200 relations: Abessive case, Ablative case, Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, Accusative case, Adjective, Adverb, Affix, Affricate consonant, Agglutinative language, Alfredo Torero, Allative case, Altitude sickness, Alto Pativilca–Alto Marañón–Alto Huallaga Quechua, Alveolar consonant, Ancash Quechua, Andes, Apocope, Approximant consonant, Apurímac Region, Arabic, Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America, Argentina, Aspirated consonant, Atahualpa, Ayacucho, Ayacucho Quechua, Aymara language, Aymaran languages, Áncash Region, Benefactive case, Bilabial consonant, Bolivia, Cajamarca Quechua, Cajamarca–Cañaris Quechua, Cardinal number (linguistics), Catholic Church, Causative, Central consonant, Chachapoyas Quechua, Chicha, Clusivity, Coca, Cockroach, Collectible card game, Colombia, Comentarios Reales de los Incas, Comitative case, Comparative case, Condor, Conversation, ..., Cusco, Cusco Quechua, Cusco Region, Da Vinci's Demons, Dative case, Decathlon Group, Demonstrative, Dialect continuum, División del Norte, Domingo de Santo Tomás, Ecuador, Ejective consonant, English language, Ethnologue, Evangelism, Evidentiality, Fricative consonant, Fusional language, Gaucho, Genitive case, Germanic languages, Glottal consonant, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammatical person, Greedo, Guano, Han Solo, Historical linguistics, Huancavelica, Huancayo, Huarochirí Manuscript, Huarochirí Province, Inca Empire, Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Inga Kichwa, Instrumental case, Intercultural bilingual education, Intrative case, ISO 639 macrolanguage, Isolating language, Jaqaru language, Jerky, Johnny Payne, Juan de Espinosa Medrano, Juan Velasco Alvarado, Kichwa language, Kukuli, Lagniappe, Lamas Quechua, Lambayeque Quechua, Language family, Lateral consonant, List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas, List of pre-Columbian cultures, Llama, Loanword, Locative case, Los Kjarkas, Mapuche language, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Nazca Lines, Nominative case, North Bolivian Quechua, Noun, Object (grammar), Ogg, Ollantay, Orthography, Oto-Manguean languages, Oxford University Press, Pacaraos Quechua, Palatal consonant, Pampas, Pancho Villa, Paterson, New Jersey, Pedro Cieza de León, Perlative case, Peru, Phoneme, Pluperfect, Poncho, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Prisoners of the Sun, Professor Calculus, Pronoun, Puma (genus), Puno, Puno Quechua, Quechua (brand), Quechua I, Quechua people, Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift, Quechuan languages, Quechumaran languages, Queens, Quinine, Quinoa, Radio Nacional del Perú, Rhotic consonant, Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino, Romance languages, Santiago del Estero, Santiagueño Quechua, Savia Andina, SIL International, Slavic languages, South America, South Bolivian Quechua, Southern Quechua, Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, Spanish language, Spoken language, Star Wars (film), Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Subject–object–verb, Suffix, Sumak Kawsay, Túpac Amaru II, Terminative case, The Adventures of Tintin, The Emperor's New School, The Sentinel (TV series), The Seven Crystal Balls, The Sparrow (novel), The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, Third Council of Lima, Topic and comment, Toponymy, United Nations Statistics Division, University of California Press, University of St Andrews, University of Texas at Austin, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Vicuña, Walter de Gruyter, Wanka Quechua, Willem Adelaar, Yaru Quechua, Yauyos–Chincha Quechua, Yu-Gi-Oh!, Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's. Expand index (150 more) » « Shrink index
In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated or), caritive and privative (abbreviated) is the grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun.
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The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
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Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua
The Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua (AMLQ, Highest Academy of the Quechua Language; Quechua: Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur) is a private institution in Cusco, founded in 1990, concerned with the "purity" of Quechua.
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The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
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In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
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An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
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In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
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An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
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An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
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Alfredo Augusto Torero Fernández de Córdova (September 10, 1930, Huacho, Lima Region, Peru – June 19, 2004, Valencia, Spain) was a Peruvian anthropologist and linguist.
