278 relations: Acoustic signature, Admiralty Mining Establishment, Adriatic Sea, Aerodynamics, Aircraft, Aircraft carrier, Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov, Amatol, American Civil War, American Revolutionary War, Amur-class minelayer (1898), AN/SQQ-32 Mine-hunting sonar, Anti-handling device, Anti-submarine warfare, Arctic convoys of World War II, Area denial weapon, Asymmetric warfare, BAE Systems, Baltic Sea, Battle of Jutland, Battle of Mobile Bay, Battle of Tamsui, Battle of the Taku Forts (1900), Black Sea, Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), Board of Fortifications, Bomb disposal, Booby trap, Bottlenose dolphin, Boxer Rebellion, Brass, Bridgeton incident, Caribbean Sea, Casemate, Cavitation, Central Intelligence Agency, Charles F. Goodeve, Charles I of England, China Burma India Theater, Civitavecchia, Collusion, Compass, Consolidated B-24 Liberator, Consolidated PBY Catalina, Contras, Controlled mines, Convoy, Corfu Channel case, Cornelis Drebbel, Crimean War, ..., Curtis LeMay, Cyclorotor, David Bushnell, David Farragut, Degaussing, Delaware River, Depth charge, Detonation, Digital signal processing, Dornier Do 18, Douglas A-20 Havoc, Dunkirk evacuation, Eight-Nation Alliance, Elbe, Electric ray, Electrical injury, Electrical network, Electronic countermeasure, Electronics, Elizabeth I of England, Embedded system, Ensdorf-class minesweeper, European theatre of World War II, Explosion, Explosive material, Fishing trawler, Fort Alexander (Saint Petersburg), Fort Totten (Queens), Fragmentation (weaponry), Frogman, Fumimaro Konoe, Fuze, Fyodor Litke, Gallipoli Campaign, Galvanic cell, Gas turbine, Gauss (unit), German Mine Sweeping Administration, Grumman TBF Avenger, Gulf of Finland, Gulf War, Gunpowder, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hai River, Han Chinese, Harbor, Heinkel He 111, Heinkel He 115, Heinkel He 59, Henry Larcom Abbot, Hiroshima, History of China, History of science and technology in China, HMHS Britannic, HMS Ark Royal (91), HMS Vernon, HMS Vulture (1843), Hospital ship, Howitzer, Hull (watercraft), Huolongjing, Hydrophone, Ilyushin DB-3, Ilyushin Il-4, Immanuel Nobel, Imperial Japanese Navy, Imperial Russian Navy, Inductor, International Court of Justice, International law, Iran–Iraq War, Iraq, Iraq War, Jacobi mine, Jacques Cousteau, Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, Japanese archipelago, Japanese people, Jiao Yu, John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, Junkers Ju 88, Keelung Campaign, Kiel, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kobe, Korean War, Koror, Kriegsmarine, Kronstadt, Kythira, Land mine, Lanyard, Lübeck, Lüshunkou District, Lead–acid battery, Lend-Lease, Liberty ship, Libya, Limpet, Lisy Nos, Lithium battery, Littoral zone, Liu Mingchuan, Loring Air Force Base, Low magnetic electric motor, Magnetic field, Magnetism, Magnetometer, Mark 24 mine, Mark 37 torpedo, Mark 60 CAPTOR, Mark 82 bomb, Mark 83 bomb, Mark 84 bomb, Mediterranean Sea, Microprocessor, Military dolphin, Minehunter, Minelayer, Minesweeper, Minesweeping, Ming dynasty, Ministry of War of the Russian Empire, Minol (explosive), Mobile, Alabama, Mollusca, Moritz von Jacobi, Mu-metal, Nicaragua, Nicaragua v. United States, Nitroglycerin, North Sea, North Sea Mine Barrage, Oil tanker, Operation Crossroads, Operation Pocket Money, Operation Royal Marine, Operation Starvation, Oropesa (minesweeping), Ottoman Navy, Palau, Parachute, Paravane (weapon), Pavel Schilling, Penang, Persian Gulf, Polymer-bonded explosive, Potassium perchlorate, Presidency of Ronald Reagan, Pressure, Propeller, Psychological warfare, Puerto Sandino, Putty, Qi Jiguang, RAF Coastal Command, RDX, Rear admiral, Red Sea, Remotely operated vehicle, Rhine, RMS Titanic, Robert Fulton, Rocket, Rocket (weapon), ROKS Cheonan, ROKS Cheonan sinking, Royal Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Naval