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Quechuan languages

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Quechuan, also known as runa simi ("people's language"), is a Native American language family spoken primarily in the Andes region of South America, derived from a common ancestral language. [1]

189 relations: Abessive case, Ablative case, Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, Accusative case, Adjective, Adverb, Affix, Agglutinative language, Alfredo Torero, Allative case, Altitude sickness, Alveolar consonant, Ancash Quechua, Ancash Region, Andes, Apocope, Approximant consonant, Apurímac Region, Arabic, Argentina, Aspirated consonant, Atahualpa, Ayacucho, Ayacucho Quechua, Aymara language, Aymaran languages, Benefactive case, Bolivia, Cajamarca Quechua, Cajamarca–Cañaris Quechua, Cardinal number (linguistics), Catholic Church, Causative, Central consonant, Chachapoyas Quechua, Chile, Clusivity, Coca, Collectible card game, Colombia, Comitative case, Comparative case, Condor, Conversation, Cusco, Cusco Quechua, Cusco Region, Dative case, Decathlon Group, Demonstrative, ..., Dialect continuum, División del Norte, Domingo de Santo Tomás, Ecuador, Ejective consonant, English language, Evidentiality, Fricative consonant, Fusional language, Garcilaso de la Vega (chronicler), Gaucho, Genitive case, Germanic languages, Glottal consonant, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammatical person, Greedo, Guano, Han Solo, Huancavelica, Huancayo, Huarochirí Manuscript, Huarochirí Province, Huayna Picchu, Huánuco Quechua, Inca Empire, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Inga Kichwa, Instrumental case, Intercultural bilingual education, Intrative case, Isolating language, Jerky, Johnny Payne, Juan de Espinosa Medrano, Juan Velasco Alvarado, Kichwa language, Kukuli, Labial consonant, Lagniappe, Lamas Quechua, Lambayeque Quechua, Language family, Lateral consonant, Latin script, List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas, List of pre-Columbian cultures, List of The Adventures of Tintin characters, Llama, Loanword, Locative case, Los Kjarkas, Lowland Peruvian Quechua, Mapuche language, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Nazca Lines, Nominative case, North Bolivian Quechua, Noun, Object (grammar), Ogg, Ollantay, Orthography, Oto-Manguean languages, Oxford University Press, Pacaraos Quechua, Palatal consonant, Pancho Villa, Paterson, New Jersey, Pedro Cieza de León, Perlative case, Peru, Phoneme, Pluperfect, Postalveolar consonant, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Prisoners of the Sun, Professor Calculus, Pronoun, Puma (genus), Puno, Puno Quechua, Quechua (brand), Quechua people, Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift, Quechuan languages, Quechumaran languages, Queens, Quinine, Quinoa, Radio Nacional del Perú, Rhotic consonant, Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino, Romance languages, Santiago del Estero, Santiagueño Quechua, Savia Andina, Slavic languages, South Bolivian Quechua, Southern Quechua, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, Spanish language, Spoken language, Star Wars (film), Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Subject–object–verb, Suffix, Túpac Amaru II, Terminative case, The Adventures of Tintin, The Emperor's New School, The Sentinel (TV series), The Seven Crystal Balls, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, Third Council of Lima, Topic and comment, University of California Press, University of St Andrews, University of Texas at Austin, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Vicuña, Voiceless bilabial stop, Walter de Gruyter, Wanka Quechua, Willem Adelaar, Wur, Yaru Quechua, Yauyos–Chincha Quechua, Yu-Gi-Oh!, Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's. Expand index (139 more) »

In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated or), caritive and privative (abbreviated) is the grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun.

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In grammar, ablative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case (a type of noun inflection) in various languages that is used generally to express motion away from something, although the precise meaning may vary by language.

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The Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua (Spanish; English: Highest Academy of the Quechua Language, Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur) QSHKS or AMLQ in Cusco is a private institution, founded in 1990, concerned with the 'purity' of the Quechua language.

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The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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In linguistics, an adjective is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.

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An affix (in modern sense) is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word.

