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Italian Libya

Index Italian Libya

Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya. [1]

141 relations: Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata, Al Jawf, Libya, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Antisemitism, Aouzou Strip, Arabic, Arabs, Archaeological tourism, Battle of Gazala, Bedouin, Benghazi, Benghazi Province, Benito Mussolini, Berber languages, Blitzkrieg, British Empire, Catholic Church, Chemical weapon, Classical archaeology, Colony, Comune, Cooperation, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Counterattack, Demographics of Libya, Derna Province, Derna, Libya, Division (military), Domari language, Egypt, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), El Tag, Erwin Rommel, Ethnic cleansing, Ettore Bastico, Excavation (archaeology), Fezzan, Florence, France, Franco-Italian Agreement of 1935, Frontier Wire (Libya), Germany, Giovanni Messe, Great Britain, Hun, Libya, Illegal immigration, Infrastructure, Internment, Investment, Islam, ..., Italian concentration camps in Libya, Italian Cyrenaica, Italian East Africa, Italian Empire, Italian invasion of Egypt, Italian language, Italian Libya Railways, Italian Libyan Colonial Division, Italian lira, Italian National Institute of Statistics, Italian Parliament, Italian settlers in Libya, Italian Somaliland, Italian Spahis, Italian Tripolitania, Italo Balbo, Italo Gariboldi, Italo-Turkish War, Italy, Jebel Akhdar, Libya, Jubaland, Judaism, King of Italy, Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Libya, Kufra District, La Repubblica, Lake Chad, Leptis Magna, Library of Congress, Libya, Libyan Arabic, Libyan Civil War (2011), Libyan Coastal Highway, Libyan resistance movement, List of Governors-General of Italian Libya, Ma'tan as-Sarra, Massacres during the Italo-Turkish War, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Italy), Misrata, Misurata Province, Mogadishu, Muammar Gaddafi, Muslim Association of the Lictor, National Fascist Party, North Africa, North African Campaign, Omar Mukhtar, Operation Brevity, Operation Compass, Operation Sonnenblume, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Tripolitania, Oxford University Press, Pietro Badoglio, Podestà, Prime Minister of Italy, Propaganda, Protectorate, Punics, Rodolfo Graziani, Sabratha, Sarra Triangle, Savari, Second Battle of El Alamein, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Senussi, Siege of Tobruk, Silvio Berlusconi, Southern Military Territory, Spahi, Tenth Army (Italy), Tobruk, Treaty, Treaty of Lausanne, Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947, Tripoli, Tripoli Grand Prix, Tripoli Province, Tripolitania, Typhus, Unfree labour, United Nations General Assembly, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, War crime, Western Desert Campaign, World War I, World War II, 1st Libyan Division Sibille, 2nd Libyan Division Pescatori. Expand index (91 more) »

Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata

The Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA) is the leading wire service in Italy, and one of the leaders among world news agencies.

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Al Jawf, Libya

Al Jawf (الجوف) is a town in southeastern Libya, the capital of the Kufra district in Libya.

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Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (السودان الإنجليزي المصري) was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the eastern Sudan region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, but in practice the structure of the condominium ensured full British control over the Sudan.

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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Aouzou Strip

The Aouzou Strip (Arabic قطاع أوزو Qiṭāʿ Awzū, Bande d'Aozou) is a strip of land in northern Chad which lies along the border with Libya, extending south to a depth of about 100 kilometers into Chad's Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region for an area of 114,000 km² and is named after the small town and oasis Aouzou.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Archaeological tourism

Archaeotourism or Archaeological tourism is a form of cultural tourism, which aims to promote public interest in archaeology and the conservation of historical sites.

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Battle of Gazala

The Battle of Gazala (near the modern town of Ayn al Ghazālah) was fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, west of the port of Tobruk in Libya, from 26 May to 21 June 1942.

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The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.

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Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.

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Benghazi Province

Benghazi Province, or Provincia di Bengasi in Italian, was one of the provinces of Libya under Italian rule.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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Berber languages

The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Chemical weapon

A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.

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Classical archaeology

Classical archaeology is the archaeological investigation of the Mediterranean civilizations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

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In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.

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The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.

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Cooperation (sometimes written as co-operation) is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.

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Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.

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A counterattack is a tactic employed in response to an attack, with the term originating in "war games".

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Demographics of Libya

Demographics of Libya include population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libyan population.

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Derna Province

Darnah Province (called in Italian Provincia italiana di Derna) was one of the provinces of Libya under Italian rule.

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Derna, Libya

Derna (درنة) is a port city in eastern Libya.

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Division (military)

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.

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Domari language

Domari is an endangered Indo-Aryan language, spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Eighth Army (United Kingdom)

The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.

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El Tag

El Tag (at-Tāj; also Al-Tag, Al-Taj) is a village and holy site in the Kufra Oasis, within the Libyan Desert subregion of the Sahara.