Patrol Service, Royal Navy, Russian ruble, Russo-Japanese War, Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Sea lane, Seabed Arms Control Treaty, Seacoast defense in the United States, Self-destruct, Seskar, Ship, Shock factor, Shock wave, Shoeburyness, Siege of La Rochelle, Sino-French War, Smithsonian (magazine), Sonar, Song Yingxing, South West Pacific theatre of World War II, Soviet Naval Aviation, Spar torpedo, Sperrbrecher, Stepan Makarov, Stonefish (mine), Submarine, Submarine mines in United States harbor defense, Suez Canal, Sulfuric acid, Tamsui District, Te-1 rocket propelled mine, Thomas C. Kinkaid, Tiangong Kaiwu, TNT, Torpedo, Trade route, Transistor, U-boat, U.S. Army Engineer School, Umm Qasr Port, United States Army Air Forces, United States Army Coast Artillery Corps, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States dollar, United States Government Publishing Office, United States Navy, United States Navy Marine Mammal Program, United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Vickers Wellington, Warhead, Wheellock, Whitehead torpedo, Winston Churchill, Wokou, World War I, World War II, Yangon River, Yazoo River, Yokohama. Expand index (228 more) » « Shrink index
Acoustic signature is used to describe a combination of acoustic emissions of sound emitters, such as those of ships and submarines.
The Admiralty Mining Establishment originally known as the Mine Design Department was a technical department of the British Royal Navy responsible for both the design of naval mines and the development of suitable countermeasures from 1915 to 1951.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
Prince Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov (Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Ме́ншиков; 26 August 17872 May 1869) was a Finno-Russian nobleman, military commander and statesman.
Amatol is a highly explosive material made from a mixture of TNT and ammonium nitrate.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The Amur-class minelayers were the first purpose-built, ocean-going minelayers in the world.
The AN/SQQ-32 Minehunting Sonar Set (MSS) is a variable-depth mine-hunting sonar system originally developed by Raytheon and Thales Underwater Systems (formerly Thomson Marconi Sonar) for the United States Navy.
An anti-handling device is an attachment to or integral part of a landmine or other munition e.g. some fuze types found in general purpose air-dropped bombs, cluster bombs and sea mines.
Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines.
The Arctic convoys of World War II were oceangoing convoys which sailed from the United Kingdom, Iceland, and North America to northern ports in the Soviet Union – primarily Arkhangelsk (Archangel) and Murmansk in Russia.
An area denial weapon or Anti Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) is a device or a strategy used to prevent an adversary from occupying or traversing an area of land, sea or air.
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security, and aerospace company.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Battle of Jutland (Skagerrakschlacht, the Battle of Skagerrak) was a naval battle fought by the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, against the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet under Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer during the First World War.
The Battle of Mobile Bay of August 5, 1864 was an engagement of the American Civil War in which a Union fleet commanded by Rear Admiral David G. Farragut, assisted by a contingent of soldiers, attacked a smaller Confederate fleet led by Admiral Franklin Buchanan and three forts that guarded the entrance to Mobile Bay.
The Battle of Tamsui, Danshui, or Hobe (2–8 October 1884) was a significant French defeat by the Qing Dynasty at Tamsui on Taiwan during the Keelung Campaign of the Sino-French War.
