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Adorno, Third Merkel cabinet, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Mann, Thuringia, Thuringii, Tocotronic, Togoland, Tokio Hotel, Toni Garrn, Total fertility rate, Totalitarianism, Transmediale, Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), Treaty of Lisbon, Treaty of Verdun, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Trio (band), Triple Alliance (1882), Triumph of the Will, Turkish language, Turrican, Ubisoft Blue Byte, UEFA Euro 1988, UEFA European Championship, Ukrainians, UNESCO, Unification of Germany, United and uniting churches, United Nations, United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, United Nations Population Fund, Universal health care, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Freiburg, University of Greifswald, University of Rostock, Upper Swabian Baroque Route, Ural Mountains, Uranium, Urban area, USA Today, Ute Lemper, Uzbekistan, V-2 rocket, Variety (linguistics), Venus of Hohle Fels, Vernacular, Vernacular architecture, Victory in Europe Day, Video gaming in Germany, Vocational education, Volker Schlöndorff, Volkswagen, Volunteer fire department, Wadden Sea National Parks, Walter Gropius, Walther von der Vogelweide, War crimes of the Wehrmacht, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), War of the Austrian Succession, Warsaw Pact, Wassily Kandinsky, Water resource management, Water supply and sanitation in Germany, Weihnachten, Weimar, Weimar Constitution, Weimar Republic, Weisswurst, Welfare in Germany, Wendelstein 7-X, Werner Heisenberg, Werner Herzog, Wernher von Braun, Weser Renaissance, Wessobrunner School, West Germanic languages, West Germany, Western Europe, Western Pomerania Lagoon Area National Park, Wiesbaden, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Wilhelm Röntgen, William I, German Emperor, William L. 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Ralf Winkler, alias A.R. Penck (born 5 October 1939) is a German painter, printmaker, sculptor, and jazz drummer.
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Aachen Cathedral, frequently referred to as the "Imperial Cathedral" (in German: Kaiserdom), is a Roman Catholic church in Aachen, Germany.
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Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
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Abitur (from Latin abire "leave, go off") is a designation used in Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia for final exams that pupils take at the end of their secondary education, usually after twelve or thirteen years of schooling (see also for Germany ''Abitur'' after twelve years).
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Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is an annual publication of university rankings by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy.
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards of Merit, or Oscars, handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
The Academy Awards or The Oscars is an annual American awards ceremony honoring cinematic achievements in the film industry.
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Action T4 (Aktion T4) was the postwar designation for a programme of forced euthanasia in wartime Nazi Germany.
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The ADAC (Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club e.V.) (General German Automobile Club) is an automobile club in Germany, founded on May 24, 1903 as German Motorbiker Association ("Deutsche Motorradfahrer-Vereinigung"), and was renamed to its present name in 1911.
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Adidas AG is a German multinational corporation that designs and manufactures sports shoes, clothing and accessories.
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Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government.
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Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
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The Advent wreath, or Advent crown, is a Christian tradition that symbolizes the passage of the four weeks of Advent in the liturgical calendar of the Western church.
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Aerospace Engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.
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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
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The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.
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Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether or not God, the divine or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps unknowable.
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Ahmadiyya (officially the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated) is an Islamic religious movement founded in British India near the end of the 19th century.
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Air Berlin (stylized as airberlin or airberlin.com) is Germany's second largest airline, after Lufthansa, and Europe's eighth largest airline in terms of passengers carried.
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Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist.
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Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
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The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the upper Rhine river.
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Alevism or Alevi (/'ælɛvij/, also /æˈlɛviː/ or /əˈleɪviː/, Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, Spiritual Shiism or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah) is a mystical branch of Islam whose adherents are followers of Ali, the Twelve Imams (other than Sunni Muslims who believe in the four Rashidun caliphs) and their descendant, the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.
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An all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2014, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.
Alliance '90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen) is a green political party in Germany, formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.
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Allianz SE is a European financial services company headquartered in Munich, Germany.
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The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.
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The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).
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Alphaville is a German group which gained popularity in the 1980s.
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The Alps (Alpi; Alpes; Alpen; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and Switzerland.
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Altstadt is the German language word for "old town", meaning "historical city centre within the city wall", in contrast to younger suburbs outside.
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Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in English-speaking countries during the 20th century.
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An ancestor or forebear is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
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Several Latin law codes of the Germanic peoples written in the Early Middle Ages (also known as leges barbarorum "laws of the barbarians") survive, dating to between the 5th and 9th centuries.
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Andreas Gursky (born January 15, 1955) is a German photographer and Professor at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, Germany.
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Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician and former research scientist who has been the Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and the Leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.
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Animals United (Konferenz der Tiere) is a 2010 German 3D computer animated comedy adventure film directed and produced by Reinhard Klooss and Holger Tappe.
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Anno is a real-time strategy video game series with business simulation and city building elements.
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The Anschluss (or Connection) was the Nazi propaganda term for the invasion and forced incorporation of Austria by Nazi Germany in March 1938.
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Anselm Kiefer (born March 8, 1945) is a German painter and sculptor.
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Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
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Franz Ferdinand (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
ARD (full name: Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – Consortium of public broadcasters in Germany, details below at name) is a joint organisation of Germany's regional public-service broadcasters.
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Aris Kalaizis (born 1966 in Leipzig) is a German-Greek painter.
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Arminius (18/17 BC – AD 21) was a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD.
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The armistice between the Allies and Germany – known as the Armistice of Compiègne after the location in which it was signed – was the agreement that ended the fighting in western Europe that comprised the First World War.
Art Cologne is an art fair held annually in Cologne, Germany and was established in 1967 as Kölner Kunstmarkt.
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Art Deco, or Deco, is an influential visual arts design style that first appeared in France just before World War I and began flourishing internationally in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s before its popularity waned after World War II.
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Art Nouveau (Anglicised to; at. Sezession, Czech Secese, Eng. Modern Style, Ger.. Jugendstil, Slovak. Secesia) or Jugendstil is an international philosophyDuncan (1994), 7.
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The art of Europe encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.
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Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
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Article 48 of the constitution of the Weimar Republic of Germany (1919–1933) allowed the President, under certain circumstances, to take emergency measures without the prior consent of the Reichstag.
The Asam Brothers (Cosmas Damian Asam and Egid Quirin Asam) were sculptors, workers in stucco, painters, and architects, who worked mostly together and in southern Germany.
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On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six assassins (five Serbs and one Bosniak) coordinated by Danilo Ilić, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society.
Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.
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Atlanticism is a belief in the importance of cooperation between Europe and the United States and Canada regarding political, economic, and defense issues, with the purpose of maintaining the security and prosperity of the participating countries, and to protect the values that unite them.
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Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury automobiles.
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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.
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Austrasia formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries.
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Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn; Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.
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Austria and Prussia had a long-standing conflict and rivalry for supremacy in Central Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, termed Deutscher Dualismus (German dualism) in the German language area.
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The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804.
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The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, Prussian–German War, German Civil War, or Fraternal War and in Germany as German War) was a war fought in 1866 between the German Confederation under the leadership of the Austrian Empire and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the other, that resulted in Prussian dominance over the German states.
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The Autobahn (plural) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany.
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The automotive industry in Germany is one of the largest employers in the country, with a labour force of over 747,000 (2009) working in the industry.
Axel Springer SE is one of the largest digital publishing houses in Europe, with numerous multimedia news brands, such as BILD, WELT, and FAKT and nearly 14,000 employees.
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The Axis powers (Achsenmächte, 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.
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The Babelsberg Film Studio (Filmstudio Babelsberg), located in Potsdam-Babelsberg outside Berlin, Germany, is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world, producing films since 1912.
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Baden-Württemberg is a state of Germany located in the southwest, east of the Upper Rhine.
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Johann Balthasar Neumann (27 January 1687 – 19 August 1753), usually known as Balthasar Neumann, was a German architect and military artillery engineer who developed a refined brand of Baroque architecture, fusing Austrian, Bohemian, Italian, and French elements to design some of the most impressive buildings of the period, including the Würzburg Residence and the Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, called Vierzehnheiligen in German.
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The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain.
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The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
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Bamberg is a town in Bavaria, Germany, located in Upper Franconia on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main.
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The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.
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Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state.
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Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
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BASF SE is the largest chemical producer in the world and is headquartered in Ludwigshafen, Germany.
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The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitutional law of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Basketball Bundesliga (English language: Federal Basketballe) — commonly abbreviated BBL — is the highest level league of professional club basketball in Germany.
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The Battle of Belgium or Belgian Campaign, often referred to within Belgium as the 18 Days' Campaign (Campagne des 18 jours, Achttiendaagse Veldtocht), formed part of the greater Battle of France, an offensive campaign by Germany during the Second World War.
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The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
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The Battle of Britain (German: Luftschlacht um England, literally "Air battle for England") is the name given to the Second World War air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940.
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The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War, beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces.
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The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Greece by Germany in April 1941.
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The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia, on the eastern boundary of Europe.
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The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France, and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe.
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The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (Schlacht im Teutoburger Wald, Hermannsschlacht or Varusschlacht), described as clades Variana (the Varian disaster) by Roman historians, took place in the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE, when an alliance of Germanic tribes ambushed and decisively destroyed three Roman legions and their auxiliaries, led by Publius Quinctilius Varus.
, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was an art school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicised and taught.
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The Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern,, Freistaat Bayern, Freistood Boajan/Baijaan, Main-Franconian: Freischdood Bayan; Bavorsko) is a federal state of Germany.
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The Bavarian Council Republic (Bayerische Räterepublik or Münchner Räterepublik) was the short-lived attempt to establish a socialist state in the Free State of Bavaria during the German Revolution of 1918–1919 led mainly by a team of Jewish revolutionaries.
Bavarian cuisine is a style of cooking derived from Bavaria.
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The Bavarian Forest National Park (Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald) is a national park in the Eastern Bavarian Forest immediately on Germany's border with the Czech Republic.
The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) is the civil code of Germany.
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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.
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Beatsteaks is a punk rock band from Berlin, Germany, formed in 1995.
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Beer is a major part of German culture.
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Behnisch Architekten is an architectural practice based in Stuttgart, Germany, with branches in Munich, Germany and Boston, Massachusetts.
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"Benevolent neutrality" is a term used by Ernest May to describe United States foreign policy regarding involvement in World War I. Examples of it were seen shortly before World War I though due to the League of the Three Emperors, an agreement between the powers of Russia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary.