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Allative case (abbreviated; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of locative case.
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Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), is a negative health effect of high altitude, caused by acute exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high altitude.
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Alto Pativilca–Alto Marañón–Alto Huallaga Quechua
Alto Pativilca–Alto Marañón–Alto Huallaga Quechua (abbreviated AP–AM–AH) is a dialect cluster of Quechua languages spoken in the Peruvian provinces of Huánuco, Lauricocha, Cajatambo and neighboring areas.
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Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
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Ancash Quechua, or Huaylay, is a Quechua variety, spoken in the department of Ancash by approximately 1,000,000 people.
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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
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In phonology, apocope is the loss (elision) of one or more sounds from the end of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
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Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
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Apurímac is a region in southern-central Peru.
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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
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Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America
The Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America (AILLA) is a digital repository housed in LLILAS Benson Latin American Studies and Collections at the University of Texas at Austin.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
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In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
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Atahualpa, also Atahuallpa, Atabalipa (in Hispanicized spellings) or Atawallpa (Quechua) (c. 1502–26 July 1533) was the last Inca Emperor.
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Ayacucho (Ayacuchu), is the capital city of Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Region, Peru.
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Ayacucho (also called Chanca or Chanka) is a variety of Southern Quechua spoken in the Ayacucho Region, Peru, as well as by immigrants from Ayacucho in Lima.
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Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
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Aymaran (also Jaqi, Aru, Jaqui, Aimara, Haki) is one of the two dominant language families of the central Andes, along with Quechuan.
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Ancash (Anqash) (Áncash) is a region of northern Peru.
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The benefactive case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used where English would use "for", "for the benefit of", or "intended for", e.g. "She opened the door for Tom" or "This book is for Bob".
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In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
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Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
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Cajamarca Quechua is a variety of Quechua spoken in the districts of Chetilla, Baños del Inca and Cajamarca (Porcón) in the Peruvian province of Cajamarca.
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Cajamarca–Cañaris Quechua (locally called Kichwa or Runashimi, like other Quechua varieties) is a branch of Quechua spoken in northern Peru, consisting primarily of Cajamarca Quechua (Kashamarka, also known as Linwa), and Lambayeque Quechua (also known as Ferreñafe, Inkawasi-Kañaris Quechua), near the towns of Cajamarca and Cañaris in the Cajamarca and Lambayeque regions.
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Cardinal number (linguistics)
In linguistics, more precisely in traditional grammar, a cardinal number or cardinal numeral (or just cardinal) is a part of speech used to count, such as the English words one, two, three, but also compounds, e.g. three hundred and forty-two (Commonwealth English) or three hundred forty-two (American English).
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
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In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
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A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
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Chachapoyas or Amazonas Quechua is a variety of Quechua spoken in the provinces of Chachapoyas and Luya in the Peruvian region of Amazonas.
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In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit.
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In linguistics, clusivity is a grammatical distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person pronouns and verbal morphology, also called inclusive "we" and exclusive "we".
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Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.
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Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
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Collectible card game
A collectible card game (CCG), also called a trading card game (TCG) or many other names, is a kind of strategy card game that was created in 1993 and consists of specially designed sets of playing cards.
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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
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Comentarios Reales de los Incas
The Comentarios Reales de los Incas is a book written by Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, the first published mestizo writer of colonial Andean South America.
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The comitative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case that denotes accompaniment.
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The comparative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case used in languages such as Mari and Chechen to mark a likeness to something.
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Condor is the common name for two species of New World vultures, each in a monotypic genus.
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Conversation is interactive communication between two or more people.
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Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
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Cusco Quechua (Qusqu qhichwa simi) is a dialect of Southern Quechua spoken in Cusco and the Cusco Region of Peru.
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Cusco, also spelled Cuzco (Qusqu suyu), is a region in Peru.
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Da Vinci's Demons
Da Vinci's Demons is a historical fantasy drama series that presents a fictional account of Leonardo da Vinci's early life.
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The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
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Decathlon S.A. is a French sporting goods retailer.
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Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
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A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
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División del Norte
The División del Norte was an armed faction formed by Francisco I. Madero and initially led by General José González Salas following Madero's call to arms at the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910.
