255 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Africa, Africa Cup of Nations, Afrika Korps, AfroBasket 2009, Ajdabiya, Al Jazeera English, Al-Ahly SC (Benghazi), Al-Berka, Al-Fuwayhat, Al-Hadaa'iq, Al-Hawari, Al-Keesh, Al-Khadhraa, Al-Kwayfiya, Al-Magroon, Al-Magziha, Al-Nasr SC (Benghazi), Al-Nawagiya, Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, Al-Quwarsha, Al-Saahil al-Gharbi, Al-Sabri, Al-Salmani, Al-Thawra al-Shabiyah, Al-Uruba, Alexandria, Ancient Greece, Ansar al-Sharia (Libya), Anti-Gaddafi forces, Apollonia, Cyrenaica, Apostolic Vicariate of Benghazi, Arabian Gulf Oil Company, Arabs, Arcesilaus IV of Cyrene, Association football, Atiq Mosque (Benghazi), Attilio Teruzzi, Australia, Axis powers, Barca (ancient city), Basic People's Congress (country subdivision), Battiadae, Bayda, Libya, BBC News, Benetton Group, Benghazi al-Jadida, Benghazi Cathedral, Benghazi Municipal Hall, Benina, ..., Benina International Airport, Benito Mussolini, Berbers, Berenice, Berenice II of Egypt, Bernard Montgomery, Bu Atni, Bu-Fakhra, Bubonic plague, Business Insider, Canyon, Catholic Church, Cement, Central Bank of Libya, Chalet, Chariot, Christianity, Clay, Combeforce, Condominium, Constantinople, Construction, Convenience food, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Copts, Crete, Cyrenaica, Cyrenaica Emirate, Cyrene, Libya, Der Spiegel, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Diocese, Districts of Libya, Earthworks (engineering), Eastern European Time, Egypt, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), England, Ephor, Ernesto Mombelli, Erwin Rommel, First Battle of Benghazi, First Council of Nicaea, Flag of Libya, Free-trade area, French Air Force, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Garyounis, Gimeenis, Great Man-Made River, Greece, Greeks, Gulf of Sirte, Gylippus, H&M, Haaretz, Hay al-Mukhtar, Herodotus, Hesperides, History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi, History of the Jews in Libya, HIV trial in Libya, House of Representatives (Libya), Huda Ben Amer, Idris of Libya, International School Benghazi, Islam, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Libya, Italian language, Italian Libya Railways, Italian settlers in Libya, Italianate architecture, Italians, Italo Balbo, Italy, J. Christopher Stevens, Jarrutha, Jebel Akhdar, Libya, Jinsafut, Judo, Karamanli dynasty, Karkoora, Köppen climate classification, Khalifa Haftar, Kingdom of Libya, Kufra, Libya, Libyan Airlines, Libyan Arabic, Libyan Army (1951–2011), Libyan Civil War (2011), Libyan Civil War (2014–present), Libyan International Medical University, Libyan local elections, 2012, Libyan National Army, Libyan Premier League, List of cities in Libya, London, Lonely Planet, Madinat Benghazi, Magas of Cyrene, Maghreb, Maliki, Maquis shrubland, March 28 Stadium, Marj, Marsh, Medina quarter, Mediterranean Sea, Melbourne, Minibus, Misrata, Modernism, Moorish Revival architecture, Muammar Gaddafi, Mustafa Abdul Jalil, National Library of Libya, National Oil Corporation, National Transitional Council, Nike, Inc., Ninth grade, Niqāb, Notes from Hell, Oasis, Omar Mukhtar, Operation Compass, Operation Crusader, Ottoman Empire, Overpass, Petroleum industry, Plateau, PLOS One, Pope Dionysius of Alexandria, Priest, Ptolemy III Euergetes, Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement, Pythian Games, Raas Abayda, Ring road, Ronald Reagan, Rugby sevens, Russian Railways, Saada Governorate, Sadeq Naihoum, Salafi movement, Sean Smith (diplomat), Seattle, Second Battle of Benghazi, Second Battle of El Alamein, Semi-arid climate, Senussi, Shabiyah, Shuhadaa al-Salawi, Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries, Sicily, Sidi Abayd, Sidi Hsayn, Sidi Khalifa, Libya, Silphium, Siltation, Sirocco, Sirte, Skanska, Souq, Sparta, Steppe, Suluq, Sunni Islam, Taekwondo, Textile, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Guardian, The Independent, The Jerusalem Post, The National (Abu Dhabi), The New York Times, Thucydides, Tibesti Hotel, Titular see, TiVo Corporation, Tobruk, Tripoli, Tripolitania, Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt, United Kingdom, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, University of Benghazi, University of Libya, University of Washington Press, Urban sprawl, Victoria (Australia), Virginia Tech, Voice of Free Libya, Washington (state), Winnipeg Free Press, World War II, Zawiya, Libya, Zintan, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1982 African Cup of Nations, 1986 United States bombing of Libya, 1986 West Berlin discotheque bombing, 2012 Benghazi attack. Expand index (205 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Total Africa Cup of Nations, officially CAN (Coupe d'Afrique des Nations), also referred to as African Cup of Nations, or AFCON, is the main international association football competition in Africa.
