441 relations: 'Amr ibn al-'As, Aïr Mountains, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Mu'min, Abdallah ibn Sa'd, Abdullah al-Thani, Achaemenid Empire, Africa, Afrika Korps, Afroasiatic languages, Aghlabids, Agriculture, Aguila Saleh Issa, Ahmadiyya, Ahmed Karamanli, Al Wahat District, Alexander the Great, Algeria, Ali Zeidan, Allied administration of Libya, Allies of World War II, Almohad Caliphate, Almond, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Anglican Diocese of Egypt, Anglicanism, Appellate court, Aquifer, Arab League, Arab slave trade, Arab Spring, Arab–Israeli conflict, Arabic, Arabized Berber, Arabs, Arianism, Arkenu structures, Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Arrabbiata sauce, Asida, Associated Press, Ayyubid dynasty, ‘Aziziya, Ba'athist Iraq, Baladiyah, Ban Ki-moon, Bangladeshis, Banu Ghaniya, ..., Banu Hilal, Banu Khazrun, Banu Sulaym, Barbary slave trade, Barbary Wars, Bardo National Museum attack, Bazin (bread), BBC, BBC News, Bedouin, Benghazi, Berber languages, Berber music, Berbers, Bernardino León, Bey, British Military Administration (Libya), Bronze Age, Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution, Bsisa, Buluggin ibn Ziri, Butnan District, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Cambyses II, Carthage, Cassius Dio, Catholic Church, Ceasefire, Central African Empire, Central Bank of Libya, Central Intelligence Agency, Chad, Chadian–Libyan conflict, Charles Taylor (Liberian politician), Chorba, Christian, Christian mission, City of London Police, Clan, Classical Greece, Claudius, Coat of arms of Libya, Colonies in antiquity, Committee to Protect Journalists, Condominium (international law), Constantinople, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Copts, Coup d'état, Couscous, Crete and Cyrenaica, Cultural Revolution (Libya), Cyrenaica, Cyrene, Libya, Date honey, Date palm, De facto, Death of Muammar Gaddafi, Demographics of Libya, Derg, Derna District, Derna, Libya, Dey, Direct democracy, Donatism, Dragut, Dust storm, Early centers of Christianity, Early Muslim conquests, Eastern European Time, Egypt, Emilio Gentile, English language, Eni, European Neighbourhood Policy, European Parliament Committee on Foreign Affairs, ExxonMobil, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Fatimid Caliphate, Fayez al-Sarraj, February 2015 Egyptian airstrikes in Libya, Fezzan, Fezzan-Ghadames (French Administration), First Barbary War, Folklore, Freedom House, French Fifth Republic, French Fourth Republic, Gabal El Uweinat, Garamantes, General National Congress, General People's Committee, Germa, Ghadames, Ghat District, Goukouni Oueddei, Government of National Accord, Gozo, Grain, Granite, Great Man-Made River, Greeks, Green development, Gypsum, Habsburg Spain, Hafsid dynasty, Harissa, Harun al-Rashid, Hegemony, High Council of State (Libya), High-rise building, Highland, History of Libya, History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi, History of the Italian Republic, History of the Jews in Libya, History of Uganda (1971–79), Houari Boumédiène, House of Representatives (Libya), Human Development Index, Human Rights Watch, Ibadi, Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab, Idi Amin, Idris of Libya, Ifriqiya, Ikhshidid dynasty, Ilan Pappé, Independence, Index of Libya-related articles, Indian people, Industry, International Labour Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Organization for Migration, International sanctions, Iraq War, Islam, Islam in Libya, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamism, ISO 3166-1, Istanbul, Italian cuisine, Italian Cyrenaica, Italian language, Italian Libya, Italian settlers in Libya, Italian Tripolitania, Italians, Italo-Turkish War, Italy, J. Christopher Stevens, Jabal al Akhdar, Jabal al Gharbi District, Jafara, Janissaries, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, Jews, Jihad, Journalist, Jufra District, Justice and Construction Party, Justinian I, Kanem–Bornu Empire, Karamanli dynasty, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Libya, Kitos War, Knights Hospitaller, Kouloughlis, Kufra, Kufra District, Leptis Magna, LGBT rights in Libya, Liberalism, Liberia, Libya Herald, Libya Shield Force, Libya, Libya, Libya, Libyan Air Force, Libyan Arabic, Libyan Civil War (2011), Libyan Civil War (2014–present), Libyan Desert, Libyan dinar, Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration, Libyan International Medical University, Libyan National Army, Libyan Navy, Libyan parliamentary election, 2012, Libyan parliamentary election, 2014, Libyan Sea, Libyan–Egyptian War, Life (magazine), List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries by public debt, List of heads of government of Libya, List of heads of state of Libya, List of Libyans, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa, Lists of countries by GDP per capita, Loyalism, Macaroni, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Maghreb, Mahmud II, Maltese people, Mamluk, Marj District, Martyrs' Square, Tripoli, Massif, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean Sea, Mehmed Saqizli, Mengistu Haile Mariam, Michigan State University, Middle East Quarterly, Military history of Italy during World War II, Milk, Misrata, Misrata District, Modern Standard Arabic, Mohammed Magariaf, Monarchy, Muammar Gaddafi, Murder of Yvonne Fletcher, Murqub District, Murzuq District, Muslim Brotherhood, Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, Mustafa A.G. Abushagur, Nalut District, Napoleonic Wars, National Forces Alliance, National Liberation Army (Libya), National Transitional Council, Nationalization, Natural gas, Neolithic, New America Media, Nicene