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An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination: words may contain different morphemes to determine their meaning, but each of these morphemes (including stems and affixes) remains in every aspect unchanged after their union, thus resulting in generally easier deducible word meanings if compared to fusional languages, which allow modifications in the phonetics and/or spelling of one or more morphemes within a word, generally for shortening the word on behalf of an easier pronunciation.

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Alfredo Augusto Torero Fernández de Córdova (* September 10, 1930 in Huacho, Lima Region, Peru, † June 19, 2004 in Valencia) was a Peruvian anthropologist and linguist.

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Allative case (abbreviated; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of the locative cases used in several languages.

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Altitude sickness—also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), altitude illness, hypobaropathy, "the altitude bends", or soroche—is a pathological effect of high altitude on humans, caused by acute exposure to low partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude.

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Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Ancash Quechua, or Huaylay, is a Quechua variety with a number of dialects, spoken in the department of Ancash by approximately 1,000,000 people.

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Ancash is a region of northern Peru.

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The Andes is the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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In phonology, apocope is the loss of one or more sounds from the end of a word, and especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.

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Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Apurímac is a region in southern-central Peru.

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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.

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In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Atahualpa, also Atahuallpa, Atabalipa (in hispanicized spellings) or Atawallpa (Quechua) (c.1500–26 July 1533) was the last Sapa Inca (sovereign emperor) of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) before the Spanish conquest.

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Ayacucho (Ayacuchu), also known as Huamanga, is the capital city of Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Region, Peru.

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Ayacucho (also called Chanca or Chanka) is a dialect of the Southern Quechua language, spoken in the Ayacucho region of Peru, as well as by immigrants from Ayacucho in Lima.

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Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.

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Aymaran (also Jaqi, Aru, Jaqui, Aimara, Haki) is one of the two dominant language families of the central Andes, along with Quechuan.

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The benefactive case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used where English would use "for", "for the benefit of", or "intended for", e.g. "She opened the door for Tom" or "This book is for Bob".

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Bolivia (Buliwya; Wuliwya; Volívia), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Cajamarca Quechua is a variety of Quechua spoken in the districts of Chetilla, Baños del Inca and Cajamarca (Porcón) in the Peruvian province of Cajamarca.

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Cajamarca–Cañaris Quechua (locally called Kichwa or Runashimi, like other Quechua varieties) is a branch of Quechua spoken in northern Peru, consisting primarily of Cajamarca Quechua (Kashamarka, Linwa), and Lambayeque Quechua (Ferreñafe, Inkawasi-Kañaris Quechua), near the towns of Cajamarca and Cañaris in the Cajamarca and Lambayeque regions.

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In linguistics, more precisely in traditional grammar, a cardinal number or cardinal numeral (or just cardinal) is a part of speech used to count, such as the English words one, two, three, but also compounds, e.g. three hundred forty-two (American English) or three hundred and forty-two (Commonwealth English).

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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).

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A central consonant is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.

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Chachapoyas or Amazonas Quechua is a variety of Quechua spoken in the provinces of Chachapoyas and Luya in the Peruvian region of Amazonas.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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In linguistics, clusivity is a grammatical distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person pronouns and verbal morphology, also called inclusive "we" and exclusive "we".

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Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.

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A collectible card game (CCG), also called a trading card game (TCG) or customizable card game, is a kind of card game that first emerged in 1993 and consists of specially designed sets of playing cards.

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti.

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The comitative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case that denotes accompaniment.

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The comparative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case used in the Mari language to mark a likeness to something.

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Condor is the common name for two species of New World vultures, each in a monotypic genus.

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Conversation is a form of interactive, spontaneous communication between two or more people.

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Cusco, often spelled Cuzco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.

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Cusco Quechua is a dialect of the Southern Quechua language, spoken in city and the department of Cusco.

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Cusco (Qosqo suyu, also spelled Cuzco) is a region in Peru.

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The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria gave Jakob a drink".

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Decathlon is one of the world's largest sporting goods retailers.

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Demonstratives are words like this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

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A dialect continuum or dialect area was defined by Leonard Bloomfield as a range of dialects spoken across some geographical area that differ only slightly between neighboring areas, but as one travels in any direction, these differences accumulate in such a way that speakers from opposite ends of the continuum are no longer mutually intelligible.