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Berchtesgaden National Park is in the south of Germany, on its border with Austria, in the municipalities of Ramsau bei Berchtesgaden and Schönau am Königsee, Berchtesgadener Land, Free State of Bavaria.
The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs is an academic research center at Georgetown University in Washington, DC dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of religion, ethics, and politics.
Berlin is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany.
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The Berlin Biennale (full name: Berlin Biennale für zeitgenössische Kunst, Berlin Biennale for Contemporary Art) is a contemporary art exhibition which has been held at various locations in Berlin, Germany, every two to three years since 1998.
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The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
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Berlin Fashion Week (Berliner Modewoche) is a fashion week held twice annually (in January and July) in Berlin, Germany.
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The Berlin International Film Festival (Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), also called the Berlinale, is one of the most reputable media events and one of the world's "Big Three" film festivals (along with Venice and Cannes).
Berlin Schönefeld Airport is an international airport located directly at the southern border of Berlin, the capital of Germany, and southeast of its city centre near the town of Schönefeld.
Berlin Tegel Airport (Flughafen Berlin-Tegel "Otto Lilienthal") is the main international airport of Berlin, the federal capital of Germany, ahead of the smaller Berlin Schönefeld Airport.
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The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
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The Berlin Zoological Garden (Zoologischer Garten Berlin) is the oldest and best known zoo in Germany.
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The Berlin/Bonn Act (Berlin/Bonn-Gesetz) regulated the move of the German Bundestag and parts of the government from Bonn to Berlin.
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Bernhard "Bernd" Becher (August 20, 1931 – June 22, 2007), and Hilla Becher, née Wobeser (born September 2, 1934), were German conceptual artists and photographers working as a collaborative duo.
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Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (September 17, 1826 – July 20, 1866) was an influential German mathematician who made lasting and revolutionary contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry.
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Bernkastel-Kues is a well-known winegrowing centre on the Middle Moselle in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
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Bertelsmann SE & Co.
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Bigpoint GmbH is a German video game developer.
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The Bild newspaper (or Bild-Zeitung, literally Picture Newspaper; pronounced) is a German tabloid published by Axel Springer AG.
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The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year.
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The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53.
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The Black Forest National Park (Nationalpark Schwarzwald) was created on 1 January 2014 and is the first national park in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (Bavarian Motor Works), commonly known as BMW or BMW AG, is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916.
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Bochum (Westphalian: Baukem) is a city in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and part of the Arnsberg region.
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Boney M. is a vocal group created by German record producer Frank Farian.
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Bonn, officially the Federal City of Bonn, is a city on the banks of the Rhine and northwest of the Siebengebirge (Seven Mountains) in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of 311,287 within its administrative limits.
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Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska; Brandenburgia) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
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A bratwurst, also known as a brat in American English, is a sausage usually composed of veal, pork or beef.
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(commonly pronounced as "braun" in English), formerly Braun AG, is a German consumer products company based in Kronberg.
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Bread and Butter (shortened to B&B) is a trade and fashion show for everyday clothing and streetwear.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany.
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The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest of Germany's 16 states.
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Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik, Gotyk ceglany) is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northern Europe, especially in Northern Germany and the regions around the Baltic Sea, which do not have natural stone resources.
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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
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The European Bronze Age is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements.
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The Brothers Grimm (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), were German academics, linguists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together specialized in collecting and publishing folklore during the 19th century.
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Bruno Möhring (11 December 1863 – 25/26 March 1929) was a German architect, urban planner, designer and a professor in Berlin.
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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").
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The Bundesliga (Federal League), sometimes referred to as the Fußball-Bundesliga or 1.
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The German Bundesrat (literally "Federal Council") is a legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder (federal states) of Germany at the national level.
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The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is a constitutional and legislative body at the federal level in Germany.
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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
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German Canadians (Deutsch-Kanadier or Deutschkanadier) are Canadian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality enjoying primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government.
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Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß,; Carolus Fridericus Gauss) (30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, mechanics, electrostatics, astronomy, matrix theory, and optics.
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Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18 or 19 November 1786 5 June 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.
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Carl Spitzweg (February 5, 1808 – September 23, 1885) was a German romanticist painter, especially of genre subjects.
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Carolingian architecture is the style of north European Pre-Romanesque architecture belonging to the period of the Carolingian Renaissance of the late 8th and 9th centuries, when the Carolingian family dominated west European politics.
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The Carolingian Empire (800–924) was the final stage in the history of the early medieval realm of the Franks, ruled by the Carolingian dynasty.
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Caspar David Friedrich (5 September 1774 – 7 May 1840) was a 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his generation.
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The Castle Road (Burgenstraße) is a theme route in southern Germany (in Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg) and a small portion in the Czech Republic, between Mannheim and Prague.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
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Centaurea cyanus, commonly known as cornflower, bachelor's button, bluebottle, boutonniere flower, hurtsickle or cyani flower, is an annual flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe.
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Central Europe (archaically "Middle Europe") is a region lying between the variously defined areas of the Eastern and Western parts of the European continent.
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The Central European boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) is a subspecies of wild boar native to northern Spain, northern Italy, France, Germany, Benelux, Denmark, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and possibly Albania.
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The Central European red deer or Common red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) is a subspecies of red deer native to central Europe.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
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Chalk Cliffs on Rügen (Kreidefelsen auf Rügen) is an oil painting of circa 1818 by German Romantic artist Caspar David Friedrich.
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The Chancellor of Germany is the head of government of Germany.
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The Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in), literally "Federal Chancellor", or Kanzler for short) is, under the German 1949 constitution, the head of government of Germany.
Charlemagne (2 April 742/747/748Karl Ferdinand Werner: Das Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 1, 1973, pp. 115–157;Matthias Becher: Neue Überlegungen zum Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 19/1, 1992, pp. 37-60;R. McKitterick: Charlemagne. Cambridge 2008, p. 72.28 January 814), also known as Charles the Great (Carolus or Karolus Magnus) or Charles I, was King of the Franks who united most of Western Europe during the early Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and Germany.
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Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was the second King of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and the first King of Bohemia also to become Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia, Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711.
The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser.
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The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe that inhabited parts of the plains and forests of northwestern Germany, in the area possibly near present-day Hanover, during the 1st century BC and 1st century AD.
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Chinese cuisine includes styles originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.
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Christa Wolf (née Ihlenfeld; 18 March 1929, Landsberg an der Warthe – 1 December 2011, Berlin) was a German literary critic, novelist, and essayist.
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The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as spruce, pine, or fir or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas.
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Christoph Kohl (born 1961, in Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy) is an architect and urban planner.
The Cinema of Germany refers to the film industry based in Germany and can be traced back to the late 19th century.
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City is a German rock band, formed in East Berlin in 1972, best known for the song "Am Fenster" (At The Window or by the window) from its 1978 debut album.
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A city-state is a sovereign state consisting of a city and its dependent territories.
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Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations and private individuals, and which ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression.
Civil law, civilian law or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
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Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
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The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1750 and 1820.
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Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.
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Claudia Schiffer (born 25 August 1970) is a German model and creative director of her own clothing label.
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Cloud Atlas is a 2012 independent German-American science fiction film written and directed by Lana Wachowski, Tom Tykwer and Andy Wachowski.
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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Cologne (German Köln, Kölle), Germany's fourth-largest city (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich), is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.
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Cologne Bonn Airport (German: Flughafen Köln/Bonn, also known as Flughafen Köln-Wahn) is the international airport of Germany's fourth largest city, Cologne and also serves the former German capital, Bonn.
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Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom) (Ecclesia Cathedralis Sanctorum Petri et Mariae, officially Hohe Domkirche St., English: High Cathedral of Saints Peter and Mary) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Cologne, Germany.
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The Cologne War (1583–88) devastated the Electorate of Cologne, a historical ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire, within present-day North-Rhine-Westphalia, in Germany.
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The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Совет Экономической Взаимопомощи, Sovet Ekonomicheskoy Vzaimopomoshchi, СЭВ, SEV; English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of socialist states elsewhere in the world.
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Commercial broadcasting (also called private broadcasting) is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship.
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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
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Communist propaganda is the scientific, artistic, and social promotion of the ideology of communism, communist worldview and interests of the communist movement.
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A comprehensive school is a state school that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude.
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Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of persons, imposed by law.
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Conceptual art, sometimes simply called Conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns.
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The Concert of Europe (also Vienna system of international relations), also known as the Congress System after the Congress of Vienna, represented the balance of power that existed in Europe from the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) to the outbreak of World War I (1914).
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The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; Confédération du Rhin, officially "Confederated States of the Rhine", but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815.
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Germany had conscription (Wehrpflicht) for male citizens between 1956 and 2011.
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A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area.
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Crysis is a first-person shooter video game developed by Crytek and published by Electronic Arts for Microsoft Windows and released in November 2007.
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Crytek is a German video game company, founded in 1999 by brothers Cevat, Avni, and Faruk Yerli, that is headquartered in Frankfurt.
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Cuius regio, eius religio is a Latin phrase which literally means "Whose realm, his religion", meaning that the religion of the ruler was to dictate the religion of those ruled.
German culture as a nation-state and spanned the entire German-speaking world.
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Currywurst is a fast food dish of German origin consisting of steamed, then fried pork sausage (Bratwurst) whole or less often cut into slices and seasoned with curry ketchup, a sauce based on spiced ketchup or tomato paste, itself topped with curry powder, or a ready-made ketchup seasoned with curry and other spices.
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The Czech Republic (Česká republika) is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
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Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners.
() is a German multinational automotive corporation.
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Danes (danskere) are the citizens of Denmark, most of whom speak Danish and consider themselves to be of Danish ethnicity.
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Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (24 May 1686 – 16 September 1736) was a German physicist, engineer, and glass blower who is best known for inventing the mercury-in-glass thermometer (1714), and for developing a temperature scale now named after him.
Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
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The Danube (also known by other names) is Europe's second-longest river, located in Central and Eastern Europe.
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Das Boot (German meaning "The Boat") is a 1981 German epic war film written and directed by Wolfgang Petersen, produced by Günter Rohrbach, and starring Jürgen Prochnow, Herbert Grönemeyer and Klaus Wennemann.
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David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.
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The Dawes Plan was an attempt following World War I for the Triple Entente to compromise and collect war reparations debt from Germany.