Christianity, Niger, No-fly zone, Non-Aligned Movement, Norman conquest of southern Italy, North Africa, North African Campaign, Numidia, Nuqat al Khams, Oasis, Occidental Petroleum, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Official language, Oil reserves, Olive, Olive oil, Omar Mukhtar, OPEC, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Osman Saqizli, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Tripolitania, Outline of Libya, Pacification of Libya, Pan Am Flight 103, Pasha, Pasha of Tripoli, Pasta, Peanut, People's Armed Forces, Persian people, Petroleum, Petroleum industry, Phoenicia, Plateau, Pogrom, Pope Victor I, Presidential Council (Libya), Prime minister, Privatization, Proven reserves, Provisional government, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy Apion, Public holiday, Punics, Rail transport in Libya, Rain, Rashidun army, Reconnaissance, Red Castle Museum, Referendum, Repsol, Revolution Day, Rice, Roman Empire, Royal Dutch Shell, Sabha District, Saddam Hussein, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, Saudi Arabia, Second Barbary War, Secondary education, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Senussi, Severan dynasty, Sinan Pasha (Ottoman admiral), Sirocco, Sirte, Sirte District, Slobodan Milošević, Social security, Soft power, Sovereign state, Soviet Union, Spanish Empire, Spoken language, Structural unemployment, Subsidy, Sudan, Sufism, Sultan, Sunni Islam, Sweet crude oil, Tamasheq language, Telephone numbers in Libya, Television in Libya, Tertiary education, Tertiary sector of the economy, The Guardian, The World Factbook, Tobruk, Total S.A., Toubou people, Toyota War, Trajan, Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947, Tripoli, Tripoli District, Libya, Tripolitania, Tripolitanian civil war, Tuareg people, Tulunids, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkish people, Turks in Libya, Ukrainians, Umayyad Caliphate, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Human Rights Council, United Nations Multilingual Terminology Database, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, United Nations Trusteeship Council, United States, University of Libya, Uqba ibn Nafi, Usban, Vandal Kingdom, Vandals, Varieties of Arabic, Wadi al Hayaa District, Wadi al Shatii District, War on Terror, Weapon of mass destruction, West Berlin, Western world, Westernization, Wintershall, World Bank, World Meteorological Organization, World Trade Organization, World War II, Yusuf Karamanli, Zawiya District, Zawiya, Libya, Zirid dynasty, .ly, 1969 Libyan coup d'état, 1986 United States bombing of Libya, 1986 West Berlin discotheque bombing, 19th parallel north, 2012 Benghazi attack, 26th meridian east, 34th parallel north, 9th meridian east. Expand index (391 more) » « Shrink index
'Amr ibn al-'As (عمرو بن العاص; 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.
The Aïr Mountains or Aïr Massif (Ayăr; Hausa: Eastern Azbin, Western Abzin) is a triangular massif, located in northern Niger, within the Sahara Desert.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
`Abd al Mu'min (c. 1094–1163) (عبد المؤمن بن علي or عبد المومن الــكـومي; full name: Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Muʾmin ibn ʿAlī ibn ʿAlwī ibn Yaʿlā al-Kūmī) was a prominent member of the Almohad movement.
ʿAbdallāh ibn Saʿd ibn Abī Sarḥ; (عبدالله بن سعد بن أبي السرح) was the milk brother of Uthman.
Abdullah al-Thinni (عبد الله الثني Libyan pronunciation) is a Libyan politician who became Prime Minister of Libya on 11 March 2014, when he took over in an interim capacity after Congress dismissed Ali Zeidan.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The Aghlabids (الأغالبة) were an Arab dynasty of emirs from Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Aguila Saleh Issa (Arabic: عقيلة صالح عيسى; born 1944) is a Libyan jurist and politician who is President of the Libyan House of Representatives since 5 August 2014.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Ahmed or Ahmad Karamanli or Qaramanli or al-Qaramanli, (most commonly Ahmed Karamanli) (1686–1745) was of Turkish origin and a Member from the Karamanids.
Al Wahat (الواحات, The Oases), occasionally spelt Al Wahad or Al Wahah (The Oasis) is one of the districts of Libya.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Allied administration of Libya was the control of the ex-Italian colony of Libya by the Allies from 1943 until Libyan independence was granted in 1951.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Anglican / Episcopal Diocese of Egypt with North Africa and the Horn of Africa is a diocese of the Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabized Berber denotes an inhabitant of the Maghreb region in northwestern Africa, whose native language is a local dialect of Arabic and whose origins are Berber.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
The Arkenu structures, also known as the Arkenu craters, are a pair of prominent circular geological structures.
The Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya consisted of the Libyan Army, Libyan Air Force and the Libyan Navy and other services including the People's Militia.
Arrabbiata sauce, or sugo all'arrabbiata in Italian, is a spicy sauce for pasta made from garlic, tomatoes, and dried red chili peppers cooked in olive oil.
Asida (عصيدة ‘aṣīdah) is a dish made up of a cooked wheat flour lump of dough, sometimes with added butter or honey.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
‘Aziziya (Anglicized:; العزيزية / /), sometimes spelled El Azizia, is a small town and it was the capital of the Jafara district in northwestern Libya, southwest of the capital Tripoli.