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
AfroBasket 2009 was the 25th FIBA Africa Championship, played under the auspices of the Fédération Internationale de Basketball, the basketball sport governing body, and the African zone thereof.
Ajdabiya (أجدابيا, Agedábia), previously known as Agedabia or Ajdabya, is a town in and capital of the Al Wahat District in northeastern Libya.
Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
Al-Ahly Sports Cultural & Social Club known as Al-Ahly is a Libyan Sports club based in Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Berka (Arabic:البركة) is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Fuwayhat is one of the affluent residential districts of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Hadaa'iq is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Hawari is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Keesh is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Khadhraa is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Kwayfiya is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Magroon is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Magziha is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Nasr Sports, Cultural, and Social Club is a Libyan football club based in Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Nawagiya is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (lit or, Tanẓīm Qā‘idat al-Jihād fī Jazīrat al-‘Arab, "Organization of Jihad's Base in the Arabian Peninsula"), or AQAP, also known as Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen (جماعة أنصار الشريعة, Jamā‘at Anṣār ash-Sharī‘ah, "Group of the Helpers of the Sharia"), is a militant Islamist organization, primarily active in Yemen and Saudi Arabia.
Al-Quwarsha is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Saahil al-Gharbi is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Sabri is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Salmani is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Thawra al-Shabiyah is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Al-Uruba is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ansar al-Sharia in Libya (ASL, أنصار الشريعة بليبيا, English: Supporters of Islamic Law) was a Salafist Islamist militia group that advocated the implementation of strict Sharia law across Libya.
The anti-Gaddafi forces were Libyan groups that opposed and militarily defeated the government of Muammar Gaddafi, killing him in the process.
Apollonia (Ἀπολλωνία) in Cyrenaica (modern Libya) was founded by Greek colonists and became a significant commercial centre in the southern Mediterranean.
The Apostolic Vicariate of Benghazi (Vicariatus Apostolicus Berenicensis) is a Roman Catholic apostolic vicariate (missionary pre-diocesan jurisdiction) in Libya.
The Arabian Gulf Oil Company (Agoco; شركة الخليج العربي للنفط) is an oil company based in Benghazi, Libya, engaged in crude oil and natural gas exploration, production and refining.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arcesilaus IV of Cyrene (Ἀρκεσίλαος, flourished 5th century BC) was the eighth King of Cyrene and last king of the Battiad dynasty.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Atiq Mosque in Benghazi, Libya, is one of the oldest and best known in the city.
Attilio Teruzzi (5 May 1882 – 26 April 1950) was an Italian soldier, colonial administrator, and Fascist politician.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Barca, also called Barce) (Βάρκη, برقة, Berber: Berqa) is an Ancient city and former bishopric, which survives in both Latin Catholic and Orthodox titular see.
Basic People's Congress مؤتمر شعبي أساسي (Mu'tamar shaʿbi asāsi) was the smallest administrative subdivision in Libya under the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2012.
In ancient Greek history, the Battiadae (Βαττιάδαι) are descendants of Battus, the founder of Cyrene, who became the ruling dynasty of Cyrenaica until 440 BC.
Bayda, or Elbeida (or; البيضاء) (also spelt az-Zāwiyat al-Bayḑā’, Zāwiyat al-Bayḑā’, Beida and El Beida; known as Beda Littoria under Italian colonial rule), is a commercial and industrial city in eastern Libya.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benetton Group S.r.l. (correct; often mispronounced or) is a global fashion brand based in Ponzano Veneto, Italy.
Benghazi al-Jadida or New benghazi is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Benghazi Cathedral is a former Roman Catholic church in the city of Benghazi, Libya.