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Erwin Rommel

Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.

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Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.

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Ettore Bastico

Ettore Bastico (9 April 1876 – 2 December 1972) was an Italian military officer before and during World War II.

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Excavation (archaeology)

In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains.

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Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franco-Italian Agreement of 1935

The Franco-Italian Agreement (called often Mussolini-Laval accord) of 7 January 1935 was signed in Rome by the French Foreign Minister Pierre Laval and Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini.

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Frontier Wire (Libya)

The Frontier Wire was a obstacle in Italian Libya, along the length of the border of British-held Egypt, running from El Ramleh, in the Gulf of Sollum (between Bardia and Sollum) south to Jaghbub parallel to the 25th meridian east, the Libya–Egypt and Libya–Sudan borders.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Giovanni Messe

Giovanni Messe (10 December 1883 – 18 December 1968) was an Italian general, politician, and field marshal (Maresciallo d'Italia).

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Hun, Libya

Hun or Houn (هون Hūn) is an oasis town in the northern Fezzan region of southwest Libya.

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Illegal immigration

Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.

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Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.

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Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.

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In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Italian concentration camps in Libya

Fascist Italy maintained several concentration camps in Cyrenaica (Eastern Libya) during the later phase of its occupation of that country.

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Italian Cyrenaica

Italian Cyrenaica was an Italian colony, located in present-day eastern Libya, that existed from 1927 to 1934.

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Italian East Africa

Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.

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Italian Empire

The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.

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Italian invasion of Egypt

The Italian invasion of Egypt (Operazione E) was an Italian offensive against British, Commonwealth and Free French forces during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italian Libya Railways

Italian Libya Railways was a group of small railways built in the Italian colony of Libya between the two World Wars.

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Italian Libyan Colonial Division

The Libyan Division was a formation of colonial troops raised by the Italians in their colony in Libya.

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Italian lira

The lira (plural lire) was the currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 and of the Albanian Kingdom between 1941 and 1943.

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Italian National Institute of Statistics

The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.

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Italian Parliament

The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.

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Italian settlers in Libya

Italian settlers in Libya (Italo-libici, also called Italian Libyans) typically refers to Italians, and their descendants, who resided or were born in Italian Libya, in the colonial period preceding independent Libya.

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Italian Somaliland

Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.

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Italian Spahis

Italian Spahis were light cavalry colonial troops of the Kingdom of Italy, raised in Italian Libya between 1912 and 1942.

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Italian Tripolitania

Italian Tripolitania was an Italian colony, located in present-day western Libya, that existed from 1927 to 1934.

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Italo Balbo

Italo Balbo (Ferrara, 6 June 1896 – Tobruk, 28 June 1940) was an Italian Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) leader who served as Italy's Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria), Governor-General of Libya, Commander-in-Chief of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI), and the "heir apparent" to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.

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Italo Gariboldi

Italo Gariboldi (20 April 1879 – 3 February 1970) was a senior officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) before and during World War II.

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Italo-Turkish War

The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jebel Akhdar, Libya

The Jebel Akhdar (الجبل الأخضر, The Green Mountain) is a heavily forested, fertile upland area in northeastern Libya.

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Jubaland (Jubbaland, جوبالاند), the Juba Valley (Dooxada Jubba) or Azania (Asaaniya, آزانيا), is an autonomous region in southern Somalia.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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King of Italy

King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

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Kingdom of Egypt

The Kingdom of Egypt (المملكة المصرية; المملكه المصريه, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

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Kingdom of Libya

The Kingdom of Libya (المملكة الليبية; Libyan Kingdom; Regno di Libia), originally called the United Kingdom of Libya, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic.

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Kufra District

Kufra or Kofra (الكفرة), also spelled Cufra, is the largest district of Libya.

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La Repubblica

la Repubblica (the Republic) is an Italian daily general-interest newspaper.

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Lake Chad

Lake Chad (French: Lac Tchad) is a historically large, shallow, endorheic lake in Africa, which has varied in size over the centuries.

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Leptis Magna

Leptis Magna (also Lepcis, Berber: Lubta, Neo-Punic: lpqy) was a prominent city in Roman Libya.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Libyan Arabic

Libyan Arabic (ليبي Lībī; also known as Sulaimitian Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in Libya and neighboring countries.

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Libyan Civil War (2011)

The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.

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Libyan Coastal Highway

The Libyan Coastal Highway (الطريق الساحلي الليبي), formerly the Litoranea Balbo, is a highway that is the only major road that runs along the entire east-west length of the Libyan Mediterranean coastline.

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Libyan resistance movement

The Libyan resistance movement was the name given to rebel forces opposing the Italian Empire during its "Pacification of Libya" between 1923 and 1932.

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List of Governors-General of Italian Libya

This article lists the Governors-General of Italian Libya, a colony of the Italian Empire from 1934 to 1943.