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Domingo de Santo Tomás
Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás, O.P. (1499 – 28 February 1570) was a Spanish Dominican missionary, bishop, and grammarian in the Viceroyalty of Peru.
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Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
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In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
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In linguistics, evidentiality is, broadly, the indication of the nature of evidence for a given statement; that is, whether evidence exists for the statement and if so what kind.
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Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
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Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
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A gaucho or gaúcho is a skilled horseman, reputed to be brave and unruly.
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In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
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Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
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Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
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In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
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In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
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In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
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Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
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Greedo (or Greedo the Young) is a fictional character from the ''Star Wars'' franchise.
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Guano (from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.
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Han Solo is a fictional character in the ''Star Wars'' franchise.
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Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
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Huancavelica or Wankawilka in Quechua is a city in Peru.
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Huancayo (in Wanka Quechua: Wankayuq, '(place) with a (sacred) rock') is the capital of Junín Region, in the central highlands of Peru.
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The Huarochirí manuscript (in modern Quechua spelling: Waruchiri) is a Quechua-language text from the late 16th century, describing myths, religious notions and traditions of the Indians of Huarochirí Province.
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Huarochirí Province (in hispanicized spelling) or Waruchiri is located in the Lima Region of Peru.
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The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
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Inca Garcilaso de la Vega
Garcilaso de la Vega (12 April 1539 – 23 April 1616), born Gómez Suárez de Figueroa and known as El Inca or Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, was a chronicler and writer born in the Spanish Empire's Viceroyalty of Peru.
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Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull is a 2008 American action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and the fourth installment in the ''Indiana Jones'' series.
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Indigenous languages of the Americas
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
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Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
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Inga Kichwa is a dialect of Kichwa spoken in the Colombian Putumayo region by the Inga people.
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The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
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Intercultural bilingual education
Intercultural Bilingual Education (Educación bilingüe intercultural) is a language-planning model employed throughout Latin America in public education, and it arose as a political movement asserting space for indigenous languages and culture in the education system.
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The intrative case (abbreviated) is a case that roughly expresses the notion of the English preposition "amidst".
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ISO 639 macrolanguage
ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes.
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An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever.
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Jaqaru (Haq'aru) is a language of the Aymaran family.
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Jerky is lean meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage.
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Johnny Payne is a dramatist, novelist, scholar, and has been a professor at the University of Texas at El Paso and Florida Atlantic University's Boca Raton campus.
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Juan de Espinosa Medrano
Juan de Espinosa Medrano (Calcauso?, 1630? - Cuzco, 1688), known in history as Lunarejo (or “The Spotty-Faced”), was a Criollo cleric, saced preacher, writer, playwright, theologian and polymath from the Viceroyalty of Peru. He is the most prominent figure of the Literary Baroque of Peru and one of the most important intellectuals from Colonial Spanish America (along with the New Spain writers Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz and Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora). Juan de Espinosa Medrano is the author of the most famous literary apologetic discourse in the Americas in the XVII century: the Apologético en favor de Don Luis de Góngora (1662). He also wrote autos sacramentales in Quechua —El robo de Proserpina y sueño de Endimión (c. 1650) and El hijo pródigo (c. 1657)—; comedies in Spanish —out of which only the biblical play Amar su propia muerte (c. 1650) is preserved—; panegyric sermons —compiled after his death in a volume called La Novena Maravilla (1695)—; and a course in Latin of thomistic philosophy —Philosophia Thomistica (1688)—. He acquired fame in life for the stylistic distinction and conceptual depth of his oeuvre (which