Benghazi Municipal Hall or Benghazi Municipality is the former town hall of Benghazi, Libya.
Benina is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Benina International Airport (مطار بنينة الدولي) serves Benghazi, Libya.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Berenice (Βερενίκη, Bereníkē) is the Ancient Macedonian form of the Attic Greek name Φερενίκη (Pherenikē), which meant "bearer of victory".
Berenice II (267 or 266 BC – 221 BC) was a ruling queen of Cyrene by birth, and a queen and co-regent of Egypt by marriage to her cousin Ptolemy III Euergetes, the third ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
Bu Atni is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Bu-Fakhra is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
The Central Bank of Libya (CBL) is the monetary authority in Libya.
A chalet (pronounced in British English; in American English usually), also called Swiss chalet, is a type of building or house, typical of the Alpine region in Europe.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Combeforce or Combe Force (Lieutenant-Colonel J. F. B. Combe), was an ad hoc flying column formed from parts of the 7th Armoured Division (Major-General Sir Michael O'Moore Creagh) of the Western Desert Force.
A condominium, often shortened to condo, is a type of real estate divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas jointly owned.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is food that is commercially prepared (often through processing) to optimise ease of consumption.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
The Emirate of Cyrenaica, or "Principality of Cyrenaica", came into existence when Sayyid Idris unilaterally proclaimed Cyrenaica an independent Senussi emirate on 1 March 1949, backed by the United Kingdom.
Cyrene (translit) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The Deutscher Wetterdienst or DWD for short, is the German Meteorological Office, based in Offenbach am Main, Germany, which monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany and provides weather services for the general public and for nautical, aviational or agricultural purposes.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
There are twenty-two districts of Libya, known by the term shabiyah (Arabic singular شعبية šaʿbiyya, plural šaʿbiyyāt).
Earthworks are engineering works created through the processing of parts of the earth's surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The ephors were leaders of ancient Sparta and shared power with the two Spartan kings.
Ernesto Mombelli (1867–1932) was an Italian general.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
The First Battle of Benghazi occurred as part of the Libyan Civil War between army units and militiamen loyal to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and anti-Gaddafi forces in February 2011.
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
The flag of Libya was originally introduced in 1951, following the creation of the Kingdom of Libya.
A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).
The French Air Force (Armée de l'Air Française), literally Aerial Army) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1934. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 241 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 133 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA).
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Garyounis is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Gimeenis is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
The Great Man-Made River (GMR, النهر الصناعي العظيم) is a network of pipes that supplies water to the Sahara in Libya, from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System fossil aquifer.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gulf of Sirte (خليج سرت, Khalij Surt), or Gulf of Sidra (خليج السدرة, Khalij as-Sidra) after the port of Sidra, is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the northern coast of Libya.
Gylippus (Γύλιππος) was a Spartan general of the 5th century BC; he was the son of Cleandridas, who was the adviser of King Pleistoanax and had been expelled from Sparta for accepting Athenian bribes in 446 BC and fled to Thurii, a pan-Hellenic colony then being founded in the instep of Italy with Athenian help and participation. His mother may have been a helot, which meant he was not a true Spartiate but a mothax, a man of inferior status. Despite this, however, from an early childhood he was trained for war in the traditional Spartan fashion and on reaching maturity had been elected to a military mess, his dues contributed by a wealthier Spartiate patron. For an individual of marginal origins, war was an opportunity to gain honor and eminence. When Alcibiades urged the Spartans to send a general to lead the Syracusan resistance against the Athenian expedition, Gylippus was appointed (414 BC), and his arrival was a turning point of the struggle. More daring than Nicias, the Athenian commander he faced, he was able to gain an upper hand by driving the Athenians from key strategic locations and essentially breaking the siege. When Athens sent Demosthenes with reinforcements, he too was defeated by Gylippus, which ultimately led to the downfall of the Athenian campaign in Syracuse. Diodorus, probably following Timaeus, represents him as inducing the Syracusans to pass sentence of death on the captive Athenian generals, but there is also the statement of Philistus (Plutarch, Nicias, 28), a Syracusan who himself took part in the defence, and Thucydides (vii. 86), that he tried, though without success, to save their lives, wishing to take them to Sparta as a signal proof of his success. Gylippus, like his father, met his downfall in a financial scandal; entrusted by Lysander with a treasure of silver coins for delivery to the ephors at Sparta, he could not resist the temptation to embezzle part of the shipment. Upon discovery of this theft, Gylippus fled Sparta and went into exile. He was condemned to death in absentia and disappears from historical records.