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.
Baladiyah is a type of Arabic administrative division that can be translated as "district", "sub-district" or "municipality".
Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
The Banu Ghaniya were an Almoravid Sanhaja Berber dynasty.
The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century.
The Banu Khazrun was a family of the Maghrawa that ruled Tripoli from 1001 to 1146.
The Banu Sulaym (بنو سليم) were an Arab tribe that dominated part of the Hejaz in the pre-Islamic era.
The Barbary slave trade refers to the slave markets that were extremely lucrative and vast on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, which included the Ottoman provinces of Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania and the independent sultanate of Morocco, between the 16th and middle of the 18th century.
The Barbary Wars were a series of conflicts that culminated in two wars fought at different times over the same reasons between the United States, Sweden, and the Barbary states (the de jure possessions of the Ottoman Empire, but de facto independent, Tunis, Algiers, and Tripoli) of North Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
On 18 March 2015, three militants attacked the Bardo National Museum in the Tunisian capital city of Tunis, and took hostages.
Bazin (البازين, pronounced, is an unleavened bread in the cuisine of Libya prepared with barley, water and salt. Bazin is prepared by boiling barley flour in water and then beating it to create a dough using a magraf, which is a unique stick designed for this purpose. The dough may then be placed in a pan and allowed time to harden, after which it is baked or steamed. The salt contributes to the hardness of the bazin. Bazin may have a paste-like and hardened texture. It may also be prepared using whole wheat flour, olive oil and pepper as ingredients. Bazeen is typically served with a tomato sauce, eggs, potatoes and mutton. This preparation method involves shaping the dough into the shape of a pyramid or dome, after which it may be served with a tomato-based soup or meat and potato stew poured atop and/or around it and garnished with hard-boiled eggs. A raw egg may also be placed in the hot soup. Aseeda is a dish prepared using bazin, honey, date syrup and butter or oil. Bazin may also be accompanied with a cooked pumpkin and tomato sauce mixture. When consumed, bazin may be "crumpled and eaten with the fingers." It is typically eaten using the right hand, and may be consumed communally. Bazin has been described as a traditional dish and as a national dish of Libya.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Berber music refers to the musical traditions of the Berbers, an ethnic group native to the Maghreb, as well as parts of the Sahara, Nile Valley, West Africa.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bernardino León Gross (born 20 October 1964) is a Spanish diplomat and politician and former United Nations Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya.
“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.
The British Military Administration of Libya was the control of the regions of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania of the former Italian Libya by the British from 1942 until Libyan independence in 1951.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution (الأخ القائد ومرشد الثورة) was an unofficial title held by former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, who claimed to be merely a symbolic figurehead of the country's official governance structure.
Bsisa (Berber aḍemmin) is a typical North African food, based on flour of roasted barley which dates back to Roman times.
Buluggin ibn Ziri, often transliterated Bologhine, in full Abu'l-Futuh Sayf al-Dawla Buluggin ibn Ziri ibn Manad al-Sanhaji (أبو الفتوح سيف الدولة بلكين بن زيري بن مناد الصنهاجي; died 984) was the first ruler of the Zirids in Ifriqiya (972–984).
Butnan (البطنان) sometimes called Tubruq District or Tobruk District from the former name, occasionally Marmarica, is an administrative district (shabiyah) in eastern Libya.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Cambyses II (𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya כנבוזי Kanbūzī; Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
The Central African Empire (Empire centrafricain) was a short-lived, self-declared "constitutional monarchy", but in reality an absolute monarchy under a one-party military dictatorship, that replaced the Central African Republic and was, in turn, replaced by the restoration of the Republic.
The Central Bank of Libya (CBL) is the monetary authority in Libya.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Chadian–Libyan conflict was a series of sporadic clashes in Chad between 1978 and 1987 between Libyan and Chadian forces.
Charles McArthur Ghankay Taylor (born 28 January 1948) is a former Liberian politician who served as the 22nd President of Liberia from 2 August 1997 until his resignation on 11 August 2003.
Chorba is one of various kinds of soup or stew found in national cuisines across the Balkans, North Africa, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Middle East and the Indian subcontinent.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
The City of London Police is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the City of London, including the Middle and Inner Temples.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
Since the collapse of the Gaddafi regime in the Libyan Civil War, Libya currently does not have an official coat of arms.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York with correspondents around the world.
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Couscous is a Maghrebi dish of small (about diameter) steamed balls of crushed durum wheat semolina that is traditionally served with a stew spooned on top.
Crete and Cyrenaica (Provincia Creta et Cyrenaica) was a senatorial province of the Roman Empire, established in 67 BC.
The Cultural Revolution (or People's Revolution) in Libya was a period of political and social change in Libya.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Cyrene (translit) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya.
Date honey, date syrup, date molasses or rub (رُب) is a thick dark brown, very sweet fruit syrup extracted from dates.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Muammar Gaddafi, the deposed leader of Libya, was captured and killed on 20 October 2011 during the Battle of Sirte.
Demographics of Libya include population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libyan population.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
Derna (درنة Darnah) is one of the districts of Libya.
Derna (درنة) is a port city in eastern Libya.