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The División del Norte was an armed faction formed by Francisco I. Madero and initially led by General José González Salas following Madero's call to arms at the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910.

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Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás, O.P. (1499 – 28 February 1570) was a Spanish Dominican missionary and grammarian in the Viceroyalty of Peru.

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Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.

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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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In linguistics, evidentiality is, broadly, the indication of the nature of evidence for a given statement; that is, whether evidence exists for the statement and/or what kind of evidence exists.

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Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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A fusional language is a type of synthetic language, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to overlay many morphemes to denote grammatical, syntactic, or semantic change.

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Garcilaso de la Vega (12 April 1539 – 23 April 1616), born Gómez Suárez de Figueroa and known as El Inca or Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, was a chronicler and writer born in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.

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Gaucho or gaúcho is a resident of the South American pampas, Gran Chaco, or Patagonian grasslands, found mainly in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Southeastern Bolivia, Southern Brazil and Southern Chile.

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In grammar, genitive (abbreviated; also called the possessive case or second case) is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun.

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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.

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Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Case is a grammatical category whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by a noun or pronoun in a phrase, clause, or sentence.

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In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).

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In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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In grammar the term particle has two different meanings.

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Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker, the addressee, and others.

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Greedo is a fictional character from the Star Wars universe.

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Guano (via Spanish, ultimately from the Quechua wanu) is the excrement of seabirds, cave-dwelling bats, pinnipeds, or (in English usage) birds in general.

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Han Solo is a character in the original trilogy and sequel trilogy of the Star Wars universe.

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Huancavelica or Wankawilka in Quechua is a city in Peru.

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Huancayo (in Wanka Quechua: Wankayuq, '(place) with a (sacred) rock') is the capital of the Junín Region, in the central highlands of Peru.

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The Huarochirí manuscript (in modern Quechua spelling: Waruchiri) is a Quechua-language text from the late 16th century, describing myths, religious notions and traditions of the Indians of Huarochirí Province.

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Huarochirí Province (in hispanicized spelling) or Waruchiri is located in the Lima Region of Peru.

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Huayna Picchu, Wayna Picchu (hispanicized spellings) or Wayna Pikchu (Quechua wayna young, young man, pikchu pyramid, mountain or prominence with a broad base which ends in sharp peaks, "young peak") is a mountain in Peru around which the Urubamba River bends.

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Huánuco Quechua is a dialect cluster of Quechua, spoken in the Peruvian province of Huánuco and neighboring areas.

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The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.

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Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull is a 2008 American science fiction adventure film.

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Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.

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The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, and their descendants. Pueblos indígenas (indigenous peoples) is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries. Aborigen (aboriginal/native) is used in Argentina, whereas "Amerindian" is used in Quebec and The Guianas but not commonly in other countries. Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which include First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. According to the prevailing New World migration model, migrations of humans from Asia (in particular North Asia) to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge which connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait. The majority of experts agree that the earliest migration via Beringia took place at least 13,500 years ago, with disputed evidence that people had migrated into the Americas much earlier, up to 40,000 years ago. These early Paleo-Indians spread throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living there since their genesis, described by a wide range of creation myths. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies. The Americas came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean sea. This led to the names "Indies" and "Indian", which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the aboriginal peoples of the Americas. This unifying concept, codified in law, religion, and politics, was not originally accepted by indigenous peoples but has been embraced by many over the last two centuries. Even though the term "Indian" often does not include the Aleuts, Inuit, or Yupik peoples, these groups are considered indigenous peoples of the Americas. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in Amazonia, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting, and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states, and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous Americans; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as Quechua, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages, and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many Indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western society, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Inga Kichwa is a dialect of Kichwa spoken in the Colombian Putumayo region by the Inga people.

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The instrumental case (abbreviated or; also called the eighth case) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.

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Intercultural bilingual education (IBE) or bilingual intercultural education (BIE)Nancy H. Hornberger and Serafin Coronel-Molina (2004): Quechua language shift, maintenance, and revitalization in the Andes: The case for language planning.

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The intrative case is a case that roughly expresses the notion of the English preposition "amidst".