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The DAX (Deutscher Aktienindex (German stock index)) is a blue chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.
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Düsseldorf (Düsseldörp) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and center of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region with a population of 11 million people.
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Düsseldorf Airport (Flughafen Düsseldorf; until March 2013 Düsseldorf International Airport) is the international airport of Düsseldorf, the capital of the German state North Rhine-Westphalia.
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Adolf Hitler killed himself by gunshot on 30 April 1945 in his Führerbunker in Berlin.
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Deep Silver is a German video game publisher based in Planegg, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of German multinational corporation Koch Media.
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The democratization of knowledge is the acquisition and spread of knowledge amongst the common people, not just privileged elites such as clergy and academics.
Denglisch (German spelling) or Denglish (English spelling) is a portmanteau of the German words Deutsch and Englisch (English).
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Denmark (Danmark) is a country in Northern Europe.
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Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was a group of artists united in rejection of the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in Munich, Germany.
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Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
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The Kaiser's Lackey.
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Deutsche Bahn AG (abbreviated as DB, DB AG or DBAG) is a German railway company.
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Deutsche Bank AG (literally "German Bank") is a German global banking and financial services company with its headquarters in the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers in Frankfurt.
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Deutsche Post AG, operating under the trade name Deutsche Post DHL, is the world's largest courier company.
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Deutsche Presse-Agentur GmbH (DPA; German Press Agency) is a German news agency founded in 1949.
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Deutsche Telekom AG (abbreviated DT, German Telecom) is a German telecommunications company headquartered in Bonn.
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Deutsche Welle ("German Wave" in German) or DW is Germany's international broadcaster.
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The Deutscher Filmpreis (German Film Awards, also rarely called Lola Awards) is the highest German movie award.
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The Deutscher Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen) was a German association of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists.
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The Deutsches Wörterbuch (The German Dictionary), abbreviated DWB, is the largest and most comprehensive dictionary of the German language in existence.
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The "Deutschlandlied" (English: "Song of Germany",; also known as "Das Lied der Deutschen" or "The Song of the Germans"), or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany since 1922, except in East Germany, whose anthem was "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" ("Risen from Ruins") from 1949 to 1990.
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Deutschlandradio is a national German public broadcasting radio broadcaster.
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A developed country, industrialized country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
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DHL Express is a division of the German logistics company Deutsche Post DHL providing international express mail services.
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Diane Kruger (born Diane Heidkrüger; 15 July 1976) is a German actress and former fashion model.
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Die Ärzte ("The Doctors") is a punk band from Berlin.
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Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905, after which the Brücke Museum in Berlin was named.
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Die Toten Hosen is a German punk band from Düsseldorf.
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Die Welt (The World) is a German national daily newspaper published by the Axel Springer AG company.
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Die Wende ("The Change" or "The Turn") is a German term that has come to signify the complete process of change from the rule of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and a centrally planned economy to the revival of parliamentary democracy and market economy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) around the years 1989 and 1990.
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Die Zeit (literally "The Time") is a German national weekly newspaper.
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Dieter Rams (born 20 May 1932 in Wiesbaden, Hessen) is a German industrial designer closely associated with the consumer products company Braun and the Functionalist school of industrial design.
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Dieterich Buxtehude (Diderich,; c. 1637/39 – 9 May 1707) was a Danish-German organist and composer of the Baroque period.
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Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
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A German district is an administrative subdivision known as Landkreis ("rural district"), except in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein where it is known simply as Kreis.
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Divided Heaven (German: Der geteilte Himmel) is an East German drama film directed by Konrad Wolf.
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documenta is an exhibition of modern and contemporary art which takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany.
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Dominikus Böhm (October 23, 1880 – August 6, 1955) was a German architect specializing in churches.
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Dominikus Zimmermann (30 June 1685, Gaispoint–16 November 1766, Wies) was a German Rococo architect and stuccoist.
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Döner kebab (Turkish: döner or döner kebap) is a Turkish dish made of meat cooked on a vertical rotisserie, normally lamb but sometimes beef, or chicken.
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Dortmund (Düörpm; Latin: Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
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Dresden (Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
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The Dresden Frauenkirche (Dresdner Frauenkirche,, Church of Our Lady) is a Lutheran church in Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony.
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The Dual Alliance was a defensive alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary, which was created by treaty on 7 October 1879 as part of Bismarck's system of alliances to prevent/limit war.
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A dual education system combines apprenticeships in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one course.
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Duisburg is a German city in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia.
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Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
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E.ON SE marketed with an interpunct as E·ON, is a European holding company based in Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
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In medieval historiography, East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of Germany, lasting from about 840 until about 962.
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The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Germanic languages of the Indo-European language family spoken by East Germanic peoples.
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East Germany, formally the German Democratic Republic or GDR (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or DDR), was a state in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
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Eastern Bloc was the name used by NATO-affiliated countries for the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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Economic miracle is an informal economic term commonly used to refer to a period of dramatic economic development that is entirely unexpected or unexpectedly strong.
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Germany is the largest national economy in Europe, the fourth-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and fifth by GDP (PPP).
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An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
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The Eider (Die Eider; Ejderen; Latin: Egdor or Egdore) is the longest river of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
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The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
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The Electorate of Cologne (Kurfürstentum Köln), sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne (Kurköln), was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire and existed from the 10th to the early 19th century.
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Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes.
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments and electronic music technology in its production, an electronic musician being a musician who composes and/or performs such music.
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The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet – in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler – the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag.
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Energy conservation refers to reducing energy consumption through using less of an energy service.
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Energiewende (German for Energy transition) is the transition by Germany to an energy portfolio dominated by renewable energy, energy efficiency and sustainable development.
Environmental technology (envirotech), green technology (greentech) or clean technology (cleantech) is the application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement.
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Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, horseman, horse) more often known as riding, horseback riding (American English) or horse riding (British English) referring to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
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Erfurt is the capital city of Thuringia and the main city nearest to the geographical centre of modern Germany, located south-west of Leipzig, north of Nuremberg and south east of Hanover.
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Erich Mendelsohn (21 March 1887 – 15 September 1953) was a Jewish German architect, known for his expressionist architecture in the 1920s, as well as for developing a dynamic functionalism in his projects for department stores and cinemas.
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Escada is an international luxury fashion group in women's designer clothing.
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Essen (Latin: Assindia) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
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Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is a process in which a group of people acquire an ethnicity, that is, a group identity that identifies them as an ethnic group.
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The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia.
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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the eurozone, which consists of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.
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The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).
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Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
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Europa (sometimes capitalised EUROPA) is the official web portal of the European Union (EU).
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Europa-Park is the largest theme park in Germany and the second most popular theme park resort in Europe, following Disneyland Paris.
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The European badger (Meles meles) is a species of badger in the family Mustelidae and is native to almost all of Europe and some parts of the Middle East.
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The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the Eurozone, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
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The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
The European Commission (EC) is the executive body of the European Union responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
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The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organisations that were governed by the same set of institutions.
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The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration between its member states.
The European Film Academy is an initiative of a group of European filmmakers who came together in Berlin on the occasion of the first presentation of the European Film Awards in November 1988.
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The European Film Awards are presented annually since 1988 by the European Film Academy to recognize excellence in European cinematic achievements.
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The European hare (Lepus europaeus), also known as the brown hare, is a species of hare native to Europe and parts of Western Asia and Central Asia.
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European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.
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The European migrant crisis or European refugee crisis arose through the rising number of refugees and migrants coming to the European Union, across the Mediterranean Sea or Southeast Europe, and applying for asylum.
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The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.
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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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The European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests is a composite ecoregion of southern Europe and North Africa, designated by the World Wildlife Fund as one of their Global 200 ecoregions, a list of priority ecoregions for conservation.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
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Eurozone (euro area).
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Eva Padberg (born 27 January 1980) is a German fashion model, singer, and actress.
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The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (Prussian Union) Protestant regional and denominational churches in Germany, collectively encompassing the majority of Protestants in that country.
The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.
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Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
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Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts that especially developed and dominated in Germany.
Friedrich Wilhelm "F.
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The Far Cry series is a franchise of first-person shooter computer and video games, named after the first game of the series.
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Fashion is a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body piercing, or furniture.
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The Federal Administrative Court (Bundesverwaltungsgericht) is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany.
The Federal Constitutional Court (German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, or BVerfG) is a supreme constitutional court established by the constitution or Basic Law ("Grundgesetz") of Germany.
The Federal Convention, also known as the Federal Assembly, (Bundesversammlung) is a special constitutional body in the political and federal institutional system of Germany, convened solely for the purpose of electing the President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident), either every five years or within 30 days of the premature termination of a presidential term.
The Federal Court of Justice of Germany (Bundesgerichtshof, BGH) in Karlsruhe is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction (ordentliche Gerichtsbarkeit) in Germany.
The Federal Fiscal Court (Bundesfinanzhof) is one of five federal supreme courts of Germany, established according to Article 95 of the Basic Law.
The Federal Labor Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht) is the court of the last resort for cases of labour law in Germany, both for individual labour law (mostly concerning contracts of employment) and collective labour law (e.g. cases concerning strikes and collective bargaining).
The Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection (Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz), abbreviated BMJV, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Federal Ministry of the Interior (Bundesministerium des Innern), abbreviated BMI, is cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a democratic form of government.
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The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.
The Federal Social Court (Bundessozialgericht) is the German federal court of appeals for social security cases, mainly cases concerning the public health insurance, long-term care insurance, pension insurance and occupational accident insurance schemes.
The Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt, shortly Destatis) is a federal authority of Germany.
Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.
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A federation (from Latin: foedus, gen.: foederis, "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.
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Christian Felix Klein (25 April 1849 – 22 June 1925) was a German mathematician and mathematics educator, known for his work in group theory, complex analysis, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the connections between geometry and group theory.
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Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period.
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Ferdinand Julius Cohn (24 January 1828 – 25 June 1898) was a German biologist.
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Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August Graf von Zeppelin (also known as Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin, Graf Zeppelin and in English, Count Zeppelin) (8 July 1838 – 8 March 1917) was a German general and later aircraft manufacturer.
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The Fernsehturm (Berlin TV Tower) is a television tower in central Berlin, Germany.
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The Feuchtmayers (also spelled Feuchtmayr, Feichtmair, and Feichtmayr) were a German family of artists from the Baroque Wessobrunner School.