The Battle of Taku or Dagu Forts was a battle during the Boxer Rebellion between the Chinese military and allied Western and Japanese naval forces.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), also known as the Economic War, was carried out during World War II by the United Kingdom and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles needed by Nazi Germany - and later Fascist Italy - in order to sustain their war efforts.
Several boards have been appointed by US presidents or Congress to evaluate the US defensive fortifications, primarily coastal defenses near strategically important harbors on the US shores, its territories, and its protectorates.
Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe.
A booby trap is a device or setup that is intended to kill, harm, or surprise a person or animal, unknowingly triggered by the presence or actions of the victim.
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
The Bridgeton incident was the mining of the supertanker near Farsi Island in the Persian Gulf on July 24, 1987.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
A casemate, sometimes erroneously rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired.
Cavitation is the formation of vapour cavities in a liquid, small liquid-free zones ("bubbles" or "voids"), that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Sir Charles Frederick Goodeve, OBE, FRS, (21 February 1904 – 7 April 1980) was a Canadian chemist and pioneer in operations research for the British.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
China Burma India Theater (CBI) was the United States military designation during World War II for the China and Southeast Asian or India-Burma (IBT) theaters.
Civitavecchia (meaning "ancient town") is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio.
Collusion is an agreement between two or more parties, sometimes illegal–but always secretive–to limit open competition by deceiving, misleading, or defrauding others of their legal rights, or to obtain an objective forbidden by law typically by defrauding or gaining an unfair market advantage.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
The Consolidated B-24 Liberator is an American heavy bomber, designed by Consolidated Aircraft of San Diego, California.
The Consolidated PBY Catalina, also known as the Canso in Canadian service, is an American flying boat, and later an amphibious aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft.
The Contras were the various U.S.-backed and funded right-wing rebel groups that were active from 1979 to the early 1990s in opposition to the socialist Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua.
A Controlled Mine was a circuit fired weapon used in coastal defenses with ancestry going back to 1805 when Robert Fulton termed his underwater explosive device a torpedo: Robert Fulton invented the word torpedo to describe his underwater explosive device and successfully destroyed a ship in 1805.
A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.
The Corfu Channel case (Affaire du Détroit de Corfou) was the first public international law case heard before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) between 1947 and 1949, concerning state responsibility for damages at sea, as well as the doctrine of innocent passage.
Cornelis Jacobszoon Drebbel (1572 – 7 November 1633) was a Dutch engineer and inventor.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Curtis LeMay (November 15, 1906 – October 1, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent Party candidate George Wallace in the 1968 presidential election.
A cyclorotor, cycloidal rotor, cycloidal propeller or cyclogiro, is a fluid propulsion device that converts shaft power into the acceleration of a fluid using a rotating axis perpendicular to the direction of fluid motion.
David Bushnell (August 30, 1740 – 1824 or 1826), of Westbrook, Connecticut, was an American inventor, a patriot, a scholar, and a veteran of the Revolutionary War.
David Glasgow Farragut (also spelled Glascoe; July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was a flag officer of the United States Navy during the American Civil War.
Degaussing is the process of decreasing or eliminating a remnant magnetic field.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare weapon.
Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
Digital signal processing (DSP) is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations.
The Dornier Do 18 was a development of the Do 16 flying boat.
The Douglas A-20 Havoc (company designation DB-7) is a United States attack, light bomber, intruder, and reconnaissance aircraft of World War II.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
The Eight-Nation Alliance was an international military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in China.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins, composing the order Torpediniformes.
Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).
An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
The five minesweepers of the German Navy's Type 352 Ensdorf class are former Type 343 s that have been upgraded with the Troika Plus system.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
A fishing trawler is a commercial fishing vessel designed to operate fishing trawls.
Fort Alexander, also Fort Alexander I, or Plague Fort (Форт Александр Первый Fort Aleksandr Perviy or Чумной форт Chumnoy fort, English: "Plague fort") is a naval fortress on an artificial island in the Gulf of Finland near St. Petersburg and Kronstadt.