was praised for its first-rate accordance to the scholastic and baroque epistemological parameters of his time). His polymathy, erudition and poetic ingenuity in the composition of sermons and literary works gained him the epithets of Sublime Doctor and Indian Demosthenes, as well as the less frequent ones of Criollo Phoenix and Tertullian of the Americas (all used to refer to him while alive). Additionally, after the Peruvian independence from Spanish Imperial rule took place, Juan de Espinosa Medrano's memory begun to be used as an exemplary model of the intellectual and moral potential of the peoples from South America (criollo, mestizos and indigenous populations included). The circumstances of Juan de Espinosa Medrano's origin, and the details about his first years of life, are —almost in their entirety—unknown. The absence of significant biographical data put forward in the will written by the own author days before his decease has further led to speculation about his ethnicity (or race) and identification. Furthermore, it has also led to manipulation and tendentious interpretations of the data preserved about his existence; such distortive reading has been especially pronounced in the many works of biographers, critics or commentators, akin to the political agenda of Indigenismo in Peru. What is incontrovertible, however, is that Juan de Espinosa Medrano always regarded himself both as Criollo and Spanish (an ideological servant of the Empire); evidences for such self-identification are to be found in his oeuvre, in which Juan de Espinosa Medrano sides constantly with the Spaniards, and often describes Native American populations as 'enemies', 'barbarous' and 'idolatrous' (he does not link himself with Native American peoples' cultures and ethnicity, and it is also unthinkable that an indigenous person could have held the power and clergy positions he did during his lifetime). His vast baroque production, written in Spanish, Latin and Quechua —in an aesthetic register different to the dialects now extant— was published both in America and Europe, however, only at the end of his life in the Old World. It had impact exclusively in the Viceroyalty of Peru, nonetheless, particularly because of a sabotage plan carried out by Jesuit priests in Rome at the end of the XVII century, which succeeded in impeding the circulation of Juan de Espinosa Medrano's philosophic course in Latin across the Old World (the work is the aforementioned Philosophia Thomistica). It was in this period that the Jesuit University of Saint Ignatius of Loyola contended with the Seminary of Saint Anthony the Abbot in Cuzco —institution that Juan de Espinosa Medrano represented— for the maintenance of its right in exclusivity to grant the degree of doctor to those instructed in Theology (a situation that forced the Seminary students, of thomist instruction, to present themselves before a jury of Jesuit theologians —followers of the doctrine of Francisco Suárez— for the evaluation leading to the conferral of their degree). In the present, the fascinating mysteries of his biography and the intrinsic quality of his literary production notwithstanding, the study of the works and life of Juan de Espinosa Medrano has extensively fallen to relegation or oblivion. This way, even if a certain part of his biography still survives in the oral tradition of the region of Apurímac —where it has acquired unusual characteristics—, in Cusco as well as in the Peruvian Literary Canon, knowledge of his life and work circumscribes mostly to scholars of Literature in Colonial Spanish America.
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Juan Velasco Alvarado
Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado (June 16, 1910 – December 24, 1977) was a left-wing Peruvian General who served as the 58th President of Peru from 1968 to 1975 under the title " President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces".
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Kichwa (Kichwa shimi, Runashimi, also Spanish Quichua) is a Quechuan language that includes all Quechua varieties of Ecuador and Colombia (Inga), as well as extensions into Peru.
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Kukuli (Quechua for white-winged dove) is a 1961 Peruvian drama film directed by Luis Figueroa, Eulogio Nishiyama and Cesar Villanueva.
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A lagniappe is "a small gift given a customer by a merchant at the time of a purchase" (such as a 13th doughnut on purchase of a dozen), or more broadly, "something given or obtained gratuitously or by way of good measure." The word entered English from the Louisiana French adapting a Quechua word brought in to New Orleans by the Spanish Creoles.
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Lamas or San Martín Quechua (Lamista, Llakwash Runashimi) is a variety of Quechua spoken in the provinces of Lamas in the Peruvian region of San Martin and in some villages on the river Huallaga in the region of Ucayali.
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Inkawasi-Kañaris is a variety of Quechua spoken in the districts of Incahuasi and Cañaris, Ferreñafe in the Peruvian region of Lambayeque.
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A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
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A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
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List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas
This is a list of English language words borrowed from indigenous languages of the Americas, either directly or through intermediate European languages such as Spanish or French.
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List of pre-Columbian cultures
This list of pre-Columbian cultures includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas.
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The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era.
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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
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Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
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Los Kjarkas is a Bolivian band from the Capinota province in the department of Cochabamba, and one of the most popular Andean folk music bands in the country's history.
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Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is a language isolate spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').