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FIFA Manager (short: FIFAM) was an association football series of sport management games published by Electronic Arts.
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The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
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A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region.
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During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period the German Reichsdeutsche (German citizens) as well as persons of German ancestry were expelled from various Eastern European countries and sent to Germany and Austria.
In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas.
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Focus is a German weekly news magazine published in Munich and distributed throughout Germany.
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Football is the most popular sport in Germany.
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The Federal Foreign Office (German), abbreviated AA, is the foreign ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, a federal agency responsible for both the country's foreign politics and its relationship with the European Union.
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The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.
The Fortune Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue.
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The relations between France and Germany, since 1871, according to Krotz, has three grand periods: 'hereditary enmity' (down to 1945), 'reconciliation' (1945–63) and since 1963 the 'special relationship' embodied in a cooperation called Franco-German Friendship (Amitié franco-allemande; Deutsch-Französische Freundschaft).
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Francia or Frankia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
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Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; English: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, lit. German-French War, Guerre franco-allemande, lit. Franco-German War), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
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Frank Paul Beyer (26 May 1932 – 1 October 2006) was a German film director.
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Frankfurt am Main is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2014 population of 717,624 within its administrative boundaries.
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Frankfurt Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main, also known as Rhein-Main-Flughafen) is a major international airport located in Frankfurt, the fifth-largest city of Germany and one of the world's leading financial centers.
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The Frankfurt Book Fair (FBF) (Frankfurter Buchmesse) is the world's largest trade fair for books, based on the number of publishing companies represented, as well as the number of visitors.
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The Frankfurt School (Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany.
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The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (English literally Frankfurt General Newspaper), short F.A.Z., also known as the FAZ, is a centre-right, liberal-conservativeHans Magnus Enzensberger: (in German).
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) are historically first known as a group of Germanic tribes that roamed the land between the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, and second as the people of Gaul who merged with the Gallo-Roman populations during succeeding centuries, passing on their name to modern-day France and becoming part of the heritage of the modern day French people.
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Franz Iffland (1862–1935) was a German sculptor and painter who worked during the late 19th and early 20th century.
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Franz Marc (February 8, 1880 – March 4, 1916) was a German painter and printmaker, one of the key figures of the German Expressionist movement.
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The Fraunhofer Society (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V. — “Fraunhofer Society for the advancement of applied research”) is a German research organization with 67 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max Planck Society, which works primarily on basic science).
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Frederick William IV (Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 1795 – 2 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861.
The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term Free and Imperial Cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded Free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the 15th century to denote a self-ruling city that enjoyed a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.
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Frei Paul Otto (31 May 1925 – 9 March 2015) was a German architect and structural engineer noted for his use of lightweight structures, in particular tensile and membrane structures, including the roof of the Olympic Stadium in Munich for the 1972 Summer Olympics.
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Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with a population of about 220,000.
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The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
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The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts, lasting from 1792 until 1802, resulting from the French Revolution.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.
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Friedrich Ebert (4 February 1871 28 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the first President of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925.
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Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. or;; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German social scientist, author, journalist, businessman, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, together with Karl Marx.
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Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet, composer, and Latin and Greek scholar.
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Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright.
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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark.
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The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group native to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and Germany.
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The Frisii were an ancient Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta and the River Ems, and the presumed ancestors of the modern-day ethnic Frisians.
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Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was a German-Austrian filmmaker, screenwriter, and occasional film producer and actor.
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Fritz Schumacher (4 November 1869 – 5 November 1947) was a German architect and urban designer.
Fusion power is the generation of energy by nuclear fusion.
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The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.
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The Group of Eight is a governmental political forum.
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Gameforge is a provider of online games.
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Gamescom (stylized as gamescom) is a trade fair for video games held annually at the Koelnmesse in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
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Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a mountain resort town in Bavaria, southern Germany.
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Gastarbeiter (plural, "Gastarbeiter") is German for "guest worker" (literal translation).
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
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Günter Wilhelm Grass (16 October 1927 – 13 April 2015) was a German novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor, and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature. Grass, who identified as Kashubian, was born in the Free City of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland). As a teenager, he served as a drafted soldier from late 1944 in the Waffen-SS, and was taken prisoner of war by U.S. forces at the end of the war in May 1945. He was released in April 1946. Trained as a stonemason and sculptor, Grass began writing in the 1950s. In his fiction, he frequently returned to the Danzig of his childhood. Grass is best known for his first novel, The Tin Drum (1959), a key text in European magic realism. It was the first book of his Danzig Trilogy, the other two being Cat and Mouse and Dog Years. His works are frequently considered to have a left-wing political dimension, and Grass was an active supporter of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The Tin Drum was adapted as a film of the same name, which won both the 1979 Palme d'Or and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. In 1999, the Swedish Academy awarded him the Nobel Prize in Literature, praising him as a writer "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history".
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The Geiger counter, is an instrument used for measuring ionizing radiation used widely in such applications as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.
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Georg Baselitz (born 23 January 1938) is a German painter.
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Georg Hermann Nicolai (10 January 1812 — 10 July 1881) was a German architect and educator, Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts on the Brühl Terrace in Dresden from 1850 until his death.
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Georg Hirth (13 July 1841 – 28 March 1916) was a German writer, journalist and publisher.
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Hans Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (17 February 1699 – 16 September 1753) was a painter and architect in Prussia.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher of the late Enlightenment.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born Georg Friedrich Händel,; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German-born British Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
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Gerhard Richter (born 9 February 1932) is a German visual artist and one of the pioneers of the New European Painting that emerged in the second half of the twentieth century.
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Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005.
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Gerhart Hauptmann (15 November 1862 – 6 June 1946) was a German dramatist and novelist.
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Gerkan, Marg & Partners (gmp) is an international, architectural company based in Hamburg, Germany.
The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.), abbreviated DLR, is the national center for aerospace, energy and transportation research of the Federal Republic of Germany.
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German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who are of German descent.
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German Argentines (Deutschargentinier, germanoargentino) are Argentine citizens of German ancestry.
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German art has a long and distinguished tradition in the visual arts, from the earliest known work of figurative art to its current output of contemporary art.
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The German Avenue Road (Deutsche Alleenstraße) is a tree-lined holiday route that runs the length of Germany from the Baltic Sea to Lake Constance.
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A German Brazilian (German: Deutschbrasilianer, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch: Deitschbrasiliooner, teuto-brasileiro) is a Brazilian person of ethnic German ancestry or origin.
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The German Red Cross in 2005 put the total combined German military and civilian war dead at 7,375,800, including ethnic Germans outside of Germany and Austrians.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was a loose association of 39 German states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire.
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For various examples of German cuisine, see List of German dishes. German cuisine has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region.
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German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to some neighboring languages, e.g. the Dutch and Luxembourgish languages.
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German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included what are now Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of present Tanzania (formerly known as Tanganyika).
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The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
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German Expressionism refers to a number of related creative movements beginning in Germany before the First World War that reached a peak in Berlin, during the 1920s.
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The German federal election occurred on 14 September 1930.
German federal elections took place on 27 September 1998, to elect members to the 14th Bundestag, the parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany.
German federal elections took place on 18 September 2005 to elect the members of the 16th German Bundestag, the federal parliament of Germany.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 31 July 1932, following the premature dissolution of the Reichstag.
German folklore is the folk tradition which has developed in Germany over a number of centuries.
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The German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund; DFB) is the governing body of football in Germany.
German idealism was a speculative philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
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The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language.
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During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in deliberate extermination policies towards Soviet Union prisoners of war (POWs).
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The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the Nazi annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
The German Open Hamburg, established in 1892, is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players held in Hamburg, Germany and part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Tour.
The German order of precedence is a symbolic hierarchy of officials in the Government of Germany used to direct protocol.
German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy in the German language or (2) philosophy by Germans, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz through Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein to contemporary philosophers.
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German punk is punk rock music and punk subculture in Germany since punk music became popular in the 1970s.
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The German Question was a debate in the 19th century, especially during the Revolutions of 1848, over the best way to achieve the Unification of Germany.
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The German Red Cross (Deutsches Rotes Kreuz), or the DRK, is the national Red Cross Society in Germany.
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A referendum on withdrawing from the League of Nations was held in Germany on 12 November 1933 alongside Reichstag elections.
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The (RM) was a currency issued on 15 October 1923 to stop the hyperinflation of 1922 and 1923 in Weimar Germany.
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The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR/East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG/West Germany) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz constitution Article 23.
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The German Revolution or November Revolution (German: Novemberrevolution) was the politically driven civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War, which resulted in the replacement of Germany's imperial government with a republic.
The revolutions of 1848–49 in the German states, the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries.
Although German rock music (Deutschrock) didn't come into its own until the late 1960s, it spawned many bands spanning genres such as krautrock, new wave, heavy metal, punk, and industrial.
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German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika, DSWA) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1915.
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The German Timber-Frame Road (German: Deutsche Fachwerkstraße) is a German tourist route leading from the river Elbe in the north to Lake Constance in the south.
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The Day of German Unity (Tag der Deutschen Einheit) is the national day of Germany, celebrated on 3 October as a public holiday.
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German wine is primarily produced in the west of Germany, along the river Rhine and its tributaries, with the oldest plantations going back to the Roman era.
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The German Wine Route or Wine Road (Deutsche Weinstraße) is the oldest of Germany's tourist wine routes.
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German–occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.
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Germania (Germanía) was the Roman and Greek term for the geographical region inhabited mainly by the Germanic people.
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The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germanic Peoples (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history, and speak the German language as their native language.
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Athletes from Germany have taken part in most of the Olympic Games since the first modern Games in 1896.
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The Germany men's national volleyball team is the national team of Germany.
The Germany national football team (Die deutsche Fußballnationalmannschaft) is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908.
The GfK SE, established in 1934 as Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung (Society for Consumer Research) is Germany's largest market research institute, and the fourth largest market research organisation in the world, after Nielsen Company, Kantar Group and Ipsos.
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The Golden Bear (Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival.
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The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg and Metz (Diet of Metz (1356/57)) headed by the Emperor Charles IV which fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.
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Golden Twenties or Happy Twenties is a term, mostly used in Europe, to describe the 1920s, in which most of the continent had an economic boom following the First World War and the severe economic downturns that took place between 1919–1923, and before the Wall Street Crash in 1929.
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Good Bye, Lenin! is a 2003 German tragicomedy film.