Fort Totten is a former active United States Army installation in the New York City borough of Queens.
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery or mortar shell, rocket, missile, bomb, grenade, etc.
A frogman is someone who is trained in scuba diving or swimming underwater in a tactical capacity that includes police or military work.
Prince was a Japanese politician in the Empire of Japan who served as the 34th, 38th and 39th Prime Minister of Japan and founder/leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association.
In military munitions, a fuze (sometimes fuse) is the part of the device that initiates function.
Count Fyodor Petrovich Litke (Граф Фёдор Петро́вич Ли́тке, born Friedrich Benjamin Lütke; –) was a Russian navigator, geographer, and Arctic explorer.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
The gauss, abbreviated as G or Gs, is the cgs unit of measurement of magnetic flux density (or "magnetic induction") (B).
The German Mine Sweeping Administration (GMSA) was an organisation formed by the Allies from former crews and vessels of the Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for the purpose of mine sweeping after the Second World War, predominantly in the North Sea and Baltic Sea, which existed from June 1945 to January 1948.
The Grumman TBF Avenger (designated TBM for aircraft manufactured by General Motors) is an American torpedo bomber developed initially for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, and eventually used by several air and naval aviation services around the world.
The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
The Hai River (lit."Sea River"), formerly known as the Peiho, Pei He or ("White River"), is a Chinese river connecting Beijing to Tianjin and the Bohai Sea.
The Han Chinese,.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in 1934.
The Heinkel He 115 was a three-seat World War II Luftwaffe seaplane.
The Heinkel He 59 was a twin-engined German biplane designed in 1930, resulting from a requirement for a torpedo bomber and reconnaissance aircraft able to operate on wheeled landing gear or twin-floats.
Henry Larcom Abbot (August 13, 1831 – October 1, 1927) was a military engineer and career officer in the United States Army.
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.
Britannic was the third and final vessel of the White Star Line's of steamships; and the second to bear the name "Britannic." She was the fleet mate of both the and the and was intended to enter service as a transatlantic passenger liner.
HMS Ark Royal (pennant number 91) was an aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy that served during the Second World War.
Two ships and a training establishment of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Vernon, possibly after Admiral Edward Vernon.
HMS Vulture was a steam-powered wooden-hulled second-class paddle frigate of the Royal Navy.
A hospital ship is a ship designated for primary function as a floating medical treatment facility or hospital.
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).
A hydrophone (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ.
The Ilyushin DB-3, where "DB" stands for Dalniy Bombardirovschik (Russian: Дальний бомбардировщик) meaning "long-range bomber", was a Soviet bomber aircraft of World War II.
The Ilyushin Il-4 (Cyrillic Илью́шин Ил-4, NATO reporting name: "Bob"Gunston 1995, p. XXX.) was a Soviet World War II bomber aircraft, widely used by the Soviet Air Force (VVS, Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily).
Immanuel Nobel the Younger (24 March 1801 – 3 September 1872) was a Swedish engineer, architect, inventor and industrialist.
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.
The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Jacobi mine was an early naval mine designed in 1853 by German born, Russian engineer Moritz von Jacobi.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau (11 June 1910 – 25 June 1997) was a French naval officer, explorer, conservationist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water.
The is the group of islands that forms the country of Japan, and extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland, washing upon the northwestern shores of the Pacific Ocean.
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
Jiao Yu was a Chinese military officer, philosopher, and writer of the Ming dynasty under Zhu Yuanzhang, who founded the dynasty and became known as the Hongwu Emperor.
Admiral of the Fleet John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, (5 December 1859 – 20 November 1935) was a Royal Navy officer.
The Junkers Ju 88 was a German World War II Luftwaffe twin-engined multirole combat aircraft.