Dey (Arabic: داي, from Turkish dayı) was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers (Algeria), Tripoli,Bertarelli (1929), p. 203.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
Donatism (Donatismus, Δονατισμός Donatismós) was a schism in the Church of Carthage from the fourth to the sixth centuries AD.
Dragut (Turgut Reis; 1485 – 23 June 1565), known as "The Drawn Sword of Islam", was a famed, respected, and feared Muslim Ottoman Naval Commander of Greek descent.
A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.
Early Christianity (generally considered the time period from its origin to the First Council of Nicaea in 325) spread from the Eastern Mediterranean throughout the Roman Empire and beyond.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Emilio Gentile (born 1946 in Bojano) is an Italian historian specializing in the ideology and culture of fascism.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eni S.p.A. is an Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome.
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.
The Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET, after the French name "Affaires étrangères"), previously called Political Affairs, is a committee of the European Parliament.
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Fayez Mustafa al-Sarraj (فائز السراج or فايز السراج; born 1960) is the Chairman of the Presidential Council of Libya and prime minister of the Government of National Accord (GNA) of Libya that was formed as a result of the Libyan Political Agreement signed on 17 December 2015.
The February 2015 Egyptian airstrikes in Libya against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) positions in Libya took place on February 16, 2015, and were triggered by a video released by ISIL in Libya a day earlier, depicting the beheading of 21 Coptic Christians from Egypt.
Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.
The Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames was a territory in the southern part of the former Italian colony of Libya controlled by the French from 1943 until Libyan independence in 1951.
The First Barbary War (1801–1805), also known as the Tripolitanian War and the Barbary Coast War, was the first of two Barbary Wars, in which the United States and Sweden fought against the four North African states known collectively as the "Barbary States".
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
Mount Uwaynat or Gabal El Uweinat (جبل العوينات "mountain of sourcelets") is a mountain range in the area of the Egyptian-Libyan-Sudanese border.
The Garamantes (possibly from the Berber igherman / iɣerman, meaning: "cities" in modern Berber; or possibly from igerramen meaning "saints, holy/sacred people" in modern Berber) were a Berber tribe, who developed an advanced civilization in ancient southwestern Libya.
The General National Congress (المؤتمر الوطني العام, Berber: Agraw Amuran Amatay) was the legislative authority of Libya for two years following the end of the Libyan Civil War.
The General People's Committee (اللجنة الشعبية العامة, al-lajna ash-sha'bēya al-'āmma), often abbreviated as the GPCO, was the executive branch of government during the era of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
Germa (جرمة), known in ancient times as Garama, is an archaeological site in Libya.
Ghadames or Ghadamis (Berber: ʕademis; غدامس ɣadāmis, Libyan vernacular: ɣdāməs, Latin: Cidamus, Cydamus) is an oasis Berber town in the Nalut District of the Tripolitania region in northwestern Libya.
Ghat (Berber: Ɣat; غات) is one of the districts of Libya.
Goukouni Oueddei (كوكوني عويدي; born 1944 in Zouar) is a Chadian political figure.
The Government of National Accord (حكومة الوفاق الوطني) is an interim government for Libya that was formed under the terms of the Libyan Political Agreement, a United Nations-led initiative, signed on 17 December 2015.
Gozo (Għawdex,, formerly Gaulos) is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
The Great Man-Made River (GMR, النهر الصناعي العظيم) is a network of pipes that supplies water to the Sahara in Libya, from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System fossil aquifer.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Green development is a real estate development concept that carefully considers social and environmental impacts of development.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
The Hafsids (الحفصيون al-Ḥafṣiyūn) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya (western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria) from 1229 to 1574.
Harissa (هريسة harīsa, from Maghrebi Arabic) is a Maghrebi hot chili pepper paste, the main ingredients of which are roasted red peppers, Baklouti (بقلوطي) pepper, serrano peppers, and other hot chili peppers, spices and herbs such as garlic paste, coriander seed, saffron, rose, or caraway, as well as some vegetable or olive oil for preservation.
Harun al-Rashid (هَارُون الرَشِيد Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Harun the Orthodox" or "Harun the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria. A Frankish mission came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne's court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. The fictional The Book of One Thousand and One Nights is set in Harun's magnificent court and some of its stories involve Harun himself. Harun's life and court have been the subject of many other tales, both factual and fictitious. Some of the Twelver sect of Shia Muslims blame Harun for his supposed role in the murder of their 7th Imam (Musa ibn Ja'far).
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
The High Council of State, (المجلس الأعلى للدولة), also known as the Supreme Council of State, is an advisory body for Libya formed under the terms of the Libyan Political Agreement which was signed on 17 December 2015.
A high-rise building is a tall building, as opposed to a low-rise building and is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions.
Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau.
Libya's history covers its rich mix of ethnic groups added to the indigenous Berber tribes.
Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état.
After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolini's fascist regime, Italy's history was dominated by the Christian Democracy (Democrazia Cristiana, DC) political party for 48 years—from the 1946 election until the 1994 election—while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI).
The history of the Jews in Libya stretches back to the 3rd century BCE, when Cyrenaica was under Greek rule.
The history of Uganda between 1971 and 1979 comprises the history of Uganda during Idi Amin's military dictatorship over Uganda.