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Goodgame Studios is an online games company founded in 2009 and based in Hamburg, Germany.
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Gothic is an action role-playing game franchise, created and owned by Piranha Bytes.
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Gottfried Böhm (born January 23, 1920) is a German architect.
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Gottfried Semper (November 29, 1803 – May 15, 1879) was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Opera House in Dresden between 1838 and 1841.
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Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (also Godefroi Guillaume Leibnitz,; or; July 1, 1646 – November 14, 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher, and to this day he occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize or in short the Leibniz Prize (complete German title "Förderpreis für deutsche Wissenschaftler im Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Programm der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft") is a research prize awarded by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) every year since 1985 to exceptional scientists and academics working in Germany for their outstanding achievements in the field of research.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era.
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Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (17 March 1834 – 6 March 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg, a federal state of the German Confederation), in what is now Germany.
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Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.
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In modern Germany, grand coalition (Große Koalition) describes a governing coalition of the Christian Democrats (CDU together with the Bavarian CSU) and the Social Democrats, as they are the two largest parties.
Gründerzeit (literally: "the Founder Epoch"), also referred to as promoterism, was the economic phase in 19th century Germany and Austria before the great stock market crash of 1873.
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The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the 1930s.
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The Great Famine of 1315–1317 (occasionally dated 1315–1322) was the first of a series of large-scale crises that struck Europe early in the fourteenth century.
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A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
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Greek cuisine is a Mediterranean cuisine.
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Greifswald, officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald (in German Universitäts- und Hansestadt Greifswald), is a city in northeastern Germany.
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The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
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A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe and the CIS, comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and U.S. preparatory high schools.
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HA Schult, born Hans-Jürgen Schult on June 24, 1939 in Parchim, Mecklenburg is a German installation, happening and conceptual artist known primarily for his object and performance art and more specifically his work with garbage.
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The Habsburg Monarchy or Empire (occasionally also styled as the Austrian Monarchy and Danubian Monarchy) is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg until 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
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Hainich National Park (Nationalpark Hainich), founded on December 31, 1997, is the 13th national park in Germany and the only one in Thuringia.
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Hajo Holborn (Berlin, May 18, 1902 – Bonn, June 20, 1969) was a German-American historian and specialist in modern German history.
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The Hambacher Fest was a German national democratic festival celebrated from 27 May to 30 May 1832 at Hambach Castle near Neustadt an der Haardt in present-day Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
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Hamburg (local pronunciation; Low German/Low Saxon: Hamborg), officially Freie und Hansestadt HamburgConstitution of Hamburg (Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg), is the second largest city in Germany and the eighth largest city in the European Union.
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Hamburg Airport, known in German as Flughafen Hamburg, is the international airport of Hamburg, the second-largest city in Germany.
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The Handball-Bundesliga (HBL) is the top German professional handball league.
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Hanne Darboven (29 April 1941 – 9 March 2009) was a German conceptual artist, best known for her large scale minimalist installations consisting of handwritten tables of numbers.
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Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
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The Hanoverian school of architecture is a school of architecture that was popular in Northern Germany in the second half of the 19th century, characterized by a move away from classicism and neo-Baroque and distinguished by a turn towards the neo-Gothic.
Johannes "Hans" Wilhelm "Gengar" Geiger (30 September 1882 – 24 September 1945) was a German physicist.
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Hans Haacke (born August 12, 1936) is a German-born artist who currently lives and works in New York.
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Hans Holbein the Elder (c. 1460 – 1524) was a German painter.
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Hans Holbein the Younger (– between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German and Swiss artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style.
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Hans Kollhoff (b. Bad Lobenstein, Thuringia, 18 September 1946) is a German architect and professor.
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Hans Florian Zimmer (born 12 September 1957) is a German composer and music producer.
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Hans-Peter Feldmann (born 1941 in Düsseldorf) is a German visual artist.
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The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hanse or Hansa; Hanse, Dudesche Hanse, Hansa, Hansa Teutonica or Liga Hanseatica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns.
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The Harz National Park is a nature reserve in the German federal states of Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt.
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A Hauptschule (general school) is a secondary school in Germany and Austria, starting after 4 years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education (Level 2) according to the International Standard Classification of Education.
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Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.
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A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.
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Head-On (Gegen die Wand, literally Against the Wall; Duvara Karşı) is a 2004 German-Turkish drama film written and directed by Fatih Akın.
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A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
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Germany has a universal multi-payer health care system with two main types of health insurance: "Statutory Health Insurance" (Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung) known as sickness funds and "Private Health Insurance" (Private Krankenversicherung).
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Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States.
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Heidelberg Castle (Heidelberger Schloss) is a famous ruin in Germany and landmark of Heidelberg.
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The Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Heidelberg University, Ruperto Carola) is a public research university located in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
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Heidi Klum (born June 1, 1973) is a German-American model, television host, businesswoman, fashion designer, television producer, and occasional actress.
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(German for "homeland-film"; German plural) is the name given to a film genre that was popular in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria from the late 1940s to the early 1970s.
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Heinrich Theodor Böll (21 December 1917 – 16 July 1985) was one of Germany's foremost post-World War II writers.
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Heinrich Aloysius Maria Elisabeth Brüning (26 November 1885 – 30 March 1970) was Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1932.
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Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.
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Helene Fischer (born 5 August 1984) is a Russian-born German singer and entertainer.
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The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren) is the largest scientific organisation in Germany.
Helmut Jahn (born January 4, 1940) is a German-American architect, well known for designs such as the US$800 million Sony Center on the Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, the Messeturm in Frankfurt and the One Liberty Place, formerly the tallest building in Philadelphia, and Suvarnabhumi Airport, an international airport in Bangkok, Thailand.
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Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory.
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Heresy is any provocative belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs.
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Hermann Karl Hesse (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born Swiss poet, novelist, and painter.
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Adam Gottlieb Hermann Muthesius (20 April 1861 – 29 October 1927), known as Hermann Muthesius, was a German architect, author and diplomat, perhaps best known for promoting many of the ideas of the English Arts and Crafts movement within Germany and for his subsequent influence on early pioneers of German architectural modernism such as the Bauhaus.
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Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science.
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Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, (9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher.
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Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse) is a federal state (Land) of the Federal Republic of Germany with just over six million inhabitants.
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Hidden champions are relatively small but highly successful companies that are concealed behind a curtain of inconspicuousness, invisibility, and sometimes secrecy.
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High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.
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Hildegard Frieda Albertine Knef (28 December 19251 February 2002) was a German actress, singer, and writer.
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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.
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Historicism or also Historism (Historismus) comprises artistic styles that draw their inspiration from recreating historic styles or artisans.
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The History of Burgundy stretches back to the times when the region was inhabited in turn by Celts, Romans (Gallo-Romans), and in the 4th century, the Roman allies the Burgundians, a Germanic people possibly originating in Bornholm (Baltic Sea), who settled there and established their own kingdom.
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The presence of German-speaking populations in Central and Eastern Europe is rooted in centuries of history, with the settling in northeastern Europe of Germanic peoples predating even the founding of the Roman Empire.
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.
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Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (c.1000–1299 CE).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
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The Hohenstaufen, also called the Staufer or Staufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
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The Holy Roman Emperor (Römisch-deutscher Kaiser, Romanorum Imperator) was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.
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The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago in the early 1980s.
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The House of Habsburg, also called House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most important royal houses of Europe.
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The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
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Hugo Boss AG is a German luxury fashion and style house based in Metzingen, Germany.
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Hugo Junkers (3 February 1859 – 3 February 1935) was a German engineer and aircraft designer.
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The Huns were a nomadic group of people who are known to have lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia between the 1st century AD and the 7th century.
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Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
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The hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic was a three-year period of hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic (modern-day Germany) between June 1921 and January 1924.
Ice hockey is one of the more popular sports in Germany, however it still ranks far behind football in spectator favour and meaning.
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"Ich bin ein Berliner" ("I am a Berliner") is a quotation from a June 26, 1963, speech by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in West Berlin.
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Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher, who is considered the central figure of modern philosophy.
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Germany is the second most popular migration destination in the world, after the United States.
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The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii or Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the Diet, or general assembly, of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire and emerged from the earlier informal assemblies, known as Hoftage.
Imperial reform (Reichsreform) is the name given to repeated attempts in the 15th and 16th centuries to adapt the structure and the constitutional order (Verfassungsordnung) of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation to the requirements of the Early Modern state and to give it a unified government either under the imperial estates (Reichsstände) or under the emperor's supremacy.
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An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (Status Imperii ; plural: Reichsstände) was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag).
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Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s.
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Topics related to Germany (sorted alphabetically) include.
Indian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional cuisines native to India.
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Indie rock is a genre of alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the 1980s.
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Industry 4.0, Industrie 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution, is a collective term embracing a number of contemporary automation, data exchange and manufacturing technologies.
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Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age.
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Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
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Informatization or informatisation refers to the extent by which a geographical area, an economy or a society is becoming information-based, i.e., increase in size of its information labor force.
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An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecution and the defense.
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The Intercity-Express (written as InterCityExpress in Austria, Denmark, Switzerland and, formerly, in Germany) or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and its surrounding countries.
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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
The International Transport Forum (ITF) is an inter-governmental organisation within the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) system.
The German invasion of Luxembourg was part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
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The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign, or the 1939 Defensive War in Poland (Kampania wrześniowa or Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and alternatively the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiß in Germany (Case White), was a joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent, that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe.
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The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
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The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe.
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The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of Iranian languages.
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The Iron Curtain was the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.
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Irreligion is prevalent in Germany.
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Owing to labour migration in the 1960s and several waves of political refugees since the 1970s, Islam has become a visible religion in Germany.
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The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between the 9th and 15th centuries.
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Jack Wolfskin is a German-based producer of outdoor wear and equipment that was founded in 1981 and is now owned by the American company The Blackstone Group.
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Jacob the Liar (Jakob der Lügner) is a 1975 East German-Czechoslovakian Holocaust film directed by Frank Beyer and based on the novel of the same name by Jurek Becker.
The Jasmund National Park (German: Nationalpark Jasmund) is a nature reserve in the Jasmund peninsula, in the northeast of Rügen island in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
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Jörg Immendorff (June 14, 1945 – May 28, 2007) was one of the best known contemporary German painters; he was also a sculptor, stage designer and art professor.