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An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio.

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Jerky is lean meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage.

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Johnny Payne is dramatist, novelist, scholar, and has been a professor at the University of Texas at El Paso and Florida Atlantic University's Boca Raton campus.

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Juan de Espinosa Medrano (ca. 1629 – November 13, 1688), known as El Lunarejo (“The Spotty-Faced”), was a Peruvian cleric, preacher, author of philosophical and literary tracts, and playwright.

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Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado (June 16, 1910 – December 24, 1977) was a left-wing Peruvian General who ruled Peru from 1968 to 1975 under the title of "President of the Revolutionary Government".

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Kichwa (Kichwa shimi, Runashimi, also Spanish Quichua) is a Quechuan language which includes all Quechua varieties of Ecuador and Colombia (Inga), as well as extensions into Peru, and is spoken by a million people.

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Kukuli (Quechua for white-winged dove) is a 1961 Peruvian drama film directed by Luis Figueroa, Eulogio Nishiyama and Cesar Villanueva.

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Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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A lagniappe is a small gift given to a customer by a merchant at the time of a purchase (such as a 13th doughnut when buying a dozen), or more broadly, "something given or obtained gratuitously or by way of good measure." The word entered English from the Louisiana French adapting a Quechua word brought in to New Orleans by the Spanish Creoles.

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Lamas or San Martín Quechua (Lamista, Llakwash Runashimi) is a variety of Quechua spoken in the provinces of Lamas in the Peruvian region of San Martin and in some villages on the river Huallaga in the region of Ucayali.

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Inkawasi-Kañaris is a variety of Quechua spoken in the districts of Incahuasi and Cañaris, Ferreñafe in the Peruvian region of Lambayeque.

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A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family.

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A lateral is an L-like consonant, in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin script, or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.

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This is a list of English language word borrowed from indigenous languages of the Americas, either directly or through intermediate European languages such as Spanish or French.

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This list of pre-Columbian cultures includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas.

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This is the list of fictional characters in The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.

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The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since pre-Hispanic times.

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A loanword (or loan word or loan-word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation.

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Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.

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Los Kjarkas is a Bolivian band from the Capinota province in the department of Cochabamba, and one of the most popular Andean folk music bands in the country's history.

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Lowland Peruvian Quechua, or Chachapoyas–Lamas Quechua, is a Quechua language spoken in the lowlands of northern Peru.

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Mapudungun (from mapu 'earth, land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is a language isolate spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'earth' and che 'people').

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In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without intentional study or special effort.

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In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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The Nazca Lines are a series of ancient geoglyphs located in the Nazca Desert in southern Peru.

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The nominative case (abbreviated) is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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North Bolivian Quechua is a dialect of the Southern Quechua language, spoken in northern Bolivia on the Peruvian border, as well as by immigrants in Peru.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.

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Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Ollantay is a dramatic play, originally written in the Quechua language.

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An orthography is a set of conventions for how to write a language.

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Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several families of Native American languages.

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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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Pacaraos Quechua is a variety of Quechua spoken until the middle of the 20th century in the community of Pacaraos (Pacaraos District) in the Peruvian Lima Region in the Chancay valley up to 3000 m above sea level.

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Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Francisco (Pancho) Villa was named at birth José Doroteo Arango Arámbula (5 June 1878 – 20 July 1923); he became one of the best Mexican Revolutionary generals, and certainly its most famous.

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Paterson is the largest city in and the county seat of Passaic County, New Jersey, United States,, National Association of Counties.

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Pedro Cieza de León (Llerena, Spain c. 1520 – Seville, Spain 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and chronicler of Peru.

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Perlative case (abbreviated) "expresses that something moved 'through', 'across', or 'along' the referent of the noun that is marked." The case is found in a number of Australian Aboriginal languages for example Kuku-Yalanji, in Aymara, and in the extinct Tocharian languages.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw; Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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A phoneme is all the phones that share the same signifier for a particular language's phonology.

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The pluperfect is a type of verb form, traditionally treated as one of the tenses of certain languages, used in referring to something that occurred earlier than the time being considered, when the time being considered is already in the past.