Houari Boumédiène, also transcribed Boumediene, Boumedienne etc., (هواري بومدين; ALA-LC: Hawārī Bū-Madyan; 23 August 1932 – 27 December 1978) served as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976 and thereafter as the second President of Algeria until his death on 27 December 1978.
The House of Representatives (HoR) (translation, Camera dei rappresentanti libica) is the legislature of Libya.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman.
Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab (إبراهيم بن الأغلب; 756-812) was the first Emir of the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya (800-812) He was the son of al-Aghlab, who successfully quelled the revolt of the Khawarij in Ifriqiya at the end of the 8th century.
Idi Amin Dada (2816 August 2003) was a Ugandan politician and military officer.
Idris, GBE (إدريس الأول; El Sayyid Prince Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi; 12 March 1889 – 25 May 1983), was a Libyan political and religious leader who served as the Emir of Cyrenaica and then as the King of Libya from 1951 to 1969.
Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.
The Ikhshidid dynasty ruled Egypt from 935 to 969.
Ilan Pappé (אילן פפה; born 1954) is an expatriate Israeli historian and socialist activist.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
This page list topics related to Libya.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is an intergovernmental organization that provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and migrant workers.
International sanctions are political and economic decisions that are part of diplomatic efforts by countries, multilateral or regional organizations against states or organizations either to protect national security interests, or to protect international law, and defend against threats to international peace and security.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Most Libyans adhere to the Sunni branch of Islam, which provides both a spiritual guide for individuals and a keystone for government policy.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
ISO 3166-1 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italian cuisine is food typical from Italy.
Italian Cyrenaica was an Italian colony, located in present-day eastern Libya, that existed from 1927 to 1934.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.
Italian settlers in Libya (Italo-libici, also called Italian Libyans) typically refers to Italians, and their descendants, who resided or were born in Italian Libya, in the colonial period preceding independent Libya.
Italian Tripolitania was an Italian colony, located in present-day western Libya, that existed from 1927 to 1934.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
John Christopher Stevens (April 18, 1960 – September 11, 2012) was an American career diplomat and lawyer who served as the U.S. Ambassador to Libya from May 22, 2012 to September 11, 2012.
Jabal al Akhdar (Green Mountains), also known as Jebel el-Akhdar, is one of the districts of Libya.
Jabal al Gharbi (الجبل الغربي Al Ǧabal al Gharbi, The Western Mountains) is one of the districts of Libya.
Jafara or Al Jfara (الجفارة Al Jifārah) is one of the districts of Libya, in the historical region of Tripolitania.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
Jean-Bédel Bokassa (22 February 1921 – 3 November 1996), also known as Bokassa I of Central Africa and Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa, was the ruler of the Central African Republic and its successor state, the Central African Empire, from his coup d'état on 1 January 1966 until overthrown in a subsequent coup (supported by France) on 20 September 1979.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.
Jufra or Jofra (الجفرة Al Jufrah) is one of the districts of Libya.
The Justice and Construction Party or Justice and Development Party (حزب العدالة والبناء) is the Muslim Brotherhood's political party in Libya.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern Chad and Nigeria.
The Karamanli, Caramanli, Qaramanli, or al-Qaramanli dynasty was an early modern dynasty, independent or quasi-independent, which ruled from 1711 to 1835 in Tripolitania.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Libya (المملكة الليبية; Libyan Kingdom; Regno di Libia), originally called the United Kingdom of Libya, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic.
The Kitos War (115–117; מרד הגלויות: mered ha'galuyot or mered ha'tfutzot; translation: rebellion of the diaspora. Tumultus Iudaicus) occurred during the period of the Jewish–Roman wars, 66–136.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
Kouloughlis, also spelled Koulouglis, Cologhlis and Qulaughlis (from Turkish kuloğlu "children of servants" or "children of slaves", from kul "servant/slave" + oğlu "son of") was a term used during the Ottoman period to designate the mixed offspring of Turkish men and local North African women (i.e. Berber, Arab or Arab-Berber), situated in the western and central coastal regions in the Barbary coast (i.e. in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia). The phrase comes from the fact that the rulers of the Ottoman Empire conquered much of Arab world and sent Turkish people to the conquered lands. Whilst the terminology was commonly used in Ottoman Algeria, Ottoman Libya, and Ottoman Tunisia, it was not used in Ottoman Egypt to refer to Turco-Egyptians. Today, the descendants of the Kouloughlis have largely integrated into their local societies after independence, however, they still maintain some of their cultural traditions (particularly food); they also continue to practice the Hanafi school of Islam (in contrast to the ethnic Arabs and Berbers who practice the Maliki school), and uphold their Turkish origin surnames.
Kufra is a basinBertarelli (1929), p. 514.
Kufra or Kofra (الكفرة), also spelled Cufra, is the largest district of Libya.
Leptis Magna (also Lepcis, Berber: Lubta, Neo-Punic: lpqy) was a prominent city in Roman Libya.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Libya face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
The Libya Herald (ليبيا هيرلد) is an English-language newspaper based in Tripoli, Libya.
The Libya Shield Force is an armed organisation formed in 2012 out of anti-Gaddafi armed groups spread throughout Libya.
"Libya, Libya, Libya" (ليبيا ليبيا ليبيا Lībiyā, Lībiyā, Lībiyā), also known as "Ya Beladi", "O my country!", is the national anthem of Libya, and was previously the national anthem of the Kingdom of Libya, from 1951 to 1969.