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Jürgen Habermas (or;; born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
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Jürgen Mayer-Hermann (born 1965 in Stuttgart) (also known as Jürgen Mayer H.) is a German architect and artist.
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Jürgen Schmidhuber (born 17 January 1963 in Munich) is a computer scientist and artist known for his work on machine learning, Artificial Intelligence (AI), artificial neural networks, digital physics, and low-complexity art.
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Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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Heidemarie Jiline "Jil" Sander (born 27 November 1943, Wesselburen) is a minimalist German fashion designer and the founder of the Jil Sander fashion house.
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Joachim Gauck (born 24 January 1940) is the President of Germany, serving since March 2012.
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Johann Baptist Zimmermann (3 January 1680, Gaispoint — 2 March 1758, Munich) was a German painter and a prime stucco plasterer during the Baroque.
Johann Friedrich (Fritz) Höger (12 June 1877 – 21 June 1949) was a German architect from Bekenreihe, Steinburg, Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany.
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Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), a German philosopher, became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.
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Johann Michael Feuchtmayer (the Younger) (sometimes spelled Johann Michael Feuchtmayr or Feichtmayr) (1709 – June 4, 1772) was a German Baroque stucco sculptor and plasterer of the Wessobrunner School, who worked alongside Johann Michael Fischer, Johann Joseph Christian, and Franz Joseph Spiegler to create some of the most famous churches along the Upper Swabian Baroque Route.
Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period.
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Johann Wolfgang Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist.
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Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (1398 – February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.
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John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (JFK), (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
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The Joint Support Service (Streitkräftebasis, SKB) is a branch of the German Bundeswehr established in October 2000 as a result of major reforms of the Bundeswehr.
Josef von Sternberg, born Jonas Sternberg (29 May 1894 – 22 December 1969) was an Austrian-American film director.
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Joseph Beuys (12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German Fluxus, happening and performance artist as well as a sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist and pedagogue of art.
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Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
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Joseph Fraunhofer (6 March 1787 – 7 June 1826), ennobled in 1824 as Ritter von Fraunhofer, was a German optician.
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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.
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Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
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Julia Stegner (born 2 November 1984 in Munich, Bavaria, West Germany) is a German model.
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Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and notable author of Latin prose.
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Jurek Becker (probably September 30, 1937 – March 14, 1997) was a Polish-born German writer, film-author and GDR dissident.
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Kalypso Media is a German video game developer and publisher.
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The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.
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Karl Friedrich Benz (November 25, 1844 – April 4, 1929) was a German engine designer and engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the first automobile powered by an internal combustion engine, and together with Bertha Benz, pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz.
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Karl Lagerfeld (born Karl Otto Lagerfeld, 10 September 1933) is a German fashion designer, artist, and photographer based in Paris.
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Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
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Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (Weierstraß; 31 October 1815 – 19 February 1897) was a German mathematician often cited as the "father of modern analysis".
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Karlheinz Stockhausen (22 August 1928 – 5 December 2007) was a German composer, widely acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but also controversial composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.
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Katja Ebstein, born Karin Witkiewicz (9 March 1945) is a German singer.
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Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Keimzeit is a German musical band formed in 1979 in Lütte (Belzig) near Potsdam, GDR (German Democratic Republic).
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Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 240,832 (June 2014).
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A kindergarten (German), literally children's garden, is a preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
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The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicum, "Teutonic Kingdom") developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire.
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The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic.
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Kjell Erik Espmark (born 19 February 1930 in Strömsund, Sweden), is a writer, literary historian, member of the Swedish Academy and Professor of the History of Literature at Stockholm University.
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Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich (full name Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein, anglicised as Clement Wenceslas Lothar von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein; 15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was a politician and statesman of Rhenish extraction and one of the most important diplomats of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
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The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.
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KSK Kommando Spezialkräfte (Special Forces Command, KSK) is an elite special forces military unit composed of special operations soldiers handpicked from the ranks of Germany's Bundeswehr and organized under the Rapid Forces Division.
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Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman.
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Konrad Wolf (20 October 1925 – 7 March 1982) was an East German film director.
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Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.
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Prior to a change (other than minor edits), discussion NEEDS to take place.
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Kraftwerk ("power station") is a German electronic music band formed by Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider in 1970 in Düsseldorf, and fronted by them until Schneider's departure in 2008.
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Kurdish (کوردی, Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
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The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty, which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it.
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Lake Constance (German: Bodensee) is a lake on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps, and consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee ("upper lake"), the Untersee ("lower lake"), and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein.
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The Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia is the state parliament (Landtag) of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and convenes in the state capital of Düsseldorf, in the eastern part of the district of Hafen.
This is a list of languages spoken in regions ruled by Balkan countries.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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A lay judge is a person assisting a judge in a trial, and as such are sometimes called lay assessors.
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The Hanseatic City of Lübeck (Low German) is the second-largest city in Schleswig-Holstein, in northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
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Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide) is a large area of heath, geest and woodland in the northeastern part of the state of Lower Saxony in northern Germany.
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A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.
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The Leipzig Book Fair (Leipziger Buchmesse) is the second largest book fair in Germany after the Frankfurt Book Fair.
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Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig), located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the oldest universities in the world and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany.
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Leipzig/Halle Airport (German: Flughafen Leipzig/Halle) is an international airport located in Schkeuditz, Saxony and serves both Leipzig, Saxony and Halle, Saxony-Anhalt.
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Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl (22 August 1902 – 8 September 2003) was a German film director, producer, screenwriter, editor, photographer, actress and dancer.
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Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (November 14, 1719 – May 28, 1787) was a German composer, conductor, teacher, and violinist.
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A lexicon is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
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This article aims to give an historical outline of liberalism in Germany.
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The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but which is the de facto national library of the United States.
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Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft brown combustible sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
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The Limes Germanicus (Latin for Germanic frontier) was a line of frontier (limes) fortifications that bounded the ancient Roman provinces of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior and Raetia, dividing the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic tribes from the years 83 to about 260 AD.
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The Löwenmensch figurine or Lion man of the Hohlenstein Stadel is a very early prehistoric sculpture that was discovered in the Hohlenstein-Stadel, a German cave in 1939.
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The table below lists domestic professional sports leagues from around the world by total attendances for the last completed season for which data is available.
This is a complete list of the 2,060 towns and cities in Germany (as of January 1, 2015).
This is a list of cities in Germany by population.
This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.
This is a list of countries ordered by annual per capita consumption of beer.
This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on the The World Factbook of the CIA.
Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.
This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.
This is a list of countries by total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2010.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This is a list of countries by immigrant population.
This is a list of countries by imports, based on the World Trade Organization and The World Factbook.
This is a collection of lists of countries by life expectancy at birth.
This is a list of countries by motor vehicle production based on Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA) and other data from 2014 and earlier.
Germany is divided into 402 administrative districts; these consist of 295 rural districts (German: Kreise and Landkreise), and 107 urban districts (German: Kreisfreie Städte and Stadtkreise – cities that constitute a district in their own right.
This is a list of former German colonies and protectorates (Schutzgebiete) outside of the European borders of Prussia and the German Empire.
The Formula One World Drivers' Championship (WDC) is awarded by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) to the most successful Formula One racing car driver over a season, as determined by a points system based on Grand Prix results.
The following are German-born or Germany-based architects listed according to their architectural style.
Cheeses have played a significant role in German cuisine, both historically and in contemporary times.
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---- This is a list of German inventors and discoverers.
German wine regions are classified according to the quality category that the wine falls into - Tafelwein, Landwein, Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA) and Prädikatswein.
The following is an incomplete list of current and defunct magazines published in Germany. Their language may be German or other languages.
The following are the 15 national parks of Germany, sorted from North to South: Germany also has 14 Biosphere Reserves, as well as 98 nature parks.
Ninety eight official nature parks (Naturparks) have been established in Germany under section 22, paragraph 4 of that country's Federal Nature Conservation Act (BNatSchG).
The number of national daily newspapers in Germany was 598 in 1950, whereas it was 375 in 1965.
This is a list of the oldest existing universities in the world.
The List of radio stations in Germany lists all radio stations broadcast in Germany, sorted first by legal status, then by area.
The following is a list of state-accredited seaside resorts in Germany.
This is a list of all countries and dependent territories by total fertility rate (TFR): the expected number of children born per woman in her child-bearing years.
This is a list of countries and dependencies ranked by human population density and measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer or square mile.
The following is a list of spa towns in Germany.
This list of States which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.
This is a list of the universities in Germany, of which there are about seventy.
There are a large number of sports that involve water.
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There are 40 official UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Germany: 37 cultural sites and two natural sites.
This is a list of the world's busiest container ports by total number of actual twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) transported through the port.
In human reproduction, a live birth occurs when a fetus, whatever its gestational age, exits the maternal body and subsequently shows any sign of life, such as voluntary movement, heartbeat, or pulsation of the umbilical cord, for however brief a time and regardless of whether the umbilical cord or placenta are intact.
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The name comes from the old German words lureln, Rhine dialect for "murmuring", and the Celtic term ley "rock".
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Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch, Platduuts, Nedderduuts; Standard German: Plattdeutsch or Niederdeutsch; Dutch: Nederduits in the wider sense, see Nomenclature below) is an Ingvaeonic West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
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Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen; Nedersaksen) is a German state (Bundesland) situated in northwestern Germany and is second in area, with, and fourth in population (8 million) among the sixteen Länder of Germany.
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Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, c. 1472 – 16 October 1553) was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving.
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Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (4 February 1897 – 5 May 1977) was a German politician affiliated with the CDU and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1963 until 1966.
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Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect.
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Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 177026 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
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Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
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Deutsche Lufthansa AG, commonly known as Lufthansa (sometimes also as Lufthansa German Airlines), is a German airline and also the largest airline in Europe, both in terms of overall passengers carried and fleet size when combined with its subsidiaries.
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Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Lužice) is an historical region in Central Europe.
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Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther—a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer, and theologian.
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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
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The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union or TEU) undertaken to integrate Europe was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands.
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Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
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Mainz (Mogontiacum) (Mayence), formerly known in English as Mentz, is the capital of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
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Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
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Markus Lüpertz (born 25 April 1941 in Reichenberg, now Liberec) is a contemporary German painter, sculptor, writer, art educator, and jazz pianist.
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Marie Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich (27 December 1901 – 6 May 1992) was a German-American actress and singer.