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Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, further back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself, but not as far back as the hard palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants).

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In sociolinguistics, prestige is the level of respect normally accorded to a specific language or dialect within a particular speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.

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Prisoners of the Sun (Le Temple du Soleil) is the fourteenth volume of The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.

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Professor Cuthbert Calculus (Professeur Tryphon Tournesol, meaning "Professor Tryphon Sunflower"), is a fictional character in The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.

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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Puma is a member of Felidae that contains the cougar (also known as the puma, among other names) and the jaguarundi, and may also include several poorly known Old World fossil representatives (for example, Puma pardoides, or "Owen's panther," a large cougar-like cat of Eurasia's Pliocene).

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Puno is a city in southeastern Peru, located on the shore of Lake Titicaca.

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Puno Quechua, also known as Quechua Collao (Qollaw), is a dialect of the Southern Quechua language, spoken in southern Peru near Bolivia.

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Quechua is a mountain sports brand founded in 1997 in Domancy, France, producing hiking, trail running, adventure racing, climbing and mountaineering apparel and equipment and is sold in every store of Decathlon Group and sportswear shops.

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Quechuas (also Runakuna, Kichwas, and Ingas) is the collective term for several indigenous ethnic groups in South America who speak a Quechua language (Southern Quechua mainly), belonging to several ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Argentina.

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In recent years, the spelling of place names in Peru and Bolivia has been revised among Quechua and Aymara speakers.

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Quechuan, also known as runa simi ("people's language"), is a Native American language family spoken primarily in the Andes region of South America, derived from a common ancestral language.

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Quechumaran is a language-family proposal that unites Quechua and Aymara.

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Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City, geographically adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island.

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Quinine is a white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste.

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Quinoa (from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a species of the goosefoot genus (Chenopodium quinoa), a grain crop grown primarily for its edible seeds.

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Radio Nacional del Peru, is the first radio station in the country.

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In phonetics, rhotic consonants, also called tremulants or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.

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Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino (* February 10, 1940 in Huancayo, Peru) is a Peruvian linguist who has crucially contributed to the investigation and development of the Quechua language.

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The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Santiago del Estero (Spanish for Saint-James-Upon-The-Lagoon) is the capital of Santiago del Estero Province in northern Argentina.

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Santiago del Estero Quichua or Santiagueño Quechua (Santiagen Quichua) is a dialect of Southern Quechua spoken by 60,000 people (estimates vary widely) in Argentina.

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Savia Andina was one of the first groups to have international success with traditional Andean music.

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The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, much of the Balkans, parts of Central Europe, and the northern part of Asia.

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South Bolivian Quechua, also known as Central Bolivian Quechua, is a dialect of Southern Quechua spoken in Bolivia and adjacent areas of Argentina, where it is also known as Colla.

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Southern Quechua (quechua sureño), or simply Quechua, is the most widely spoken of the major regional groupings of mutually intelligible dialects within the Quechua language family, with about 6.9 million speakers.

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Colonial expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries.

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The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

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Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.

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Spoken language, is language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to written language.

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Star Wars (later retitled Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope)Lucas, George (writer/director).

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In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive, is an oral occlusive, a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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The subject (glossing abbreviations: or) is, according to a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle (and that is associated with phrase structure grammars), one of the two main constituents of a clause, the other constituent being the predicate, whereby the predicate says something about the subject.

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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear or usually appear in that order.

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In linguistics, a suffix (also sometimes termed postfix or ending or, in older literature, affix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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José Gabriel Túpac Amaru (March 19, 1738 – May 18, 1781) — known as Túpac Amaru II — was the leader of an indigenous uprising in 1780 against the Spanish in Peru.

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In morphology, the terminative case (abbreviated) is a case specifying a limit in space and time and also to convey the goal or target of an action.

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The Adventures of Tintin (Les Aventures de Tintin) is a series of comic albums created by Belgian cartoonist Georges Remi (1907–1983), who wrote under the pen name Hergé.

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The Emperor's New School is an American animated television series that aired on Disney Channel.

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The Sentinel is a Canadian-produced television series that aired on UPN in the United States from 1996 to 1999.