Hennes & Mauritz AB (H&M) is a Swedish multinational clothing-retail company known for its fast-fashion clothing for men, women, teenagers and children.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Hay al-Mukhtar is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
In Greek mythology, the Hesperides (Ἑσπερίδες) are the nymphs of evening and golden light of sunset, who were the "Daughters of the Evening" or "Nymphs of the West".
Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état.
The history of the Jews in Libya stretches back to the 3rd century BCE, when Cyrenaica was under Greek rule.
The HIV trial in Libya (or Bulgarian nurses affair) concerns the trials, appeals and eventual release of six foreign medical workers charged with conspiring to deliberately infect over 400 children with HIV in 1998, causing an epidemic at El-Fatih Children's Hospital in Benghazi, Libya.
The House of Representatives (HoR) (translation, Camera dei rappresentanti libica) is the legislature of Libya.
Huda Ben Amer (in Arabic هدى بن عامر) is a former Libyan politician.
Idris, GBE (إدريس الأول; El Sayyid Prince Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi; 12 March 1889 – 25 May 1983), was a Libyan political and religious leader who served as the Emir of Cyrenaica and then as the King of Libya from 1951 to 1969.
International School Benghazi (ISB, المدرسة الدولیة بنغازی) is an international school in Benghazi, Libya, about from the city centre.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant is a militant Islamist group active in Libya under three branches: Fezzan Province (ولاية الفزان, Wilayah al-Fizan) in the desert south, Cyrenaica Province (ولاية البرقة, Wilayah al-Barqah) in the east, and Tripolitania Province (ولاية الطرابلس, Wilayah al-Tarabulus) in the west.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian Libya Railways was a group of small railways built in the Italian colony of Libya between the two World Wars.
Italian settlers in Libya (Italo-libici, also called Italian Libyans) typically refers to Italians, and their descendants, who resided or were born in Italian Libya, in the colonial period preceding independent Libya.
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Italo Balbo (Ferrara, 6 June 1896 – Tobruk, 28 June 1940) was an Italian Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) leader who served as Italy's Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria), Governor-General of Libya, Commander-in-Chief of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI), and the "heir apparent" to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
John Christopher Stevens (April 18, 1960 – September 11, 2012) was an American career diplomat and lawyer who served as the U.S. Ambassador to Libya from May 22, 2012 to September 11, 2012.
Jarrutha is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
The Jebel Akhdar (الجبل الأخضر, The Green Mountain) is a heavily forested, fertile upland area in northeastern Libya.
Jinsafut (جينصافوط) is a Palestinian village in the Qalqilya Governorate in the northeastern West Bank, located fifteen kilometers east of Qalqilya, Land Research Center (LRC) & The Applied Research Institute-Jerusalem (ARIJ).
was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).
The Karamanli, Caramanli, Qaramanli, or al-Qaramanli dynasty was an early modern dynasty, independent or quasi-independent, which ruled from 1711 to 1835 in Tripolitania.
Karkoora is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Field Marshal Khalifa Belqasim Haftar (خليفة بلقاسم حفتر; born c. 1943) is a Libyan military officer and the head of the Libyan National Army, currently engaged in the Second Libyan Civil War.
The Kingdom of Libya (المملكة الليبية; Libyan Kingdom; Regno di Libia), originally called the United Kingdom of Libya, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic.
Kufra is a basinBertarelli (1929), p. 514.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Libyan Airlines (الخطوط الجوية الليبية; transliterated: al-Khutut al-Jawiyah al-Libiyah), formerly known as Libyan Arab Airlines over several decades, is the flag carrier of Libya.
Libyan Arabic (ليبي Lībī; also known as Sulaimitian Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in Libya and neighboring countries.
The Libyan Army was the branch of the Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, the Libyan Arab Republic and the Libyan Kingdom responsible for ground warfare.
The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
The second Libyan Civil War is an ongoing conflict among rival factions seeking control of the territory and oil of Libya.
The Libyan International Medical University (Arabic: الجامعة الليبية الدولية للعلوم الطبية) is a private university established in Benghazi, Libya, with the purpose of teaching medicine.
Local elections were held in several municipalities in Libya during 2012.
The Libyan National Army is the national armed force of Libya, comprising the ground forces, the air force and the navy.