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The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of August 2015) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
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Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition, particularly within the fields of existential phenomenology and philosophical hermeneutics.
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Martin Kippenberger (25 February 1953 – 7 March 1997) was a German artist known for his extremely prolific output in a wide range of styles and media, superfiction as well as his provocative, jocular and hard-drinking public persona.
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Martin Luther (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German friar, priest, professor of theology, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
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The mass media are diversified media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication.
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A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
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Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann (May 3, 1662 - January 17, 1736) was a German master builder who helped to rebuild Dresden after the fire of 1685.
Matthias Grünewald (– August 31, 1528) was a German Renaissance painter of religious works who ignored Renaissance classicism to continue the style of late medieval Central European art into the 16th century.
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The Mauer 1 mandible is the oldest fossilized specimen of the genus Homo ever to be discovered in Germany.
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Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.
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Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet.
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Max Horkheimer (February 14, 1895 – July 7, 1973) was a German Jewish philosopher and sociologist who was famous for his work in critical theory as a member of the 'Frankfurt School' of social research.
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Max Liebermann (20 July 1847 – 8 February 1935) was a German-Jewish painter and printmaker, and one of the leading proponents of Impressionism in Germany.
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Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
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The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1948 and named in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck.
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Max Skladanowsky (April 30, 1863 – November 30, 1939) was a German inventor and early filmmaker.
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The Müritz National Park (Müritz-Nationalpark) is a national park situated roughly in the middle between Berlin and Rostock, in the south of the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
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Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (also known as Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in English, nicknamed MV or MeckPomm) is a federated state in northern Germany.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.
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UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.
Mercedes-Benz is a German automobile manufacturer, a multinational division of the German manufacturer Daimler AG.
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The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century AD.
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Metro AG, otherwise known as Metro Group, is a German global diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in Düsseldorf.
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Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist epic science-fiction drama film directed by Fritz Lang.
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The metropolitan regions in Germany are eleven densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Michael Michalsky (born 23 February 1967 in Göttingen) is a German fashion designer.
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Michael Schumacher (born 3 January 1969) is a retired German racing driver.
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Michelin Guides (French: Guide Michelin) are a series of annual guide books published by the French company Michelin for more than one hundred years.
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Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microscopic organisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
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The Migration Period, better known as the Barbarian Invasions also referred to as the Völkerwanderung (in German), was a period of intensified barbarian invasion in Europe, often defined from the period when it seriously impacted the Roman world, as running from about 376 to 800 AD during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.
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Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (a; born 2 March 1931) is a former Soviet statesman.
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The office of Minister President (Ministerpräsident), or Prime Minister, of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1702 until the abolition of Prussia in 1947.
Mittelstand refers to small and medium-sized enterprises in German-speaking countries, especially in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
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Mixed-member proportional representation, also termed mixed-member proportional voting and commonly abbreviated to MMP, is a voting system originally used to elect representatives to the German Bundestag, which has now been adopted by several other legislatures around the world.
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely.
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Modern Talking was a German duo consisting of Thomas Anders and Dieter Bohlen.
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The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, officially the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in Moscow on 23 August 1939.
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The Monday demonstrations in East Germany in 1989 and 1990 (Montagsdemonstrationen) were a series of peaceful political protests against the government of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that took place every Monday evening.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
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The mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis group) is a subspecies group of the wild sheep (Ovis orientalis).
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A multinational state is a sovereign state which is viewed as comprising two or more nations.
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Munich (also in UK English; München,, Minga) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
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Munich Airport, Flughafen München, is the international airport of Munich, the capital of Bavaria.
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Die Mörder sind unter uns, a German film known in English as Murderers Among Us in the United States or The Murderers Are Among Us in the United Kingdom) was one of the first post-World War II German films and the first Trümmerfilm. It was produced in 1945 and 1946 in the Althoff-Atelier in Babelsberg and in Jofa-Ateliers in Johannisthal. It was written and directed by Wolfgang Staudte.
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In the field of music, Germany claims some of the most renowned composers, producers and performers of the world.
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Nadja Auermann (born 19 March 1971) is a German model and actress.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
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The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions.
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
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The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.
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Nationalism is essentially a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture and/or ethnicity that holds that group together, this can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.
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A Nativity play or Christmas pageant is a play which recounts the story of the Nativity of Jesus.
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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
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The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled.
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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945 that practised Nazism.
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The Nazi Seizure of Power (German: Machtergreifung) refers to the acquisition by Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist Party of the chancellorship of Germany, and of several other high-ranking cabinet posts, on 30 January 1933, following the appointment of Hitler as chancellor by the aged President Paul von Hindenburg, then 84.
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The Neandertal (sometimes called in English "the Neander Valley") is a small valley of the river Düssel in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about east of Düsseldorf, the capital city of North Rhine-Westphalia.
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The Neanderthals or Neandertals, us also -, --, -, -) (named after the Neandertal area) were a species of human in the genus Homo that became extinct between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago. They were closely related to modern humans, differing in DNA by just 0.12%. Remains left by Neanderthals include bone and stone tools, which are found in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central and Northern Asia and the Middle East. Neanderthals are generally classified by biologists as the species Homo neanderthalensis, but a minority considers them to be a subspecies of Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis). Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe. The earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 300,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorham's Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar. Neanderthals were large compared to Homo sapiens because they inhabited higher latitudes, in conformance with Bergmann's rule, and their larger stature explains their larger brain size because brain size generally increases with body size. With an average cranial capacity of 1600 cm3, the cranial capacity of Neanderthals is notably larger than the 1400 cm3 average for modern humans, indicating that their brain size was larger. Males stood and females tall. A 2008 study by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig suggested Neanderthals probably did not interbreed with anatomically modern humans, while the Neanderthal genome project published in 2010 and 2014 suggests that Neanderthals did contribute to the DNA of modern humans, including most non-Africans as well as a few African populations, through interbreeding, likely between 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. In December 2013, researchers reported evidence that Neanderthals practiced burial behavior and intentionally buried their dead. In addition, scientists reported having sequenced the entire genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the toe bone of a 50,000-year-old Neanderthal found in a Siberian cave.
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Feldhofer 1, Neanderthal 1 is the scientific name of the 40,000 year old type specimen fossil of the species ''Homo neanderthalensis'', found in a German cave, Kleine Feldhofer Grotte, east of Düsseldorf, located in the Neandertal valley, also known as the Neander Valley in August 1856.
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Nebra (official name: Nebra (Unstrut)) is a town in the district of Burgenlandkreis of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
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The Nebra sky disk is a bronze disk of around 30 cm diameter and a weight of 2.2 kg, with a blue-green patina and inlaid with gold symbols.
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Neckarsulm is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, near Stuttgart, and part of the district Heilbronn.
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Gabriele Susanne Kerner (born 24 March 1960), better known by her stage name Nena, is a German singer-songwriter, actress, and comedienne who rose to international fame in 1983 with the New German Wave song "99 Luftballons".
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Neo Rauch (born 18 April 1960, in Leipzig, East Germany) is a German artist whose paintings mine the intersection of his personal history with the politics of industrial alienation.
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Neo-expressionism is a style of late-modernist or early-postmodern painting and sculpture that emerged in the late 1970s.
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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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Neue Deutsche Welle (NDW,; "New German Wave") is a genre of German music originally derived from post-punk and new wave music.
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Neuschwanstein Castle (Schloss Neuschwanstein,, "New Swanstone Castle") is a nineteenth-century Romanesque Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany.
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New German Cinema (Neuer Deutscher Film) is a period in German cinema which lasted from the late 1960s into the 1980s.
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The New Imperialism (sometimes Neoimperialism or Neo-imperialism) was a period of colonial expansion—and its accompanying ideologies—by the European powers, the United States of America and the Empire of Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
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The term New Leipzig School (Neue Leipziger Schule) refers to a movement in modern German painting.
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The New Objectivity (in Neue Sachlichkeit) is a term used to characterize the attitude of public life in Weimar Germany as well as the art, literature, music, and architecture created to adapt to it.
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The New Objectivity (a translation of the German Neue Sachlichkeit, sometimes also translated as New Sobriety) is a name often given to the Modern architecture that emerged in Europe, primarily German-speaking Europe, in the 1920s and 30s.
The new federal states of Germany (die neuen Bundesländer) are the five re-established states in the former German Democratic Republic that acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany with its 10 states upon German reunification on 3 October 1990.
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Catharina "Nina" Hagen (born 11 March 1955) is a German singer and actress.
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The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.
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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
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The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC.
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North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa.
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During the Second World War, the North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
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The North Atlantic Current (also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement) is a powerful warm ocean current that continues the Gulf Stream northeast.
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The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was a federation of 22 previously independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
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North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen)) is the most populous state of Germany, as well as the fourth largest by area. North Rhine-Westphalia was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly parts of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf; the biggest city is Cologne. Four of Germany's ten biggest cities—Cologne, Düsseldorf, Dortmund, and Essen—are located in North Rhine-Westphalia. The state is currently run by a coalition of the Social Democrats (SPD) and Greens.
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The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
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The November Group (Novembergruppe) was a group of German expressionist artists and architects.
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Nowhere in Africa (Nirgendwo in Afrika) is a 2001 German film that was written and directed by Caroline Link.
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In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
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Nuclear power in Germany accounted for 17.7% of national electricity supply in 2011, compared to 22.4% in 2010.
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A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
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Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
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The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany.
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The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II, which were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany who allegedly planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in The Holocaust and other war crimes.
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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.
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The Occupation of the Ruhr (Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to continue its reparation payments in the aftermath of World War I.
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An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.
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Oktoberfest is the world's largest Volksfest (beer festival and travelling funfair).
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Old High German (OHG, German: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050 AD.
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Ole Scheeren (born 1971, Karlsruhe) is a German architect and principal of Büro Ole Scheeren with offices in Beijing, Hong Kong and London and a visiting professor at the University of Hong Kong.
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The modern Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
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Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which began on 22 June 1941.
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Operation Overlord was the code name for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II.
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Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.
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Organic foods are foods produced by organic farming.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Neue Ostpolitik (German for "new eastern policy"), or Ostpolitik for short, refers to the normalization of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, or West Germany) and Eastern Europe, particularly the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) beginning in 1969.
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Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), also called German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of German speakers from the Holy Roman Empire (primarily present-day southern and western Germany) into less-populated regions of Eastern Europe.