The Keelung Campaign (August 1884–April 1885) was a controversial military campaign undertaken by the French in northern Formosa (Taiwan) during the Sino-French War. After making a botched attack on Keelung in August 1884, the French landed an expeditionary corps of 2,000 men and captured the port in October 1884. Unable to advance beyond their bridgehead, they were invested inside Keelung by superior Chinese forces under the command of the imperial commissioner Liu Mingchuan. In November and December 1884 cholera and typhoid drained the strength of the French expeditionary corps, while reinforcements for the Chinese army flowed into Formosa via the Pescadores Islands, raising its strength to 35,000 men by the end of the war. Reinforced in January 1885 to a strength of 4,500 men, the French won two impressive tactical victories against the besieging Chinese in late January and early March 1885, but were not strong enough to exploit these victories. The Keelung campaign ended in April 1885 in a strategic and tactical stalemate. The campaign was criticised at the time by Admiral Amédée Courbet, the commander of the French Far East Squadron, as strategically irrelevant and a wasteful diversion of the French navy.
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
is the sixth-largest city in Japan and the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Koror is the state comprising the main commercial centre of the Republic of Palau.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
Kronstadt (Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (Krone for "crown" and Stadt for "city"; Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland.
Kythira (Κύθηρα, also transliterated as Cythera, Kythera and Kithira) is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
A lanyard is a cord or strap worn around the neck, shoulder, or wrist to carry such items as keys or identification cards.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
Lüshunkou District (also Lyushunkou District) is a district of Dalian, in Liaoning province, China.
The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.
The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States, was an American program to defeat Germany, Japan and Italy by distributing food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.
Liberty ships were a class of cargo ship built in the United States during World War II.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Limpets are aquatic snails with a shell that is broadly conical in shape and a strong, muscular foot.
Lisy Nos (Лисий Нос; literally, "fox's nose"; Revonnenä) is a municipal settlement in Primorsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located on the cape of the same name in the northern part of the Kronstadt Bay.
Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have lithium as an anode.
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
Liu Mingchuan (1836–1896), courtesy name Xingsan, was a Chinese official who lived in the mid-Qing dynasty.
Loring Air Force Base was a United States Air Force installation in northeastern Maine, near Limestone and Caribou in Aroostook County.
A low magnetic electric motor (or non magnetic electric motor) is an AC or DC motor with a reduced magnetic stray field signature.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.
The Mark 24 mine (also known as FIDO or Fido) was a United States air-dropped passive acoustic homing anti-submarine torpedo used during the Second World War against German and Japanese submarines.
The Mark 37 torpedo is a torpedo with electrical propulsion, developed for the US Navy after World War II.
The Mark 60 CAPTOR (Encapsulated Torpedo) is the United States' only deep-water anti-submarine naval mine.
The Mark 82 (Mk 82) is an unguided, low-drag general-purpose bomb, part of the United States Mark 80 series.
The Mark 83 is part of the Mark 80 series of low-drag general-purpose bombs in United States service.
The Mark 84 or BLU-117 is an American general-purpose bomb.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
A military dolphin is a dolphin trained for military uses.
A minehunter is a naval vessel that seeks, detects, and destroys individual naval mines.
Minelaying is the act of deploying explosive mines.
A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping.
Minesweeping is the practice of the removal of explosive naval mines, usually by a specially designed ship called a minesweeper using various measures to either capture or detonate the mines, but sometimes also with an aircraft made for that purpose.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Ministry of War of the Russian Empire, (Военное министерство, Military Ministry) was an administrative body in the Russian Empire from 1802 to 1917.
Minol (pronounced mine-ol) is a military explosive developed by the British Admiralty early in the Second World War to augment supplies of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and RDX, which were then in short supply.
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Moritz Hermann (Boris Semyonovich) von Jacobi (Борис Семёнович (Морис-Герман) Якоби) (21 September 1801 – 10 March 1874) was a German and Russian engineer and physicist born in Potsdam.