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The Seven Crystal Balls (Les Sept Boules de Cristal) is the thirteenth volume of The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.

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The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993.

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The Third Council of Lima was a council of the Roman Catholic Church in Lima, at the time the capital of the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.

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In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.

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University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

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The University of Texas at Austin, informally UT Austin, UT, University of Texas, or Texas in sports contexts, is a public research university and the flagship institution of The University of Texas System.

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Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.

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Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) or vicugna is one of two wild South American camelids which live in the high alpine areas of the Andes, the other being the guanaco.

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The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.

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Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.

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Wanka Quechua is a variety of the Quechua language, spoken in the southern part of Peruvian region of Junín by the Huancas.

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Willem F. H. Adelaar (born at The Hague in 1948) is a Dutch linguist specializing in Native American languages, specially those of the Andes.

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The Wur or Wara (also known as Wur or Wara Mamund | بڑو / وڑو مَاموند. | واړه / وړو مَاموند.), a division of Mamund (مَاموند. | ماموند.) clan - along with the Kakazai (also known as Loye Mamund (لو ئے / لوئی مَاموند | لوی ماموند) - are part of the larger Tarkani (تر کا ڼي / ترکلا ڼي / ترکا نڑي, Urdu, ترکانی / ترکلانی / ترکانڑی | English spelling variants: Tarkani, Tarkalani, Tarkanri) Pashtun tribe who are mainly settled in Bajaur Agency, Pakistan, but originally hailed from the Laghman province (لغمان) of Afghanistan. (a.k.a."Hidayat Afghani-Tareekh-e-Kakazai Tarkani" - (Originally Published May, 1933 in Urdu)"A Dictionary of the Pathan Tribes of the North West Frontier of India"published by The General Staff Army Headquarter, Calcutta, India - (Originally Published 1910):: Kakazai / Kakayzai Pathan Tribe is mentioned on Page 22 (under ‘K’ -Kakazai), Page 12 (under ‘D’ -Daulat Khel - A sub-division of Kakazai Pathans), Page 26 (under 'K' - Khulozai - A sub-division of Kakazai Pathans), Page 29 (under ‘M’ -Maghdud Khel,Mahsud Kheland Mahmud Khel - sub-divisions of Kakazai Pathans), Page 47 (under 'U' - Umar Khel - A sub-division of Kakazai Pathans) and Page 50 (under 'Y' - Yusaf Khel - A sub-division of Kakazai Pathans) Volume One published by Government Mono Type Press, Simla, India - (Originally Published 1907):: Kakazai / Kakayzai Pathan Tribe is mentioned between Page 515- 555-You can read these volumes online, thanks to Internet Archives though their market value is around $11000:: - pp 86-89 & 261-262 & 310-312 (in Pashto) They live in Umaray, Sewai, Damadola, Badan, Tani and Kamar villages of Tehsil Mamund, Bajaur Agency, Pakistan and also in Marawara and Shortan areas of Kunar Province, Afghanistan.

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Yaru Quechua is a dialect cluster of Quechua, spoken in the Peruvian province of Pasco and neighboring areas in northern Junín and Lima department.

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Yauyos–Chincha Quechua or Yauyos Quechua is a dialect cluster of Quechua, spoken in the Yauyos and Chincha districts of Peru.

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is a Japanese manga series about gaming written and illustrated by Kazuki Takahashi.

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is the second main spin-off anime series in the Yu-Gi-Oh! franchise.

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Redirects here:

Central Quechua, ISO 639:qu, ISO 639:que, ISO 639:qwe, Incan language, Kechua, Kechua language, Ketchwa, Northern Quechua, Qheswa, Qhichwa, Qichwa, Quecha, Quechoa, Quechua A, Quechua A language, Quechua B, Quechua B language, Quechua I, Quechua I languages, Quechua II, Quechua II languages, Quechua II-A, Quechua II-B, Quechua Language, Quechua dialects, Quechua language, Quechua languages, Quechuan, Quechuan (family), Quechuan language, Quichua language, Runa Simi, Runa-Simi language, Runashimi, Runasimi, Yungay Quechua, Yunkay Quechua.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quechuan_languages

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