The Libyan Premier League (الدوري الليبي الممتاز) is the highest division of the Libyan football league pyramid, organized by Libyan Football Federation.
This is a list of the 100 largest populated places in Libya.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Madinat Benghazi is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Magas of Cyrene (Μάγας ὁ Κυρηναῖος; born before 317 BC – 250 BC, ruled 276 BC – 250 BC) was a Greek Macedonian nobleman and King of Cyrenaica.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
Low Maquis in Corsica High ''macchia'' in Sardinia Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian: macchia mediterranea) is a shrubland biome in the Mediterranean region, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs.
March 28 Stadium (ملعب 28 مارس) is a multi-purpose stadium in Benghazi, Libya.
Marj (المرج, The Meadows), also spelt El Merj, generally believed to be on the site of the ancient city of Barca or Barce, is a city in northeastern Libya and the administrative seat of the Marj District.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
A medina quarter (المدينة القديمة "the old city") is a distinct city section found in a number of North African and Maltese cities.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus.
Misurata (مصراته, Misurata, ⵎⵉⵙⵓⵔⴰⵜⴰ) is a city in the Misrata District in northwestern Libya, situated to the east of Tripoli and west of Benghazi on the Mediterranean coast near Cape Misurata.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Moorish Revival or Neo-Moorish is one of the exotic revival architectural styles that were adopted by architects of Europe and the Americas in the wake of the Romanticist fascination with all things oriental.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Mustafa Abdul Jalil (مصطفى عبد الجليل, also transcribed Abdul-Jelil, Abd-al-Jalil, Abdel-Jalil, Abdeljalil or Abdu Al Jeleil) (born 1952) is a Libyan politician who was the Chairman of the National Transitional Council from 5 March 2011 until its dissolution on 8 August 2012.
The National Library of Libya (دار الكتب الوطنية) is the national library of Libya, located in Benghazi.
The National Oil Corporation (NOC; المؤسسة الوطنية للنفط) is the national oil company of Libya.
The National Transitional Council of Libya (المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi.
Nike, Inc. is an American multinational corporation that is engaged in the design, development, manufacturing, and worldwide marketing and sales of footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories, and services.
Ninth grade, freshman year, or grade 9 is the ninth post-kindergarten year of school education in some school systems.
A niqab or niqāb (نِقاب, " veil"; also called a ruband) is a garment of clothing that covers the face which is worn by a small minority of Muslim women as a part of a particular interpretation of hijab ("modesty").
Notes from Hell (Bulgarian: "Записки от ада") is a biographical novel, written by Nikolay Yordanov and Valya Cherveniashka about her life in several Libyan prisons during the HIV trial in Libya.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
‘Omar al-Mukhṫār Muḥammad bin Farḥāṫ al-Manifī (عُمَرْ الْمُخْتَارْ مُحَمَّدْ بِنْ فَرْحَاتْ الْمَنِفِي; 20 August 1858 – 16 September 1931), called The Lion of the Desert, known among the colonial Italians as Matari of the Mnifa, was the leader of native resistance in Eastern Libya under the Senussids, against the Italian colonization of Libya.
Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War.
Operation Crusader was a military operation during the Second World War by the British Eighth Army against the Axis forces in North Africa between 18 November and 30 December 1941.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
An overpass (called a flyover in the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries) is a bridge, road, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Saint Dionysius of Alexandria, named "the Great," 14th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark from 28 December 248 until his death on 22 March 264, after seventeen years as a bishop.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Ptolemy III Euergetes (Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs "Ptolemy the Benefactor"; 284–222 BC) was the third king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt from 246 to 222 BCE.
The Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement (الحركة العامة للكشافة والمرشدات) is the national Scouting organization of Libya.
The Pythian Games (Πύθια; also Delphic Games) were one of the four Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece.
Raas Abayda is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rugby sevens (commonly known simply as sevens), and originally known as Seven-a-side rugby is a variant of rugby union in which teams are made up of seven players playing seven minute halves, instead of the usual 15 players playing 40 minute halves.
JSC Russian Railways (JSC RZhD; ОАО «Российские железные дороги» (ОАО «РЖД») tr. OAO Rossiyskie zheleznye dorogi (OAO RZhD)) is a Russian fully state-owned vertically integrated company, both managing infrastructure and operating freight and passenger train services.
Saada (صعدة) is one of the governorates of Yemen.
