphaeaceae.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Old Finland (Vanha Suomi; r; Gamla Finland) is a name used for the areas that Russia gained from Sweden in the Great Northern War and in the Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743).
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Osmussaar (Odensholm) is an Estonian island situated in the mouth of the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea, 7.5 km off the Estonian mainland.
Pakri Islands (Pakri saared, Rågöarna) are two Estonian islands in the Finnish Gulf: Suur-Pakri and Väike-Pakri (Stora Rågö and Lilla Rågö).
Paldiski is a town and Baltic Sea port situated on the Pakri peninsula of north-western Estonia.
The Parliament of Finland, is the unicameral supreme legislature of Finland, founded on 9 May 1906.
Pelecus cultratus, known variously as the sichel, the ziege, the sabre carp or sabrefish, is a species of cyprinid fish from an Eastern Europe and adjacent Asian regions.
Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Peter the Great's naval fortress or the Tallinn-Porkkala defence station was a Russian fortification line, which aimed to block access to the Russian capital Saint Petersburg via the sea.
Petergof (Петерго́ф) or Peterhof (German for "Peter's Court"), known as Petrodvorets (Петродворец) from 1944 to 1997, is a municipal town in Petrodvortsovy District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, located on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland.
Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world.
Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Pipefishes or pipe-fishes (Syngnathinae) are a subfamily of small fishes, which, together with the seahorses and seadragons, form the family Syngnathidae.
The Pirita (Pirita jõgi) is a long river in northern Estonia that drains into Tallinn Bay (part of the Gulf of Finland) in Pirita, Tallinn.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Porkkalanniemi (Porkala udd) is a peninsula in the Gulf of Finland, located at Kirkkonummi (Kyrkslätt) in Southern Finland.
Porvoo (Borgå) is a city and a municipality situated on the southern coast of Finland approximately east of Helsinki.
Porvoonjoki (Porvoo River, Borgå å in Swedish) is a small river in Finland.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
Primorsk (Примо́рск; Koivisto; Björkö) is a coastal town in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia and is the second largest Russian port on the Baltic, after St. Petersburg.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
The ringed seal (Pusa hispida or Phoca hispida), also known as the jar seal and as netsik or nattiq by the Inuit, is an earless seal (family: Phocidae) inhabiting the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.
River incision is the narrow erosion caused by a river or stream that is far from its base level.
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The rowans or mountain-ashes are shrubs or trees in the genus Sorbus of the rose family, Rosaceae.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
The Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua), also known as ruffe or pope, is a freshwater fish found in temperate regions of Europe and northern Asia.
Ruppia, also known as the widgeonweeds, ditch grasses or widgeon grass, is the only genus in the family Ruppiaceae, with eight known species.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russo-Swedish War of 1495–1497 was a result of an alliance between Grande Prince Ivan III of Moscow and Hans of Denmark, who was waging war against the Sture family of Sweden in the hope of regaining the Swedish throne.
The Russo-Swedish War of 1788–90, known as Gustav III's Russian War in Sweden, Gustav III's War in Finland and Catherine II's Swedish War in Russia, was fought between Sweden and Russia from June 1788 to August 1790.
Rutilus is a genus of fish in the family Cyprinidae found in Eurasia.
Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.
Saimaa is a lake in southeastern Finland.
The Saimaa Canal (Saimaan kanava; Saima kanal; Сайменский канал) is a transportation canal that connects lake Saimaa with the Gulf of Finland near Vyborg, Russia.
Saint George’s Night Uprising in 1343–1345 (Jüriöö ülestõus) was an unsuccessful attempt by the indigenous Estonian population in the Duchy of Estonia, the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, and the insular territories of the State of the Teutonic Order to rid themselves of the Danish and German rulers and landlords, who had conquered the country in the 13th century during the Livonian crusade, and to eradicate the non-indigenous Christian religion.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Saint Petersburg Flood Prevention Facility Complex (kompleks zashchitnykh sooruzheniy Sankt-Peterburga ot navodneniy), unofficially the Saint Petersburg Dam, is a complex of dams for flood control near Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Seskar (Seiskari) (Сескар) is an island in the Gulf of Finland, part of the Leningrad Oblast of Russia.
The Sestra (or Siestarjoki) is a river in Vsevolozhsky and Vyborgsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast and Kurortny District of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Sestroretsk (Сестроре́цк; Siestarjoki; Systerbäck) is a municipal town in Kurortny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, the Sestra River and the Sestroretskiy Lake northwest of St. Petersburg.
A ship graveyard or ship cemetery is a location where the hulls of scrapped ships are left to decay and disintegrate, or left in reserve.
Sillamäe (Силламяэ), known also in Germanized version as Sillamäggi or Sillamägi (Estonian for "Bridge Hill"), is a town in Ida-Viru County in the northern part of Estonia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
A skerry is a small rocky island, usually too small for human habitation.
Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.
Solikamsk (Солика́мск) is a town in Perm Krai, Russia.