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Oswald Mathias Ungers (July 12, 1926 – September 30, 2007) was a German architect and architectural theorist, known for his rationalist designs and the use of cubic forms.
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Otto Hahn,, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1944 for the discovery and the radiochemical proof of nuclear fission.
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Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), also known as Otto the Great, was German king from 936 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 962 until his death in 973.
Otto III (Jun/Jul 980 - 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002.
Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896) was a German pioneer of aviation who became known as the Glider King.
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Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890.
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Ottonian Architecture is an architectural style which evolved during the reign of Emperor Otto the Great (936-975).
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The Ottonian dynasty was a dynasty of German Kings (919–1024), named after its first Emperor but also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Germany: Germany – federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe consisting of 16 constituent states, which retain limited sovereignty.
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The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France.
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Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung) is a pan-nationalist political idea.
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A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a type of republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.
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Paul Kalkbrenner (born 11 June 1977) is a German live act, producer of electronic music, and actor from Berlin.
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Matthias Paul, better known by his stage name Paul van Dyk (born 16 December 1971 in Eisenhüttenstadt, East Germany) is a German Grammy Award-winning electronic dance music DJ, musician and record producer.
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Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German Generalfeldmarschall, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany (1925–34).
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PC Games is a monthly released PC game magazine, published by the Computec Media AG GmbH in Germany.
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The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the imperial city of Augsburg, now in present-day Bavaria, Germany.
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The Peace of Westphalia (German: Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster.
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Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary.
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Upon the rise of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazi Party) in Germany, gay men and, to a lesser extent, lesbians, were two of the numerous groups targeted by the Nazis and were ultimately among Holocaust victims.
Perspectivism (Perspektivismus) is the term coined by Friedrich Nietzsche in developing the philosophical view (touched upon as far back as Plato's rendition of Protagoras) that all ideations take place from particular perspectives.
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Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter.
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Peter Robert Keil (* 6 August 1942 in Züllichau, Pomerania) is a German painter and sculptor.
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Philipp Patrick Plein (born 1978 in Munich) is a German fashion designer and founder of the namesake luxury brand PHILIPP PLEIN that includes menswear, womenswear, accessories and children’s apparel.
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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
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Piranha Bytes is a German video game developer known for their Gothic role-playing video game series.
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Pizza is a flatbread generally topped with tomato sauce and cheese and baked in an oven.
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A planned economy is the economic system in which decisions regarding production and investment are embodied in a plan formulated by a central authority, usually by a public body such as a government agency.
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The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland.
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Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.
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A politburo is the executive committee for a number of (usually communist) political parties.
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In criminology, a political crime or political offence is an offence involving overt acts or omissions (where there is a duty to act), which prejudice the interests of the state, its government, or the political system.
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Pop music (a term that originally derives from an abbreviation of "popular") is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the Western world during the 1950s and 1960s, deriving from rock and roll.
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Pop rock is a music genre that mixes a catchy pop style and light lyrics in its (typically) guitar-based rock songs.
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Pope Gregory V, né Bruno of Carinthia (Gregorius V; c. 972 – 18 February 999) was Pope from 3 May 996 to his death in 999.
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The Romani genocide or Romani Holocaust, also known as the Porajmos (Romani pronunciation), or Samudaripen ("Mass killing"), was the planned and attempted effort, often described as a genocide, during World War II by the government of Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate the Romani (Gypsy) people of Europe.
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The Port of Hamburg (German mostly: Hamburger Hafen, in official usage also Hafen Hamburg) is a port in Hamburg, Germany, on the river Elbe.
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Potash is any of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
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Potsdam, is the capital city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.
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The Pragmatic Sanction (Sanctio Pragmatica) was an edict issued by Charles VI on 19 April 1713, to ensure that the Habsburg hereditary possessions could be inherited by a daughter.
The Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe (5th/4th–1st century BC) was the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia, northern Germany, and the Netherlands north of the Rhine River.
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In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapour that falls under gravity.
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The President of Germany, officially the President of the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in an international context; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.
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The President of the Bundestag (Präsident des Deutschen Bundestages or Bundestagspräsident) presides over the sessions of the Bundestag, the parliament of Germany, with functions similar to that of a speaker in other countries.
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
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The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having since the 13th century the privilege of electing the King of the Romans or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.
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Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
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The Pritzker Architecture Prize was founded in 1979 by Jay and Cindy Pritzker to honor outstanding living architects worldwide.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Product design as a verb is the process of creating a new product to be sold by a business to its customers.
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Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.
ProSiebenSat.1 Media SE (officially abbreviated as P7S1, and until July 7, 2015, ProSiebenSat.1 Media AG) is a German mass media company.
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The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation, was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant Reformers.
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Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.
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Proto-Germanic (PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
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Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages.
Prussia (Prusy) was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centered on the region of Prussia.
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Prussian blue is a dark blue pigment with the idealized chemical formula Fe7(CN)18.
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The Prussian Union of Churches (known under multiple other names) was a major church body which emerged in the 1817 from a series of decrees by Frederick William III of Prussia that united the Lutheran Church and the Reformed Church in Prussia.
Except for the national holiday (German Unity Day), public holidays in Germany (gesetzliche Feiertage) are determined by the federal states.
Puma SE (officially branded as PUMA) is a major German multinational company that produces athletic and casual footwear, as well as sportswear, headquartered in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, Germany.
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Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.
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Quedlinburg is a medieval German town situated just north of the Harz mountains, in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
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A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
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Radiochemistry is the chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes (often within radiochemistry the absence of radioactivity leads to a substance being described as being inactive as the isotopes are stable).
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Rainer Fetting (* 31 December 1949 in Wilhelmshaven, Germany) is a German painter and sculptor.
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Rainer Werner Fassbinder (31 May 1945 – 10 June 1982) was a German film director, screenwriter, and actor.
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Rammstein is a German Neue Deutsche Härte band, formed in 1994 in Berlin.
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In epistemology, rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
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Rügen (also lat. Rugia, Ruegen or Rugia Island) is Germany's largest island by area.
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Realschule is a type of secondary school in Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Estonia.
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The red fox, Vulpes vulpes, is the largest of the true foxes and the most abundant wild member of the Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
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In politics, a red–green alliance or red–green coalition is an alliance of "red" social-democratic or democratic socialist parties with "green" environmentalist or sometimes Nordic agrarian parties.
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A refugee, in contrast to a migrant, is according to the Geneva Convention on Refugees applied to a person who is outside their home country of citizenship because they have well-founded grounds for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, and is unable to obtain sanctuary from their home country or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country; or in the case of not having a nationality and being outside their country of former habitual residence as a result of such event, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to their country of former habitual residence.
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Regensburg is a city in south-east Germany, situated at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen River.
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Regierungsbezirk (abbreviated Reg.-Bez.) is an administrative region on federal state level in Germany.
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A regiopolis is a city outside a metropolitan area, that serves as an independent driving force for development within a larger region.
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The Reichstag building (Reichstagsgebäude; officially: Plenarbereich Reichstagsgebäude) is a historical edifice in Berlin, Germany, constructed to house the Imperial Diet (German: Reichstag), of the German Empire.
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The Reichstag fire (Reichstagsbrand) was an arson attack on the Reichstag building in Berlin on 27 February 1933.
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The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung) is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State (Verordnung des Reichspräsidenten zum Schutz von Volk und Staat) issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag fire of 27 February 1933.
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The Reichswehr (English: Reich Defence) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the newly founded Wehrmacht ("Defence Force").
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The Reinheitsgebot (literally "purity order"), sometimes called the "German Beer Purity Law" in English, is the collective name for a series of regulations limiting the ingredients in beer in Germany and its predecessor states.
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Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
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Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
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Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.
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The Republic of Florence, or the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a state that was centered on the city of Florence, located in modern Tuscany, Italy.
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The Most Serene Republic of Genoa (Repubblica di Genova, Repúbrica de Zêna) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
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The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia; Repùblica Vèneta), or traditionally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice, was a state originating from the lagoon communities in the area of Venice, now northeastern Italy.
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Research and Development (R&D), also known in Europe as research and technical (or technological) development (RTD), is a general term for activities in connection with corporate or governmental innovation.
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Resort architecture or Bäder architecture (Bäderarchitektur) is an architectural style that is especially characteristic of spas and seaside resorts on the German Baltic coast.
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The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, Springtime of the Peoples or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
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The Revolutions of 1989 were part of a revolutionary wave that resulted in the Fall of Communism in the Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
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--> The Rhine is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Austrian, Swiss- Liechtenstein border, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the Rhineland and eventually empties into the North Sea in the Netherlands.
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The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region (Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr) is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with over 11 million inhabitants.
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The Rhineland (Rheinland) has become the name for several areas of Western Germany along the Middle and Lower Rhine.
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Rhineland-Palatinate (German: Rheinland-Pfalz,; Rhénanie-Palatinat) is one of the 16 states (German: Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
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Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.
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Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
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The right of return is a principle which is drawn from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, intended to enable people to return to, and re-enter, their country of origin.
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Robert Heinrich Herman Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a celebrated German physician and pioneering microbiologist.
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Robert Schumann (8 June 181029 July 1856) was a German composer and influential music critic.
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Robert Wiene (27 April 1873 – 17 July 1938) was an important film director of the German silent cinema.
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The Roman Catholic Church in Germany, part of the worldwide Catholic Church, is under the leadership of the Pope, assisted by the Roman Curia, and of the German bishops.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including Roman Military Jurisdiction and the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the 12 Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I. The historical importance of Roman defication is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in legal systems influenced by it.
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A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens.
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The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
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Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
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Romanesque Revival (or Neo-Romanesque) is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th and 12th century Romanesque architecture.
Romani (also Romany, Gypsy, or Gipsy; romani ćhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
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The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas, who originate from the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent.
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Romantic music is a term denoting an era of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
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The Romantic Road (Romantische Straße) is a "theme route" devised by promotion-minded travel agents in the 1950s.
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Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
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Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician, commentator, and actor, who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
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Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport with origins back to Ancient Egyptian times.
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Rubble film (Trümmerfilm) was an aesthetic choice for those films made directly after World War II dealing with the impact of the battles in the countries at the center of the war.
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Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (18 March 185829 September 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine and his mysterious death.
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The rule of law is the legal principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by arbitrary decisions of individual government officials.
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The Rur Dam (Rurtalsperre Schwammenauel) is a 77.2 metre high dam located in the southwestern part of the state of North Rhine