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In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
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In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
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The Nazca Lines are a series of large ancient geoglyphs in the Nazca Desert, in southern Peru.
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The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
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North Bolivian Quechua
North Bolivian Quechua is a dialect of the Southern Quechua language, spoken in northern Bolivia on the Peruvian border, as well as by immigrants in Peru.
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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
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Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
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Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
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Ollantay is a dramatic play, originally written in the Quechua language.
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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
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Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several subfamilies of indigenous languages of the Americas.
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Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
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Pacaraos Quechua is a variety of Quechua spoken until the middle of the 20th century in the community of Pacaraos (Pacaraos District) in the Peruvian Lima Region in the Chancay valley up to 3000 m above sea level.
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Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
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The Pampas (from the pampa, meaning "plain") are fertile South American lowlands that cover more than and include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Córdoba; all of Uruguay; and the southernmost Brazilian State, Rio Grande do Sul.
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Francisco "Pancho" Villa (born José Doroteo Arango Arámbula; 5 June 1878 – 20 July 1923) was a Mexican Revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution.
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Paterson, New Jersey
Paterson is the largest city in and the county seat of Passaic County, New Jersey, United States.
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Pedro Cieza de León
Pedro Cieza de León (Llerena, Spain c. 1520 – Seville, Spain 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and chronicler of Peru.
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The perlative case (abbreviated) "expresses that something moved 'through', 'across', or 'along' the referent of the noun that is marked." The case is found in a number of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Kuku-Yalanji as well as in Aymara, Inuktitut, and the extinct Tocharian languages.
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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
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The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.
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A poncho (punchu in Quechua; Mapudungun pontro, blanket, woolen fabric) is an outer garment designed to keep the body warm.
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Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
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Prisoners of the Sun
Prisoners of the Sun (Le Temple du Soleil) is the fourteenth volume of The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.
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Professor Cuthbert Calculus (Professeur Tryphon Tournesol, meaning "Professor Tryphon Sunflower"), is a fictional character in The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.
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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
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Puma is a genus in the Felidae that contains the cougar (also known as the puma, among other names), and may also include several poorly known Old World fossil representatives (for example, Puma pardoides, or Owen's panther, a large, cougar-like cat of Eurasia's Pliocene).
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Puno is a city in southeastern Peru, located on the shore of Lake Titicaca.
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Puno Quechua, also known as Quechua Collao (Qullaw), is a dialect of the Southern Quechua language, spoken in southern Peru near Bolivia.
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Quechua (/ˈkɛtʃᵊwə/, /ˈkɛtʃuːə/ or /ˈkɛtʃwɑː/; Spanish pronunciation) is a mountain sports brand founded in 1997 in Domancy, France, dealing with hiking, trail running, adventure racing, climbing and mountaineering apparel and equipment and is sold in every store of Decathlon Group and sportswear shops.
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Quechua I, also known as Quechua Wáywash, 1 or Quechua B, 2 is one of the two branches or genealogical groups of the Quechua languages.
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The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.
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Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift
In recent years, Peru and Bolivia have revised the official spelling for place-names originating from Aymara and the Quechuan languages.
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Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
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Quechumaran or Kechumaran is a language-family proposal that unites Quechua and Aymara.
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Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City.
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Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa; (or, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). Quinoa provides protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals in rich amounts above those of wheat, corn, rice or oats. It is gluten-free. After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat. Quinoa originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America, and was domesticated 3,000 to 4,000 years ago for human consumption in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia, though archaeological evidence shows livestock uses 5,200 to 7,000 years ago.
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Radio Nacional del Perú
Radio Nacional del Perú (in Spanish: National Radio of Peru) is the first and the oldest radio station in Peru.
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In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
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Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino
Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino (born February 10, 1940 in Huancayo, Peru) is a Peruvian linguist who has crucially contributed to the investigation and development of the Quechuan languages.
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The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
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Santiago del Estero
Santiago del Estero (Spanish for Saint-James-Upon-The-Lagoon) is the capital of Santiago del Estero Province in northern Argentina.
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Santiago del Estero Quichua or Santiagueño Quechua (Santiagen Quichua) is a vulnerable dialect of Southern Quechua spoken by 60,000-100,000 people (estimates vary widely) in Argentina.