Mu-metal is a nickel–iron soft ferromagnetic alloy with very high permeability, which is used for shielding sensitive electronic equipment against static or low-frequency magnetic fields.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Republic of Nicaragua v. The United States of America (1986) is a public international law case decided by the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The North Sea Mine Barrage, also known as the Northern Barrage, was a large minefield laid easterly from the Orkney Islands to Norway by the United States Navy (assisted by the Royal Navy) during World War I. The objective was to inhibit the movement of U-boats from bases in Germany to the Atlantic shipping lanes bringing supplies to the British Isles.
An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.
Operation Crossroads was a pair of nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in mid-1946.
Operation Pocket Money was the title of a U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial mining campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 9 May 1972 (Vietnamese time), during the Vietnam War.
Operation Royal Marine was a military operation in May 1940 during the Second World War, in the Battle of France (10 May – 25 June 1940).
Operation Starvation was an American naval mining operation conducted in World War II by the Army Air Forces, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined from the air in order to disrupt enemy shipping.
An Oropesa is a streamlined towed body used in the process of minesweeping.
The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.
Palau (historically Belau, Palaos, or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).
The paravane, a form of towed underwater "glider", was developed from 1914–16 by Commander Usborne and Lieutenant C. Dennistoun Burney, funded by Sir George White, founder of the Bristol Aeroplane Company.
Baron Pavel L'vovitch Schilling, also known as Paul Schilling (5 April 1786, Reval (now, Tallinn), Russian empire – St. Petersburg, Russia, 25 July 1837), was a diplomat of Baltic German origin employed in the service of Russia in Germany, and who built a pioneering electrical telegraph.
Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
A polymer-bonded explosive, also called PBX or plastic-bonded explosive, is an explosive material in which explosive powder is bound together in a matrix using small quantities (typically 5–10% by weight) of a synthetic polymer.
Potassium perchlorate is the inorganic salt with the chemical formula KClO4.
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.
Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.
Puerto Sandino is a coastal town in western Nicaragua.
Putty is a material with high plasticity, similar in texture to clay or dough, typically used in domestic construction and repair as a sealant or filler.
Qi Jiguang (November 12, 1528 – January 17, 1588), courtesy name Yuanjing, art names Nantang and Mengzhu, posthumous name Wuyi, was a military general of the Ming dynasty.
RAF Coastal Command was a formation within the Royal Air Force (RAF).
RDX is the organic compound with the formula (O2NNCH2)3.
Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Remotely operated vehicles are vehicles which are controlled by an operator who is not in the vehicle.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early hours of 15 April 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City.
Robert Fulton (November 14, 1765 – February 25, 1815) was an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing a commercially successful steamboat called The North River Steamboat of Clermonts.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rocket is a self-propelled, unguided weapon system powered by a rocket motor.
ROKS Cheonan (PCC-772) was a of the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN), commissioned in 1989.
The ROKS Cheonan sinking occurred on 26 March 2010, when, a of the Republic of Korea Navy, carrying 104 personnel, sank off the country's west coast near Baengnyeong Island in the Yellow Sea, killing 46 seamen.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force (ADF).
The Royal Naval Patrol Service (RNPS) was a branch of the Royal Navy active during both the First and Second World Wars.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used route for vessels on oceans and large lakes.
The Seabed Arms Control Treaty (or Seabed Treaty, formally the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil thereof) is a multilateral agreement between the United States, Soviet Union (now Russia), United Kingdom, and 91 other countries banning the emplacement of nuclear weapons or "weapons of mass destruction" on the ocean floor beyond a 12-mile (22.2 km) coastal zone.
Seacoast defense was a major concern for the United States from its independence until World War II.
A self-destruct is a mechanism that can cause an object to destroy itself after a predefined set of circumstances has occurred.
Seskar (Seiskari) (Сескар) is an island in the Gulf of Finland, part of the Leningrad Oblast of Russia.
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
Shock factor is a commonly used figure of merit for estimating the amount of shock experienced by a naval target from an underwater explosion as a function of explosive charge weight, slant range, and depression angle (between vessel and charge).