Sommers (Соммерс, Someri, Sommarö) is an islet and a lighthouse in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea, just outside the Gulf of Vyborg, about 19 kilometres south of Virolahti, Finland, but it is now possessed by Russia.
Sosnovy Bor (Сосно́вый Бор, lit. pine forest) is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated on the Koporye Bay of the Gulf of Finland, west of St. Petersburg.
The Soviet evacuation of Tallinn, also called Tallinn disaster or Russian Dunkirk, was a Soviet operation to evacuate the 190 ships of the Baltic Fleet, units of the Red Army, and pro-Soviet civilians from the fleet's encircled main base of Tallinn in Soviet-occupied Estonia during August 1941.
Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.
Spiegel Online (SPON) is one of the most widely read German-language news websites.
The spined loach (Cobitis taenia) is a common freshwater fish in Europe and Asia.
Spithami (Spithamn) is a village in Lääne-Nigula Parish, Lääne County, in northwestern Estonia.
Squalius cephalus is a European species of freshwater fish in the carp family Cyprinidae.
The Gasterosteidae are a family of fish including the sticklebacks.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish Ingria (Svenska Ingermanland, ‘land of Ingrians’) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1583 to 1595 and then again from 1617 to 1721, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Nystad.
Swedish Livonia (Svenska Livland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1629 until 1721.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The tench or doctor fish (Tinca tinca) is a fresh- and brackish-water fish of the cyprinid family found throughout Eurasia from Western Europe including the British Isles east into Asia as far as the Ob and Yenisei Rivers.
Teredo navalis, the naval shipworm, is a species of saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Teredinidae, the shipworms.
Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.
Torkel (Tyrgils or Torgils) Knutsson, known well as Marshal Torkel, (?–1306) of Aranäs, was constable, privy council (riksråd), and virtual ruler of Sweden during the early reign of King Birger Magnusson (1280–1321).
The Treaty of Fredrikshamn or the Treaty of Hamina (Haminan rauha, Freden i Fredrikshamn) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on 17 September 1809.
The Treaty of Nöteborg, also known as the Treaty of Oreshek (Freden i Nöteborg, Russian: Ореховецкий мир, Pähkinäsaaren rauha), is a conventional name for the peace treaty signed at Orekhovets (Nöteborg, Pähkinäsaari) on 12 August 1323.
The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир, Uudenkaupungin rauha, Freden i Nystad, Uusikaupunki rahu) was the last peace treaty of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721.
The Treaty of Stolbovo is a peace treaty of 1617 that ended the Ingrian War, fought between Sweden and Russia.
Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.
Typha is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae.
Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Ust-Luga (Усть-Луга, lit. mouth of the Luga, Votian: Laugasuu, lit. mouth of the Luga) is a settlement and railway station in Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated on the Luga River near its entry into the Luga Bay of the Gulf of Finland, about west of St. Petersburg.
Ust-Luga Multimodal Complex (Мультимодальный комплекс Усть-Луга, Multimodalnyi kompleks Ust-Luga) is a project aimed at development of the portside area of about 3000 hectares located on the Soikinsky Peninsula by the Gulf of Finland in close proximity to the terminals of Ust-Luga Sea Merchant Port in Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
The Vantaa (Vantaanjoki) is a long river in Southern Finland.
Vasilyevsky Island (Васи́льевский о́стров, Vasilyevsky Ostrov, V.O.) is an island in St. Petersburg, Russia, bordered by the Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva Rivers (in the delta of the Neva River) in the south and northeast, and by the Gulf of Finland in the west.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
The viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus), also known as the, viviparous blenny and European eelpout is an eelpout in the family Zoarcidae.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The Volga–Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System (Russian: Мариинская водная система), is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea via the Neva River.
Vologda Oblast (r) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Votes, sometimes also Vods (vađđalaizõd) are a Finnic ethic group native to Votia in Ingria, the part of modern-day northwestern Russia that is roughly southwest of Saint Petersburg and east of the Estonian border-town of Narva.
Vyborg (p; Viipuri,; Viborg; Wiborg; Viiburi) is a town in, and the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Vyborg Castle (Выборгский замок, Viipurin linna, Viborgs fästning) is a Swedish-built medieval fortress around which the town of Vyborg (today in Russia) evolved.
Vysotsk (Высо́цк; Uuras; Trångsund) is a coastal town and a seaport in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Karelian Isthmus, on the eastern shore of the Vyborg Bay, southwest of Vyborg and northwest of St. Petersburg.
The White Sea–Baltic Canal (Беломо́рско–Балти́йский кана́л, Byelomorsko–Baltiyskiy kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on 2 August 1933.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
The zander (Sander lucioperca) is a species of fish from freshwater and brackish habitats in western Eurasia.
Zelenogorsk (Зеленого́рск; before 1948 Terijoki, a name still used in Finnish and Swedish), is a municipal town in Kurortny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located in part of the Karelian Isthmus on the shore of the Gulf of Finland.