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Savia Andina was one of the first groups to have international success with traditional Andean music.
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SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
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The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
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South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
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South Bolivian Quechua
South Bolivian Quechua, also known as Central Bolivian Quechua, is a dialect of Southern Quechua spoken in Bolivia and adjacent areas of Argentina, where it is also known as Colla.
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Southern Quechua (Quechua: Urin qichwa, quechua sureño), or simply Quechua (Qichwa or Qhichwa), is the most widely spoken of the major regional groupings of mutually intelligible dialects within the Quechua language family, with about 6.9 million speakers.
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Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
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Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
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A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
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Star Wars (film)
Star Wars (later retitled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope) is a 1977 American epic space opera film written and directed by George Lucas.
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In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
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The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
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In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
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In Andean communities in Latin America development is expressed through the notion of sumak kawsay, the Quechua word for ‘buen vivir’, or ‘good living’ or ‘well living’ has been proposed as an alternative conception of development and has been incorporated into the constitutions of Ecuador and Suma Qamaña ‘Vivir Bien’ in Bolivia.
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Túpac Amaru II
José Gabriel Túpac Amaru (March 10, 1738 – May 18, 1781) — known as Túpac Amaru II — was the leader of a large Andean uprising against the Spanish in Peru, where its quelling resulted in his death.
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In morphology, the terminative case (abbreviated) is a case specifying a limit in space and time and also to convey the goal or target of an action.
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The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin (Les Aventures de Tintin) is a series of 24 comic albums created by Belgian cartoonist Georges Remi, who wrote under the pen name Hergé.
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The Emperor's New School
The Emperor's New School is an American animated television series that aired on Disney Channel from January 27, 2006 to November 20, 2008.
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The Sentinel (TV series)
The Sentinel is a Canadian-produced television series that aired on UPN in the United States from 1996 to 1999.
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The Seven Crystal Balls
The Seven Crystal Balls (Les Sept Boules de Cristal) is the thirteenth volume of The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.
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The Sparrow (novel)
The Sparrow (1996) is the first novel by author Mary Doria Russell.
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The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993.
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Third Council of Lima
The Third Council of Lima was a council of the Roman Catholic Church in Lima, at the time the capital of the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.
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Topic and comment
In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.
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Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
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United Nations Statistics Division
The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office, serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations to supply the statistical needs and coordinating activities of the global statistical system.
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University of California Press
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
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University of St Andrews
The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
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University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
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Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
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Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
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The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) or vicuna (both, very rarely spelled vicugna) is one of the two wild South American camelids which live in the high alpine areas of the Andes, the other being the guanaco.
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Walter de Gruyter
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
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Wanka Quechua is a variety of the Quechua language, spoken in the southern part of Peruvian region of Junín by the Huancas.
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Willem F. H. Adelaar (born at The Hague in 1948) is a Dutch linguist specializing in Native American languages, specially those of the Andes.
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Yaru Quechua is a dialect cluster of Quechua, spoken in the Peruvian provinces of Pasco and Daniel Alcides Carrión and neighboring areas in northern Junín and Lima department.
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Yauyos–Chincha Quechua or Yauyos Quechua is a dialect cluster of Quechua, spoken in the Yauyos and Chincha districts of Peru.
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is a Japanese manga series about gaming written and illustrated by Kazuki Takahashi.
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is the second main spin-off of the Yu-Gi-Oh! franchise.
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Central Quechua, ISO 639:qu, ISO 639:que, ISO 639:qwe, Incan language, Kechua, Kechua language, Ketchwa, Northern Quechua, Qheswa, Qhichwa, Qichwa, Quecha, Quechoa, Quechua A, Quechua B, Quechua B language, Quechua I languages, Quechua II, Quechua II languages, Quechua II-A, Quechua II-B, Quechua Language, Quechua dialects, Quechua grammar, Quechua language, Quechua languages, Quechuan, Quechuan (family), Quechuan language, Quichua language, Runa Simi, Runa-Simi language, Runashimi, Runasimi, Yungay Quechua, Yunkay Quechua.