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
Shoeburyness (also called Shoebury) is a town in southeast Essex, England, at the mouth of the Thames Estuary.
The Siege of La Rochelle (French: Le Siège de La Rochelle, or sometimes Le Grand Siège de La Rochelle) was a result of a war between the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France and the Huguenots of La Rochelle in 1627–28.
The Sino-French War (Guerre franco-chinoise, សង្គ្រាមបារាំង-ចិន, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 through April 1885, to decide whether France would supplant China's control of Tonkin (northern Vietnam).
Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese: 宋應星; Simplified Chinese: 宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).
The South West Pacific theatre, during World War II, was a major theatre of the war between the Allies and the Empire of Japan.
Soviet Naval Aviation (AV-MF, for Авиация военно-морского флота in Russian, or Aviatsiya voyenno-morskogo flota, literally "aviation of the military maritime fleet") was a part of the Soviet Navy.
A spar torpedo is a weapon consisting of a bomb placed at the end of a long pole, or spar, and attached to a boat.
A Sperrbrecher (German; informally translated as "pathfinder" but literally meaning "mine barrage breaker")), was a German auxiliary ship of the First World War and the Second World War that was intended to serve as a type of minesweeper, by sailing ahead of other vessels through minefields, intending to detonate any mines in their path. Also used as anti-aircraft ships, the Sperrbrecher suffered heavy losses in the war.
Stepan Osipovich Makarov (Степа́н О́сипович Мака́ров; –) was a Russian vice-admiral, a highly accomplished and decorated commander of the Imperial Russian Navy, an oceanographer, awarded by the Russian Academy of Sciences, and author of several books.
The Stonefish naval influence mine is manufactured by a British defence company (BAE Systems).
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
The modern era of defending American harbors with controlled mines or submarine mines (also called "naval mines" and originally referred to as "torpedoes") began in the post-Civil War period, and was a major part of US harbor defenses from circa 1900 to 1947.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Tamsui also Danshui is a sea-side district in New Taipei, Taiwan.
The Chinese Specialized-1 (特-1, or Te-1) rocket propelled mine project was started by the 710th Research Institute in 1981, and completed by 1987 after more than 100 major design changes.
Thomas Cassin Kinkaid (3 April 1888 – 17 November 1972) served as an admiral in the United States Navy during World War II.
The Tiangong Kaiwu (天工開物), or The Exploitation of the Works of Nature was a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Song Yingxing.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
The United States Army Engineer School (USAES) is located at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri.
Umm Qasr Port is Iraq's only deep water port, part of the city of Umm Qasr.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps (CAC) was an administrative corps responsible for coastal, harbor, and anti-aircraft defense of the United States between 1901 and 1950.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (NMMP) is a program administered by the U.S. Navy which studies the military use of marine mammals - principally bottlenose dolphins and California sea lions - and trains animals to perform tasks such as ship and harbor protection, mine detection and clearance, and equipment recovery.
The United States Strategic Bombing Survey was a written report created by a board of experts assembled to produce an impartial assessment of the effects of Anglo-American strategic bombing of Nazi Germany during the European theatre of World War II.
The Vickers Wellington was a British twin-engined, long-range medium bomber.
A warhead is the explosive or toxic material that is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo.
A wheellock, wheel-lock or wheel lock, is a friction-wheel mechanism to cause a spark for firing a firearm.
The Whitehead torpedo was the first self-propelled or "locomotive" torpedo ever developed.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wokou (Japanese: Wakō; Korean: 왜구 Waegu), which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan and Korea.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yangon River (also known as the Rangoon River or Hlaing River) is formed by the confluence of the Pegu and Myitmaka rivers in Myanmar.
The Yazoo River is a river in the U.S. state of Mississippi.
, literally "Port to the side" or "Beside the port", is the second largest city in Japan by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of Japan.
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