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Ma'tan as-Sarra

Ma'tan as-Sarra is an oasis in the Kufra District municipality in the southeast corner of Libya.

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Massacres during the Italo-Turkish War

A series of massacres were committed by Ottoman and Italian forces during the Italo-Turkish War.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Italy)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (Ministero degli affari esteri e della cooperazione internazionale or MAECI) is the foreign ministry of the government of the Republic of Italy.

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Misurata (مصراته, Misurata, ⵎⵉⵙⵓⵔⴰⵜⴰ) is a city in the Misrata District in northwestern Libya, situated to the east of Tripoli and west of Benghazi on the Mediterranean coast near Cape Misurata.

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Misurata Province

Misurata Province was one of the Italian provinces in Italian Libya, created in 1937.

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Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.

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Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Muslim Association of the Lictor

The Muslim Association of the Lictor (Italian: Associazione Musulmana del Littorio, AML) was created in 1939 as the Muslim branch of the National Fascist Party of Italy.

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National Fascist Party

The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North African Campaign

The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.

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Omar Mukhtar

‘Omar al-Mukhṫār Muḥammad bin Farḥāṫ al-Manifī (عُمَرْ الْمُخْتَارْ مُحَمَّدْ بِنْ فَرْحَاتْ الْمَنِفِي; 20 August 1858 – 16 September 1931), called The Lion of the Desert, known among the colonial Italians as Matari of the Mnifa, was the leader of native resistance in Eastern Libya under the Senussids, against the Italian colonization of Libya.

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Operation Brevity

Operation Brevity was a limited offensive conducted in mid-May 1941, during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.

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Operation Compass

Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War.

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Operation Sonnenblume

Operation Sonnenblume (Unternehmen Sonnenblume/Operation Sunflower) was the name given to the dispatch of German troops to North Africa in February 1941, during the Second World War.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Tripolitania

The coastal region of what is today Libya was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania (ایالت طرابلس غرب Eyālet-i Trâblus Gârb) or Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary from 1551 to 1864 and as the Vilayet of Tripolitania (ولايت طرابلس غرب Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârb) from 1864 to 1911.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pietro Badoglio

Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.

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Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities beginning in the later Middle Ages.

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Prime Minister of Italy

The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.

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Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.

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A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.

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The Punics (from Latin punicus, pl. punici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians.

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Rodolfo Graziani

Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's Regio Esercito (Royal Army), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and during World War II.

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Sabratha, Sabratah or Siburata (صبراتة), in the Zawiya District, accessed 20 July 2009, in Arabic of Libya, was the westernmost of the ancient "three cities" of Roman Tripolis.

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Sarra Triangle

The Sarra Triangle is a strip of land, today located in the Kufra District of Libya, originally colonized by the British.

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Savari was the designation given to the regular Libyan cavalry regiments of the Italian colonial army in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica.

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Second Battle of El Alamein

The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.

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Second Italo-Ethiopian War

The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.

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The Senussi, or Sanussi (السنوسية), are a Muslim political-religious tariqa (Sufi order) and clan in colonial Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi (السنوسي الكبير), the Algerian Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi.

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Siege of Tobruk

The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941, after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against Allied forces in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.

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Silvio Berlusconi

Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.

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Southern Military Territory

The Southern Military Territory (Italian: Territorio Militare del Sud) refers to the jurisdictional territory within the colony of Italian Libya (1911–1943), administered by the Italian military in the Libyan Sahara.

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Spahis were light cavalry regiments of the French army recruited primarily from the indigenous populations of Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.

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Tenth Army (Italy)

The Italian Tenth Army was an Italian Army which fought in World War I and in Italian North Africa during World War II.

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Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.

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A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.

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Treaty of Lausanne

The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.

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Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947

The Treaty of Peace with Italy (one of the Paris Peace Treaties) was signed on 10 February 1947 between Italy and the victorious powers of World War II, formally ending hostilities.

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Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.

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Tripoli Grand Prix

The Tripoli Grand Prix (Italian: Gran Premio di Tripoli) was a motor racing event first held in 1925 on a racing circuit outside Tripoli, the capital of what was then Italian Tripolitania.

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Tripoli Province

Tripoli Province (Provincia di Tripoli in Italian) was one of the provinces of Libya under Italian rule.

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Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.

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Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.

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Unfree labour

Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.

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War crime

A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.

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Western Desert Campaign

The Western Desert Campaign (Desert War), took place in the deserts of Egypt and Libya and was the main theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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1st Libyan Division Sibille

The 1st Libyan Division Sibelle was an Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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2nd Libyan Division Pescatori

The 2nd Libyan Division Pescatori was an Infantry Division of the Corps of Libyan Troops of the Italian Army during World War II.

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Redirects here:

Fourth Shore, History of Italian Libya, History of Libya as an Italian colony, Italian North Africa, Libya during World War II, Quarta Sponda, World War II in Libya.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Libya

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