The Libyan Air Force (القوات الجوية الليبية) is the branch of the Libyan military responsible for aerial warfare.
Libyan Arabic (ليبي Lībī; also known as Sulaimitian Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in Libya and neighboring countries.
The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
The second Libyan Civil War is an ongoing conflict among rival factions seeking control of the territory and oil of Libya.
The Libyan Desert forms the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert.
The dinar (دينار dīnār) is the currency of Libya.
The Constitutional Declaration is the current supreme law of Libya, introduced due to the overthrow of the Gaddafi government in the Libyan Civil War.
The Libyan International Medical University (Arabic: الجامعة الليبية الدولية للعلوم الطبية) is a private university established in Benghazi, Libya, with the purpose of teaching medicine.
The Libyan National Army is the national armed force of Libya, comprising the ground forces, the air force and the navy.
Libyan Navy is the maritime force of Libya, established in November 1962.
Elections for a General National Congress (GNC) were held in Libya on 7 July 2012, having been postponed from 19 June.
Parliamentary elections were held in Libya on 25 June 2014 for the House of Representatives.
The Libyan Sea (Greek Λιβυκό πέλαγος, Latin Libycum Mare, Arabic البحر الليبي) is the portion of the Mediterranean Sea north of the African coast of ancient Libya, i.e. Cyrenaica, and Marmarica (the coast of what is now eastern Libya and western Egypt, between Tobruk and Alexandria).
The Libyan–Egyptian War was a short border war between Libya and Egypt in July 1977.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries by public debt to GDP ratio as listed by CIA's World Factbook and IMF.
This article lists the heads of government of Libya since the country's independence in 1951.
This article lists the heads of state of Libya since the country's independence in 1951.
This is a list of noteworthy people from Libya, sorted by occupation.
This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa.
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
In general, loyalism is an individual's allegiance toward an established government, political party, or sovereign, especially during times of war and revolt.
Macaroni is a variety of dry pasta traditionally shaped and produced in various shapes and sizes.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
The Maltese (Maltin) are an ethnic group indigenous to Malta, and identified with the Maltese language.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Marj (المرج, The Meadows) is an administrative division (''shabiyah'' or district) of northeastern Libya, lying on the Mediterranean Sea coast.
The Martyrs' Square (ميدان الشهداء); known as Green Square (الساحة الخضراء) under the Gaddafi government; Independence Square (ميدان الاستقلال) during the monarchy; and originally (during Italian colonial rule) known as Piazza Italia ("Italy Square") is a downtown landmark at the bay in the city of Tripoli, Libya.
In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mehmed Saqizli (Sakızlı Mehmed Paşa, literally, Mehmed Pasha of Chios) (died 1649), (r.1631-49) was Dey and Pasha of Tripolis.
Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም, pronounced; born 21 May 1937) is an Ethiopian soldier and politician who was the dictator of Ethiopia from 1977 to 1991.
Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States.
Middle East Quarterly (MEQ) is a quarterly journal, a publication of the think tank Middle East Forum (MEF) founded by Daniel Pipes in 1994.
The participation of Italy in the Second World War was characterized by a complex framework of ideology, politics, and diplomacy, while its military actions were often heavily influenced by external factors.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Misurata (مصراته, Misurata, ⵎⵉⵙⵓⵔⴰⵜⴰ) is a city in the Misrata District in northwestern Libya, situated to the east of Tripoli and west of Benghazi on the Mediterranean coast near Cape Misurata.
Misrata (مصراته, Libyan Arabic: Məṣrātah), also spelt Misurata or Misratah, is a sha'biyah (district) in northwestern Libya.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Mohammed Yousef el-Magariaf, (also written as Magariaf, Elmegaryaf or Almegaryaf) or, as he writes on his official website, Dr.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
The murder of Yvonne Fletcher, a Metropolitan Police officer, occurred on 17 April 1984, when she was fatally wounded by a shot fired from the Libyan embassy on St James's Square, London, by an unknown gunman.
Murqub (المرقب Al Murqub), sometimes spelt Al Murgub or Al Marqab or al-Morqib, is one of the districts of Libya.
Murzuq (مرزق Murzuq) is one of the districts of Libya.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb (الفَتْحُ الإسْلَامِيُّ لِلمَغْرِبِ) continued the century of rapid Arab Early Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in 632 AD and into the Byzantine-controlled territories of Northern Africa.
Mustafa A.G. Abushagur (Arabic: مصطفى ابوشاقور غيت ابوشاقور; born 15 February 1951) is a Libyan politician, professor of electrical engineering, university president and entrepreneur.
Nalut (نالوت Nālūt, Nalut Lalūt) is one of the districts of Libya.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Forces Alliance (تحالف القوى الوطنية) is a political alliance in Libya.
The National Liberation Army (جيش التحرير الوطني الليبي jaysh al-taḥrīr al-waṭanī al-lībī), formerly known as the Free Libyan Army, was a Libyan military organisation affiliated with the National Transitional Council, which was constituted during the Libyan Civil War by defected military members and civilian volunteers, in order to engage in battle against both remaining members of the Libyan Armed Forces and paramilitia loyal to the rule of Muammar Gaddafi.
The National Transitional Council of Libya (المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
New America Media is a multimedia ethnic news agency and a coalition of ethnic media.