Sadeq Al Naihoum (1937 – 15 November 1994) (الصادق النيهوم) was a prominent Libyan writer and journalist.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Sean Patrick Smith (June 1, 1978 – September 11, 2012) was an information management officer with the United States Foreign Service who was killed during the September 11, 2012 attack on the U.S. consulate in Benghazi, Libya.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
The Second Battle of Benghazi was a battle in the Libyan Civil War between army units and militiamen loyal to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, and anti-Gaddafi forces.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
The Senussi, or Sanussi (السنوسية), are a Muslim political-religious tariqa (Sufi order) and clan in colonial Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi (السنوسي الكبير), the Algerian Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi.
Shabiyah (plural: Shabiyat, شعبيات) is an administrative division of Libya.
Shuhadaa al-Salawi was a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
The Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries (مجلس شورى ثوار بنغازي, Majlis Shura Thuwar Benghazi) is a military coalition in Benghazi composed of Islamist and jihadist militias, including Ansar al-Sharia, Libya Shield 1, and several other groups.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Sidi Abayd is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Sidi Hsayn is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Sidi Khalifa is a Basic People's Congress administrative division of Benghazi, Libya.
Silphium (also known as silphion, laserwort, or laser) was a plant that was used in classical antiquity as a seasoning and as a medicine.
Siltation or siltification is the pollution of water by particulate terrestrial clastic material, with a particle size dominated by silt or clay.
Sirocco, scirocco,, jugo or, rarely, siroc (Xaloc; Sciroccu; Σορόκος; Siroco; Siròc, Eisseròc; Jugo, literally southerly; Libyan Arabic: Ghibli; Egypt: khamsin; Tunisia: ch'hilli) is a Mediterranean wind that comes from the Sahara and can reach hurricane speeds in North Africa and Southern Europe, especially during the summer season.
Sirte (سرت,; from Σύρτις), also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya.
Skanska AB is a multinational construction and development company based in Sweden.
A souq or souk (سوق, שוק shuq, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities (ሱቅ sooq).
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Suluq (سلوق) is a town in the Benghazi District of the Cyrenaica region in northeastern Libya.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
The Tibesti Hotel is a hotel situated overlooking the harbour of the 23rd July Lake in the city centre of Benghazi, Libya.
A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese".
TiVo Corporation (formerly Rovi Corporation and Macrovision Solutions Corporation) is an American technology company.
Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVII, alternatively 27th Dynasty or Dynasty 27), also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC to 404 BC.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, is a measure that was adopted on 17 March 2011.
University of Benghazi (جامعة بنغازي), formerly known as Garyounis University, is a public university in Benghazi, Libya and one of the most important institutes of higher education in Libya.
The University of Libya (الجامعة الليبية) was a public university based in Tripoli and Benghazi, Libya.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, commonly known as Virginia Tech, and traditionally known as VPI since 1896, is an American public, land-grant, research university with a main campus in Blacksburg, Virginia, educational facilities in six regions statewide, and a study-abroad site in Lugano, Switzerland.
Voice of Free Libya (Arabic: صوت ليبيا الحرة Sawt Libya al-Hurra) is the name used by three radio stations aligned to the anti-Gaddafi forces that began broadcasting in February 2011, operating from the cities of Benghazi, Bayda and Misrata.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
The Winnipeg Free Press is a daily (excluding Sunday) broadsheet newspaper in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zawiya (officially Zawia) (الزاوية, transliteration: Az Zāwiyaẗ), (variants: الزاوية الغربية Az Zawiyah Al Gharbiyah, Ḩārat az Zāwiyah, Al Ḩārah, El-Hára and Haraf Az Zāwīyah), is a city in northwestern Libya, situated on the Libyan coastline of the Mediterranean Sea about west of Tripoli, in the historic region of Tripolitania.
Zintan (الزنتان, Amazigh: Tigharmin, meaning "small castles") is one of the biggest cities in north western Libya, situated roughly southwest of Tripoli, in the area.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1982 African Cup of Nations was the 13th edition of the Africa Cup of Nations, the association football championship of African nations run by the CAF.
The 1986 United States bombing of Libya, code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, comprised air strikes by the United States against Libya on Tuesday, 15 April 1986.
On 5 April 1986, three people were killed and 229 injured when La Belle discothèque was bombed in the Friedenau district of West Berlin.
The 2012 Benghazi attack was a coordinated attack against two United States government facilities in Benghazi, Libya by members of the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Sharia.
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