Nicene Christianity refers to Christian doctrinal traditions that adhere to the Nicene Creed, which was originally formulated at the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD and finished at the First Council of Constantinople in AD 381.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
A no-fly zone or no-flight zone (NFZ), or air exclusion zone, is a territory or an area over which aircraft are not permitted to fly.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa.
Nuqat al Khams (النقاط الخمس Nuqāṭ al Ḫams) is one of the districts of Libya.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
Occidental Petroleum Corporation (often abbreviated Oxy in reference to its ticker symbol) is an American multinational petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company incorporated in Delaware and headquartered in Houston, Texas with operations in the United States, the Middle East, and Latin America.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
‘Omar al-Mukhṫār Muḥammad bin Farḥāṫ al-Manifī (عُمَرْ الْمُخْتَارْ مُحَمَّدْ بِنْ فَرْحَاتْ الْمَنِفِي; 20 August 1858 – 16 September 1931), called The Lion of the Desert, known among the colonial Italians as Matari of the Mnifa, was the leader of native resistance in Eastern Libya under the Senussids, against the Italian colonization of Libya.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Osman Saqizli (Sakızlı Osman Paşa, literally, Osman Pasha of Chios) (died 1672), (r.1649-72) was Dey and Pasha of Tripolis.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The coastal region of what is today Libya was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania (ایالت طرابلس غرب Eyālet-i Trâblus Gârb) or Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary from 1551 to 1864 and as the Vilayet of Tripolitania (ولايت طرابلس غرب Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârb) from 1864 to 1911.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Libya: Libya – country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The Pacification of Libya or Second Italo-Senussi War, was a prolonged conflict in Italian Libya between Italian military forces and indigenous rebels associated with the Senussi Order that lasted from 1923 until 1932, when the principal Senussi leader, Omar Mukhtar, was captured and executed.
Pan Am Flight 103 was a regularly scheduled Pan Am transatlantic flight from Frankfurt to Detroit via London and New York.
Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.
Pasha of Tripoli is a title that was held by many rulers of Tripoli in Ottoman Tripolitania.
Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
The People's Armed Forces (Forces Armées Populaires or FAP) was a Chadian insurgent group composed of followers of Goukouni Oueddei after the schism with Hissène Habré in 1976.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Pope Victor I (died 199) was Bishop of Rome, and hence a pope, in the late second century.
The Presidential Council (المجلس الرئاسي) of Libya is a body formed under the terms of the Libyan Political Agreement which was signed on 17 December 2015.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Proven reserves, also called measured reserves, 1P, and reserves, are industry specific terms regarding fossil fuel energy sources.
A provisional government, also called a morning or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition, generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemy Apion or simply known as Apion (Πτολεμαῖος Ἀπίων, between 150 BC and 145 BC – 96 BC) was the last Greek King of Cyrene and was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
A public holiday, national holiday or legal holiday is a holiday generally established by law and is usually a non-working day during the year.
The Punics (from Latin punicus, pl. punici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians.
There have been no operational railways in Libya since 1965, but various lines existed in the past.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
The Red Castle Museum, also known as Assaraya Alhamra Museum (متحف السرايا الحمراء) or the Archaeological Museum of Tripoli, is a national museum in Libya.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Repsol S.A., El Nuevo Herald, 2012-05-31Originally an initialism for Refinería de Petróleos de Escombreras adding the word Sol (Sun) is an integrated global energy company based in Madrid, Spain.
Revolution Day or the Day of the Revolution refers to public holidays or remembrance days in various country held in commemoration of an important event in the country's history, usually the starting point or a turning point in a revolution that led to significant political change.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
Sabha (سبها Sabhā) is one of the districts of Libya.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Saif al-Islam Gaddafi (سيف الإسلام معمر القذافي; born 25 June 1972) is a Libyan political figure.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Second Barbary War (1815) was fought between the United States and the North African Barbary Coast states of Tripoli, Tunis, and Ottoman Algeria.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
The Senussi, or Sanussi (السنوسية), are a Muslim political-religious tariqa (Sufi order) and clan in colonial Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi (السنوسي الكبير), the Algerian Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi.
The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235.
Sinanüddin Yusuf Pasha or in short Sinan Pasha (Croatian: Sinan-paša), (died 21 December 1553) was an Ottoman Grand Admiral (Kapudan Pasha), who served the Ottoman Navy for nearly four years between 1550 and the end of 1553, during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent.
Sirocco, scirocco,, jugo or, rarely, siroc (Xaloc; Sciroccu; Σορόκος; Siroco; Siròc, Eisseròc; Jugo, literally southerly; Libyan Arabic: Ghibli; Egypt: khamsin; Tunisia: ch'hilli) is a Mediterranean wind that comes from the Sahara and can reach hurricane speeds in North Africa and Southern Europe, especially during the summer season.
Sirte (سرت,; from Σύρτις), also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya.
Sirte District (or Sirt or Surt District; سرت Surt), is one of the districts of Libya.
Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Soft power is the ability to attract and co-opt, rather than by coercion (hard power), which is using force or giving money as a means of persuasion.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
Structural unemployment is a form of unemployment caused by a mismatch between the skills that workers in the economy can offer, and the skills demanded of workers by employers (also known as the skills gap).
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Sweet crude oil is a type of petroleum.
Tamasheq is a variety of the Tuareg languages.
Country Code: +218 International Call Prefix: 00 Trunk Prefix.
Television in Libya has a penetration estimated at 76% for 2011.
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.
Total S.A. is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the seven "Supermajor" oil companies in the world.
The Toubou, or Tubu (from Old Tebu, meaning "rock people"), are an ethnic group inhabiting northern Chad, southern Libya, northeastern Niger and northwestern Sudan.
The Toyota War (Ḥarb Tūyūtā) is the name commonly given to the last phase of the Chadian–Libyan conflict, which took place in 1987 in Northern Chad and on the Libyan–Chadian border.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
The Treaty of Peace with Italy (one of the Paris Peace Treaties) was signed on 10 February 1947 between Italy and the victorious powers of World War II, formally ending hostilities.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tripoli District (طرابلس عروس البحر, Aros Al baher Ṭarābulus) is one of the 22 first level subdivisions (''بلدية'') of Libya.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
The Tripolitanian civil war was a conflict from 1793 to 1795 which occurred in what is today the country of Libya.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
The Tulunids, were a dynasty of Turkic origin and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Turks in Libya, also known as Libyan Turks and Turco-Libyans, (أتراك ليبيا; Turco-libici; Libya Türkleri) are the ethnic Turks who live in Libya.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United Nations Multilingual Terminology Database (UNTERM) is a linguistic tool which translates terminology and nomenclature used within the United Nations (UN) in the six official languages of the UN (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish).
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, is a measure that was adopted on 17 March 2011.
The United Nations Trusteeship Council (Le Conseil de tutelle des Nations unies), one of the principal organs of the United Nations, was established to help ensure that trust territories were administered in the best interests of their inhabitants and of international peace and security.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Libya (الجامعة الليبية) was a public university based in Tripoli and Benghazi, Libya.
ʿUqbah ibn Nāfiʿ (عقبة بن نافع, also referred to as Oqba ibn Nafi, Uqba bin Nafe, Uqba ibn al Nafia, or Akbah; 622–683) was an Arab general serving the Rashidun Caliphate since the Reign of Umar and later on the Umayyad Caliphate during the reigns of Muawiyah I and Yazid I, leading the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco.
Usban (or osban) (عصبان) is a traditional kind of sausage in Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, stuffed with a mixture of rice, herbs, lamb, chopped liver and heart.
The Vandal Kingdom (Regnum Vandalum) or Kingdom of the Vandals and Alans (Regnum Vandalorum et Alanorum) was a kingdom, established by the Germanic Vandals under Genseric, in North Africa and the Mediterranean from 435 AD to 534 AD.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Wadi al Hayaa (وادي الحياة Wādī al Ḥayāh) is one of the districts of Libya.
Wadi al Shati (وادي الشاطئ), sometimes referred to as Ashati (الشاطئ), is one of the districts of Libya in the central-west part of the country.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Westernization (US) or Westernisation (UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation (from the Occident, meaning the Western world; see "occident" in the dictionary), is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values.
Wintershall Holding GmbH, based in Kassel, is Germany's largest crude oil and natural gas producer.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yusuf (ibn Ali) Karamanli, Caramanli or Qaramanli or al-Qaramanli (most commonly Yusuf Karamanli), (1766 – 1838) was the best-known Pasha (reigned 1795-1832) of the Karamanli dynasty (1711–1835) of Tripolitania (in present-day Libya).
Zawiya (محافظة الزاوية Az Zāwiya) (officially Zawia) is one of the districts of Libya.
Zawiya (officially Zawia) (الزاوية, transliteration: Az Zāwiyaẗ), (variants: الزاوية الغربية Az Zawiyah Al Gharbiyah, Ḩārat az Zāwiyah, Al Ḩārah, El-Hára and Haraf Az Zāwīyah), is a city in northwestern Libya, situated on the Libyan coastline of the Mediterranean Sea about west of Tripoli, in the historic region of Tripolitania.
The Zirid dynasty (ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⴰ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵣⵉⵔⵉ Tagelda n Ayt Ziri, زيريون /ALA-LC: Zīryūn; Banu Ziri) was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya (eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.
.ly is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Libya.
The 1969 Libyan coup d'état, also known as the al-Fateh Revolution or the 1 September Revolution, was a military coup d'état in Libya carried out by the Free Officers Movement, a group of military officers led by Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, which led to the overthrow of King Idris I.
The 1986 United States bombing of Libya, code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, comprised air strikes by the United States against Libya on Tuesday, 15 April 1986.
On 5 April 1986, three people were killed and 229 injured when La Belle discothèque was bombed in the Friedenau district of West Berlin.
The 19th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 19 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 2012 Benghazi attack was a coordinated attack against two United States government facilities in Benghazi, Libya by members of the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Sharia.
The meridian 26° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 34th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 34 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 9° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma, Al-Jamahiriya al-`Arabiyah al-Libiyah ash-Sha`biyah al-Ishtirakiyah al-Uzma, Etymology of Libya, Free Democratic Libya, Free Libya, ISO 3166-1:LY, Islamic Republic of Libya, LBY, LIBYA, Largest cities in Libya, Libiya, Libiyah, Libya (National Transitional Council), Libyan Republic, Libyan Republic (2011), Lybya, Lībiyā, Republic of Libya, State of Libya, ليبيا, ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ.