452 relations: Abuna River, Acre (state), Afro-Bolivian, Agnosticism, Agriculture, Agustín Gamarra, ALBA, Alejandro Mario Yllanes, Alfredo Da Silva, Altiplano, Amazon basin, Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, Amazon rainforest, Amazon River, Americas, Amnesty International, Amphibian, Andean flamingo, Andes, Andrés de Santa Cruz, Antofagasta, Antonio José de Sucre, Araona language, Archaeology, Arequipa, Argentina, Arica, Arica Province (Peru), Arica–La Paz railway, Armed Forces of Bolivia, Artisan, Asian people, Association football, Association of Religion Data Archives, Asunción, Atlantic slave trade, Atmospheric pressure, Aymara language, Aymara people, Ayoreo, Ayoreo language, Álvaro García Linera, Ñuflo de Chávez Province, Bahá'í Faith, Bank of the South, Battle of Ingavi, Battle of Yungay, Baure language, BBC News, Beni Department, ..., Beni River, Bermejo River, Bicameralism, Biodiversity, Biome, Bolivia national football team, Bolivian Air Force, Bolivian Army, Bolivian boliviano, Bolivian Constituent Assembly, Bolivian Declaration of Independence, Bolivian gas conflict, Bolivian general election, 2005, Bolivian judicial election, 2011, Bolivian Navy, Bolivian Spanish, Bolivian War of Independence, Bolivian Workers' Center, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Canichana language, Capsicum, Capsicum pubescens, Carlos Mesa, Carnaval de Oruro, Cassava, Catholic Church, Cavineña language, Cayuvava language, Census, Central Bank of Bolivia, Central Intelligence Agency, Ceramic, Chaco War, Chakobo language, Chané, Che Guevara, Chile, Chimane language, China, Chiquitania, Chiquitano, Chiquitano language, Cholo, Christianity, Chuquicamata, Chuquisaca Department, Chuquisaca Revolution, Coast, Cobija, Coca, Cochabamba, Cochabamba Department, Cochabamba Water War, Coipasa Lake, Colombia, Conquistador, Constitution of Bolivia, Constitutional republic, Copacabana, Bolivia, Cordillera Central (Bolivia), Cordillera Occidental (Central Andes), Coup d'état, Creditor, Cuba, Cubic ton, Cusco, Demographic and Health Surveys, Demographics of Africa, Departments of Bolivia, Desaguadero River (Bolivia), Desert climate, Developing country, Direct election, Domestication, Drainage basin, Eastern Bolivian Guaraní, Eastern Bolivian Guaraní language, Ecoregion, Ecosystem, Ecuador, Eduardo Avaroa Andean Fauna National Reserve, Eduardo Rodríguez, Ekeko, El Alto, El Alto International Airport, El Fuerte de Samaipata, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Endorheic basin, Ese Ejja language, Ethnic groups in Europe, Evo Morales, Executive (government), Félix Rodríguez (soldier), Fern, Fishing, Folk music, Folklore, Forestry, France, Freedom of religion, Fresh water, Fungus, Gender inequality in Bolivia, General officer, Geographical segregation, Geology of Bolivia, German dialects, Germany, Gold, Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada, Governor, Gran Chaco, Ground frost, Guaporé River, Guaraní people, Guarani dialects, Guarani language, Guarani mythology, Guarayu language, Hernán Siles Zuazo, Higher University of San Andrés, Houston, Hugo Banzer, Human Development Index, Humidity, Illimani, Ilo, Peru, Improved sanitation, Improved water source, Inca Empire, Inculturation, Index of Bolivia-related articles, Index of Economic Freedom, Indigenous peoples in Bolivia, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Inkallaqta, Intercultural bilingual education, International Monetary Fund, Italy, Itene language, Itonama language, James, son of Zebedee, Japanese Bolivians, Jara Lake, Jorge Quiroga, Jorge Wilstermann International Airport, José Ballivián, José Miguel de Velasco Franco, Juan José Torres, Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco National Park and Integrated Management Natural Area, Kallawaya language, La Paz, La Paz Department (Bolivia), La Paz revolution, Laissez-faire, Lake Poopó, Lake Titicaca, Landlocked country, Languages of Bolivia, Latin America, Law of the Rights of Mother Earth, Línea Aérea Amaszonas, Lebanon, Leco language, Left-wing politics, Legislation, Lepidoptera, Life expectancy, Lima, List of countries and dependencies by area, Lithium, Lithology, Litoral Department, Llama, Luis García Meza, Luis José de Orbegoso, Madeira River, Madidi National Park, Madre de Dios River, Mamoré River, Mandioré Lake, Manufacturing, María Luisa Pacheco, Marchantiophyta, Marina Núñez del Prado, Marshal, Mayor, Meander, Medicinal plants, Mennonites in Bolivia, Mestizo, Mexico, Military dictatorship, Mining, Mining in Bolivia, Ministry (government department), Mit'a, Mobile home, Moss, Movement for Socialism (Bolivia), Movima language, Moxo, Moxo languages, Multiculturalism, Multinational state, Murillo Lake, Napoleonic Wars, National anthem of Bolivia, National Electoral Court of Bolivia, National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia, Nationalist Democratic Action, Natural gas, Natural resource, Neoliberalism, Nevado Sajama, New World, Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Non-Aligned Movement, Nor Yungas Province, Offshore company, Oil refinery, Organism, Organization of American States, Orthon River, Oruro Department, Oruro Technical University, Oruro, Bolivia, Outline of Bolivia, Pachamama, Pacific Ocean, Palacio Quemado, Panama, Pando Department, Pantanal, Paraguay, Paraguay River, Paraná River, Paris Club, Participation (decision making), Patriot (Spanish American independence), Paucarpata District, Pauserna language, Peace treaty, Peanut, Peru, Peru–Bolivian Confederation, Phaseolus vulgaris, Physical geography, Pilcomayo River, Plain, Plant Teacher, Plate tectonics, Platform (geology), Plautdietsch language, Plurinational Electoral Organ, Plurinational Legislative Assembly, Polar climate, Political corruption, Politics of Bolivia, Portugal, Portuguese language, Potato, Potosí, Potosí Department, President of Bolivia, Presidential system, Prisons in Bolivia, Privatization, Protestantism, Puerto Quijarro, Puerto Suárez, Puquina language, Quechua people, Quechuan languages, Racial segregation, Río de la Plata Basin, Río Grande (Bolivia), Real Audiencia of Charcas, René Barrientos, Reptile, Revolutionary Left Movement (Bolivia), Revolutionary Liberation Movement Tupaq Katari, Revolutionary Nationalist Movement, Reyesano language, Riberalta, Roberto Mamani Mamani, Roboré, Rogagua Lake, Rogaguado Lake, Romulus, Rosario, Santa Fe, Rosatom, Royalist (Spanish American independence), Russia, Russian Mennonite, Salar de Uyuni, Salt pan (geology), San Matías, Santa Cruz, Sanitation, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Santa Cruz Department (Bolivia), Satellite imagery, Seat of government, Secular state, Self-governance, Semi-arid climate, Shield (geology), Silver, Simón Bolívar, Sirionó, Sirionó language, Sodium nitrate, South America, Spain, Spanish American wars of independence, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, State-owned enterprise, Subduction, Subtropics, Sucre, Sud Yungas Province, Sunlight, Supermajority, Supreme Court of Bolivia, Syncretism, Tacana language, TAM – Transporte Aéreo Militar, Tarabuco, Tarija, Tarija Department, Túpac Katari, Túpac Katari 1, Telephone numbers in Bolivia, Temperate climate, The Heritage Foundation, The Irish Times, The World Factbook, Tin, Tiwanaku, Tiwanaku empire, Toba people, Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Wildlands, Tomás Frías Autonomous University, Toromono language, Tour of duty, Tourism in Bolivia, Transportes Aéreos Bolivianos, Treaty of Peace and Friendship (1904), Treaty of Petrópolis, Tributary, Trinidad, Bolivia, Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, Tropical climate, Tropical rainforest, Tunari National Park, Uberaba Lake, UNASUR Constitutive Treaty, UNESCO, UNICEF, Union of South American Nations, Unitary state, United Nations, United Nations Charter, United Nations Development Programme, United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, United States, United States Department of State, Universal suffrage, Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno, University of San Simón, Upper Peru, Uru people, Uru–Chipaya languages, UTC−04:00, Valley, Víctor Paz Estenssoro, Venezuela, Vice President of Bolivia, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Villamontes, Virgen de Copacabana, Viru Viru International Airport, War of the Confederation, War of the Pacific, Water privatization, Weaving, Western Hemisphere, White Bolivians, White people, Wichí, Wichí Lhamtés Nocten, Wikipedia, Wired (magazine), World Bank, World Health Organization, Yaminawa language, Yata River, Yine language, Yuracaré language, .bo. 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The Abuna River (Río Abuná, Rio Abunã) is a river in South America.
Acre is a state located in the northern region of Brazil.
Afro-Bolivians are Bolivian people of Sub-Saharan African heritage, and therefore the descriptive "Afro-Bolivian" may refer to historical or cultural elements in Bolivia thought to emanate from their community.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agustín Gamarra Messia (August 27, 1785 – November 18, 1841) was a Peruvian soldier and politician, who served as the 10th and 14th President of Peru.
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Alejandro Mario Yllanes (1913–1960) was an Aymara painter and printmaker from Bolivia.
Alfredo Da Silva (born February 20, 1935) is a painter, graphic artist, and photographer, known for his abstract expressionism.
The Altiplano (Spanish for "high plain"), Collao (Quechua and Aymara: Qullaw, meaning "place of the Qulla"), Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau, in west-central South America, is the area where the Andes are the widest.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) is an international organization aimed at the promotion of sustainable development of the Amazon Basin.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The Andean flamingo (Phoenicoparrus andinus) is one of the rarest flamingos in the world.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calahumana (December 5, 1792 in Huarina, Bolivia – September 25, 1865 in Beauvoir, France) served as the seventh President of Peru during 1827, the Interim President of Peru from 1836 to 1838 and President of Bolivia (1829–39).
Antofagasta is a port city in northern Chile, about north of Santiago.
Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá (1795–1830), known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho" ("Grand Marshal of Ayacucho"), was a Venezuelan independence leader who served as the fourth President of Peru and the second President of Bolivia.
Araona or Cavina is an indigenous language spoken by the South America Araona people; about 90% of the 90 Araona people are fluent (W. Adelaar).
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arica is a commune and a port city with a population of 196,590 in the Arica Province of northern Chile's Arica y Parinacota Region.
The Province of Arica was a historical territorial division of Peru, which existed between 1823 and 1883.
The Arica–La Paz railway or Ferrocarril de Arica–La Paz (FCALP) was built by the Chilean government under the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1904 between Chile and Bolivia.
The Armed Forces of Bolivia (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas de Bolivia) are official organizations responsible for the defence, both of external aggression and internal Bolivia.
An artisan (from artisan, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker.
Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) is a free source of online information related to American and international religion.
Asunción is the capital and largest city of Paraguay.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.
The Ayoreo (Ayoreode, Ayoréo, Ayoréode) are an indigenous people of the Gran Chaco.
Ayoreo is a Zamucoan language spoken in both Paraguay and Bolivia.
Álvaro Marcelo García Linera (born 19 October 1962), is a Bolivian politician who has been Vice President of Bolivia since 2006.
Ñuflo de Chávez is one of the fifteen provinces of the Bolivian Santa Cruz Department and is situated in the northern central parts of the department.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Bank of the South (Banco del Sur, Banco do Sul, Bank van het Zuiden) or BancoSur is a monetary fund and lending organization established on 26 September 2009 by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Ecuador, Bolivia and Venezuela with promises of initial capital of US$20 billion.
The Battle of Ingavi occurred on November 18, 1841, in the town of Ingavi, Bolivia.
The Battle of Yungay (or Yungai) was the final battle of the War of the Confederation, fought on January 20, 1839, near Yungay, Peru.
Bauré is a nearly extinct Arawakan language spoken by only 40 of the thousand Baure people of the Beni department of northwest of Magdalena, Bolivia.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beni, sometimes El Beni, is a northeastern department of Bolivia, in the lowlands region of the country.
The Beni River (Río Beni) is a river in the north of Bolivia.
The Bermejo River (Spanish, Río Bermejo) is a river in South America that flows from Bolivia to the Paraguay River in Argentina.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
The Bolivia national football team (Selección de fútbol de Bolivia), also known as La Verde or Los Altiplanicos, has represented Bolivia in international football since 1926.
The Bolivian Air Force ('Fuerza Aérea Boliviana' or 'FAB') is part of the Military of Bolivia.
The Bolivian Army or Ejército Boliviano is the land forces component of the Armed Forces of Bolivia.
The boliviano (sign: BsBanco Central de Bolivia. "." Accessed 26 Feb 2011.Banco Central de Bolivia. Accessed 26 Feb 2011. ISO 4217 code: BOB) is the currency of Bolivia.
The most recent Constituent assembly of Bolivia was the Constituent Assembly of 2006–07, which drafted a new Constitution which was approved in the Constitutional referendum of 2009.
Bolivia's independence was definitively proclaimed on 6 August 1825 at a congress held in Chuquisaca.
The Bolivian gas conflict was a social confrontation in Bolivia reaching its peak in 2003, centering on the exploitation of the country's vast natural gas reserves.
General elections were held in Bolivia on 18 December 2005.
The first Bolivian judicial election was held on 16 October 2011.
The Bolivian Navy (Armada Boliviana) is a branch of the Bolivian Armed Forces.
The Spanish (or Castilian) language is spoken in Bolivia by most of the population, either as a mother tongue or as a second language.
The Bolivian war of independence began in 1809 with the establishment of government juntas in Sucre and La Paz, after the Chuquisaca Revolution and La Paz revolution.
The Bolivian Workers' Center (Central Obrera Boliviana, COB) is the chief trade union federation in Bolivia.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Canichana, or Canesi, is a possible language isolate of Bolivia (department Beni).
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
Capsicum pubescens Is originally from Peru and dates back to Pre-Incan times, finding traces of its presence in the Guitarrero Caves.
Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert (born August 12, 1953) is a Bolivian historian and former politician.
The Carnival of Oruro is a religious festival dating back more than 200 years that takes place in Oruro, Bolivia.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cavineña is an indigenous language spoken on the Amazonian plains of northern Bolivia by over 1,000 Cavineño people.
Cayuvava (Cayubaba, Cayuwaba, Kayuvava) is a nearly extinct language of Bolivia, in the region of Beni, west of Mamore River, north of Santa Ana del Yacuma.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
The Central Bank of Bolivia (Banco Central de Bolivia) is the central bank of Bolivia, responsible for monetary policy and the issuance of banknotes.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
The Chaco War (1932–1935; Guerra del Chaco, Cháko Ñorairõ. Secretaría Nacional de Cultura de Paraguay) was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of the northern part of the Gran Chaco region (known in Spanish as Chaco Boreal) of South America, which was thought to be rich in oil.
Chácobo-Pakawara is a Panoan language spoken by about 550 of 860 ethnic tribal Chácobo people of the Beni Department of northwest of Magdalena, Bolivia, and (as of 2004) 17 of 50 Pakawara.
Chané is the collective name for the southernmost Arawak-speaking peoples.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chimané (Tsimané) is a South American language isolate.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chiquitania ("Chiquitos" or "Gran Chiquitania") is a region of tropical savannas in the Santa Cruz Department in eastern Bolivia.
The Chiquitano are an indigenous people of Bolivia, with a small number also living in Brazil.
Chiquitano (also Bésiro or Tarapecosi) is an indigenous language isolate of eastern Bolivia, spoken in the central region of the Santa Cruz province.
Cholo is a loosely defined Spanish term that has had various meanings.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Chuquicamata, or "Chuqui" as it is more familiarly known, is by excavated volume the largest open pit copper mine in the world, located in the north of Chile, just outside Calama at above sea level, northeast of Antofagasta and north of the capital, Santiago.
Chuquisaca (Chuqisaka; Chuqichaka) is a department of Bolivia located in the center south.
The Chuquisaca Revolution was a popular uprising on 25 May 1809 against the governor and intendant of Chuquisaca (today Sucre), Ramón García León de Pizarro.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
The Bolivian city of Cobija is located about 600 km (373 mi.) north of La Paz in the Amazon Basin on the border with Brazil.
Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.
Cochabamba (Quchapampa, Quchapanpa) is a city & municipality in central Bolivia, in a valley in the Andes mountain range.
Cochabamba (Quchapampa Jach'a Suyu, Departamento de Cochabamba, Quchapampa Suyu), from Quechua qucha or qhucha, meaning "lake", pampa meaning "plain", is one of the nine departments of Bolivia.
Lago Coipasa or Salar de Coipasa is a lake in Atahuallpa Province, Oruro Department, Bolivia.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
The current Constitution of Bolivia (Constitución Política del Estado; literally, the Political Constitution of the State) came into effect on February 7, 2009 when it was promulgated by President Evo Morales.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
Copacabana is the main Bolivian town on the shore of Lake Titicaca.
The Cordillera Central is a Bolivian mountain range that divides the three river basins in the country and also has the second highest peaks in Bolivia.
The Cordillera Occidental of Bolivia is part of the Andes (that is also part of the American Cordillera), a mountain range characterized by volcanic activity, making up the natural border with Chile and starting in the north with Juqhuri and ending in the south at the Licancabur volcano, which is on the southern limit of Bolivia with Chile.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A creditor is a party (for example, person, organization, company, or government) that has a claim on the services of a second party.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The cubic ton is a measure of volume (compare fluid ounce).
Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program is responsible for collecting and disseminating accurate, nationally representative data on health and population in developing countries.
The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century, and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries.
Bolivia is a unitary state consisting of nine departments (departamentos).
The Desaguadero River in Bolivia drains Lake Titicaca from the southern part of the river basin, flowing south and draining approximately five percent of the lake's flood waters into Lake Uru Uru and Lake Poopó.
The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
The Eastern Bolivian Guaraní, or Ava Guaraní, are an Indigenous people formerly known as Chiriguanos or Chiriguano Indians.
Eastern Bolivian Guaraní, known locally as Chawuncu or Chiriguano (pejorative), is a Guaraní language spoken in South America.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Eduardo Abaroa Andean Fauna National Reserve (Reserva Nacional de Fauna Andina Eduardo Abaroa; Spanish acronym: REA) is located in Sur Lípez Province.
Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé (born March 2, 1956) is a former president of Bolivia; prior to that appointment he was the chief justice of the Supreme Court.
The Ekeko is the Tiwanakan (pre Columbian civilization) god of abundance and prosperity in the mythology and folklore of the people from the Andean Altiplano Its chief importance in popular culture is as the main figure of the annual Alasitas fair, a cultural event that happens every January 24th in La Paz, Bolivia.
El Alto (Spanish for "The Heights") is a municipality and the second-largest city in Bolivia, located adjacent to La Paz in Pedro Domingo Murillo Province on the Altiplano highlands.
El Alto International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional El Alto) is an international airport located in the city of El Alto, Bolivia, west of La Paz.
El Fuerte de Samaipata or Fort Samaipata, also known simply as "El Fuerte", is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Florida Province, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
Ese Ejja (Ese’eha, Eseʼexa, Ese exa), also known as Tiatinagua (Tatinawa), is a Tacanan language of Bolivia and Peru.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Félix Ismael Rodríguez Mendigutia (born 31 May 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency Paramilitary Operations Officer in the famed Special Activities Division, known for his involvement in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, in the execution of Leftist revolutionary Che Guevara and his ties to George H. W. Bush during the Iran–Contra affair.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Although the Constitution of Bolivia guarantees equal rights for women and men, women in Bolivia face struggles and discrimination in several aspects of their lives.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Geographical segregation exists whenever the proportions of population rates of two or more populations are not homogenous throughout a defined space.
The geology of Bolivia comprises a variety of different lithologies as well as tectonic and sedimentary environments.
German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada y Sánchez de Bustamante (born July 1, 1930), familiarly known as "Goni", is a Bolivian politician and businessman, who served as President of Bolivia for two non-consecutive terms.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
The Gran Chaco or Dry Chaco is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region.
Ground frost refers to the various coverings of ice produced by the direct deposition of water vapor on objects and trees, whose surfaces have a temperature below the freezing point of water (0 °C, 32 °F).
Guaporé River (Rio Guaporé) is a river in western Brazil and northeastern Bolivia.
Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America.
The Guaraní language belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní branch of the Tupí linguistic family.
Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.
The Guaraní people live in south-central part of South America, especially in Paraguay and parts of the surrounding areas of Argentina, Brazil, and Bolivia.
Guarayu is a Tupian language of Bolivia.
Hernán Siles Zuazo (21 March 1914 – 6 August 1996) was a Bolivian politician who served as constitutionally elected president twice, from 1956 to 1960 and again from 1982 to 1985.
The Higher University of San Andrés (Universidad Mayor de San Andrés or UMSA) is the leading public university in Bolivia, established since 1830 in the city of La Paz.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
Hugo Banzer Suárez (May 10, 1926 – May 5, 2002) was a Bolivian politician, military general and President of Bolivia.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
Illimani (Aymara) is the highest mountain in the Cordillera Real (part of the Cordillera Oriental, a subrange of the Andes) of western Bolivia.
Ilo is a port city in southern Peru, with some 67,000 inhabitants.
Improved sanitation is a term used to categorize types or levels of sanitation for monitoring purposes.
An improved water source (or improved drinking-water source or improved water supply) is a term used to categorize certain types or levels of water supply for monitoring purposes.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
In Christianity, inculturation is the adaptation of the way Church teachings are presented to non-Christian cultures and, in turn, the influence of those cultures on the evolution of these teachings.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Bolivia.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
Indigenous peoples in Bolivia, or Native Bolivians, are Bolivian people who are of indigenous ancestry.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Inkallaqta (Quechua inka Inca, llaqta place (village, town, city, country, nation), "Inca place", Hispanicized spellings Incallacta, Incallajta, Incallakta, Inkallajta, Inkallakta) is a monumental Inca site in central Bolivia.
Intercultural Bilingual Education (Educación bilingüe intercultural) is a language-planning model employed throughout Latin America in public education, and it arose as a political movement asserting space for indigenous languages and culture in the education system.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Itene is a Chapacuran language of Bolivia.
Itonama is a moribund language isolate spoken in the Amazonian lowlands of north-eastern Bolivia.
James, son of Zebedee (Hebrew:, Yaʿqob; Greek: Ἰάκωβος; ⲓⲁⲕⲱⲃⲟⲥ; died 44 AD) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and traditionally considered the first apostle to be martyred.
Japanese Bolivians (Japonés Boliviano, 日系ボリビア人 Nikkei Boribiajin) are Bolivians of Japanese ancestry or Japanese-born people who reside in Bolivia.
Laguna Jara is a lake in the Beni Department, Bolivia.
Jorge Fernando Quiroga Ramírez (born May 5, 1960) nicknamed Tuto Quiroga, was President of Bolivia from August 7, 2001 to August 6, 2002.
Jorge Wilstermann International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Wilstermann) is a high elevation international airport serving Cochabamba, the capital of the Cochabamba Department of Bolivia.
José Ballivián (May 5, 1805 – October 6, 1852) was a Bolivian general during the Peruvian-Bolivian War and the 11th president of Bolivia from September 27, 1841 to December 23, 1847.
José Miguel de Velasco Franco (29 September 1795 – 13 October 1859) served as Vice President of Bolivia for one time (1829-1835) and President of Bolivia four times (1828, 1829, 1839-1841 and 1848) more times than anyone else other than Víctor Paz Estenssoro.
Juan José Torres González (5 March 1920 – 2 June 1976) was a Bolivian socialist politician and military leader.
Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco National Park and Integrated Management Natural Area (Parque Nacional y Area Natural de Manejo Integrado Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco) is the biggest national park in Bolivia and one of the largest in South America.
Kallawaya, also Callahuaya or Callawalla is an endangered, secret, mixed language in Bolivia.
La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (the constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre).
The La Paz Department of Bolivia comprises with a 2012 census population of 2,706,359 inhabitants.
The city of La Paz (modern Bolivia, then part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata) experienced a revolution in 1809 that deposed Spanish authorities and declared independence.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
Lake Poopó (Lago Poopó) is a large saline lake located in a shallow depression in the Altiplano Mountains in Oruro Department, Bolivia, at an altitude of approximately.
Lake Titicaca (Lago Titicaca, Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
The languages of Bolivia include Spanish; several dozen indigenous languages, most prominently Aymara, Quechua, Chiquitano and Tupi Guaraní; Bolivian Sign Language (closely related to American Sign Language); and language of immigrants such as Plautdietsch.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Law of the Rights of Mother Earth (Ley de Derechos de la Madre Tierra) is a Bolivian law (Law 071 of the Plurinational State), that was passed by Bolivia's Plurinational Legislative Assembly in December 2010.
Línea Aérea Amaszonas S.A., usually shortened to Amaszonas, is an airline based in Bolivia, headquartered in La Paz.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Leco, also written as Leko, is a language isolate that, though long reported to be extinct, is spoken by 20–40 individuals in areas east of Lake Titicaca, Bolivia.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The lithology of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop, in hand or core samples or with low magnification microscopy, such as colour, texture, grain size, or composition.
The Department of Litoral, commonly known as the Bolivian coast, was the description of the extent of the Pacific coast of the Atacama desert included in the territory of Bolivia from its inception in 1825 until 1879, when it was lost to Chile.
The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era.
Luis García Meza Tejada (8 August 1929 – 29 April 2018) was a Bolivian dictator.
Luis José de Orbegoso y Moncada-Galindo, de Burutarán y Morales 5th count de Olmos (August 25, 1795 – February 5, 1847), an aristocratic Peruvian soldier and politician, served as the 11th and 12th President of Peru as well as the first President of North Peru.
The Madeira River (Rio Madeira) is a major waterway in South America, approximately long.
Madidi is a national park in the upper Amazon river basin in Bolivia.
The Madre de Dios River, homonymous to the Peruvian region it runs through, flows into the Beni River in Bolivia, which then turns northward into Brazil, where it joins with the Mamore River to become the Madeira River.
The Mamoré is a large river in Bolivia and Brazil which unites with the Beni to form the Madeira, one of the largest tributaries of the Amazon.
Laguna Mandioré is a lake on the border of Brazil and Bolivia.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
María Luisa Pacheco (22 September 1919 – 23 April 1982) was a Bolivian painter and mixed-media artist who emigrated to the United States.
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.
Marina Núñez del Prado (ca. 1910–1995 Galeries.NL. (retrieved 11 Sept 2009)) was a celebrated Bolivian sculptor.
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse.
Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.
The Mennonites in Bolivia are mostly so-called Russian Mennonites who are descendants of Friesian, Flemish and North German people who came to South America in the early 1900s.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Mining in Bolivia has been a dominant feature of the Bolivian economy as well as Bolivian politics since 1557.
A ministry is a governmental organisation, headed by a minister, that is meant to manage a specific sector of public administration.
Mit'a was mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire.
A mobile home (also trailer, trailer home, house trailer, static caravan, residential caravan) is a prefabricated structure, built in a factory on a permanently attached chassis before being transported to site (either by being towed or on a trailer).
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
The Movement for Socialism–Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples (Movimiento al Socialismo–Instrumento Político por la Soberanía de los Pueblos, abbreviated MAS-IPSP, or simply MAS), alternately referred to as "Movement Toward Socialism" or "Movement to Socialism" (Movimiento al Socialismo), is a Bolivian left-wing socialist political movement led by Evo Morales, founded in 1998.
Movima is a language that is spoken by about 1,400 (nearly half) of the Movima, a group of Native Americans that resides in the Llanos de Moxos region of the Bolivian Amazon, in northeastern Bolivia.
The Mojeños, also known as Moxeños, Moxos, or Mojos, are an indigenous people of Bolivia.
Moxo (also known as Mojo, pronounced 'Moho') is any of the Arawakan languages spoken by the Moxo people of Northeastern Bolivia.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
Murillo Lake is a lake in the Manuripi Province, Pando Department, Bolivia.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The national anthem of Bolivia (Himno Nacional de Bolivia), also known as Bolivianos, el Hado Propicio (Bolivians, a most Favorable Destiny) was adopted in 1851.
The National Electoral Court (Corte Nacional Electoral) was the government-appointed court which oversaw elections and electoral results at all levels of Bolivian government from 1956 to 2010, and supervised nine Departmental Electoral Courts in each department.
The Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Bolivia or National Institute of Bolivia Statistics is a branch of the Government of Bolivia which specifically collects factual data in the country of Bolivia in South America.
Nationalist Democratic Action (in Spanish: Acción Democrática Nacionalista) is a right-wing political party in Bolivia led by Dr.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
Nevado Sajama is an extinct stratovolcano and the highest peak in Bolivia.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park is a national park in northeast Santa Cruz Department, Province of José Miguel de Velasco, Bolivia, on the border with Brazil.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Nor Yungas is a province in the Yungas-area of the Bolivian department of La Paz.
The term "offshore company" or "offshore corporation" is used in at least two distinct and different ways.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Orthon River is a river in the Pando Department of Bolivia and a tributary of river Beni.
Oruro is a department in Bolivia, with an area of.
The Oruro Technical University (Universidad Técnica de Oruo, UTO), or UTO, is one of ten public universities in Bolivia.
Oruro (Hispanicized spelling) or Uru Uru is a city in Bolivia with a population of 264,683 (2012 calculation), about halfway between La Paz and Sucre in the Altiplano, approximately above sea level.
188px An enlargeable map of the Plurinational State of Bolivia The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Bolivia: Bolivia – landlocked sovereign country located in central South America.
Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous people of the Andes.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Bolivian Palace of Government, better known as Palacio Quemado (Burnt Palace), is the official residence of the President of Bolivia.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Pando is a department in the North of Bolivia, with an area of, in the Amazon Rainforest, adjoining the border with Brazil and Perú.
The Pantanal is a natural region encompassing the world's largest tropical wetland area.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
The Paraguay River (Río Paraguay in Spanish, Rio Paraguai in Portuguese, Ysyry Paraguái in Guarani) is a major river in south-central South America, running through Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina.
The Paraná River (Río Paraná, Rio Paraná, Ysyry Parana) is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some.
The Paris Club (Club de Paris) is a group of officials from major creditor countries whose role is to find coordinated and sustainable solutions to the payment difficulties experienced by debtor countries.
Participation in social science refers to different mechanisms for the public to express opinions – and ideally exert influence – regarding political, economic, management or other social decisions.
Patriots (Patriotas) was the name that the people of the Spanish America who rebelled against Spanish control during the Spanish American wars of independence called themselves.
Paucarpata District is one of the twenty-nine districts of the Arequipa Province in Peru.
Pauserna, or Guarasugwé (Guarasú'we), is a moribund Tupi–Guaraní language of Bolivia.
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a state of war between the parties.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The Peru–Bolivian Confederation was a short-lived state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839.
Phaseolus vulgaris, also known as the common bean and green bean, among other names, is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seeds or unripe fruit (both commonly called beans).
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
Pilcomayo (in Hispanicized spelling) (Quechua Pillkumayu or Pillku Mayu, pillku red, mayu river, "red river", Guarani Ysyry Araguay) is a river in central South America.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
Plant Teacher is a 2011 novel by Ellen Alderton writing as Caroline Alethia.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
In geology, a platform is a continental area covered by relatively flat or gently tilted, mainly sedimentary strata, which overlie a basement of consolidated igneous or metamorphic rocks of an earlier deformation.
Plautdietsch or Mennonite Low German, is a Low Prussian dialect of East Low German with Dutch influence that developed in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Vistula delta area of Royal Prussia.
The Plurinational Electoral Organ is the independent electoral branch of the government of Bolivia.
The Plurinational Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional) is the national legislature of Bolivia, placed in La Paz, the country's seat of government.
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
The politics of Bolivia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the president is head of state, head of government and head of a diverse multi-party system.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Potosí is a capital city and a municipality of the department of Potosí in Bolivia.
Potosí (P'utuqsi) is a department in southwestern Bolivia.
The President of Bolivia (Presidente de Bolivia) officially known as the President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is head of state and head of government of Bolivia.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
There are 54 prisons in Bolivia which incarcerated 16,613 people.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Puerto Quijarro is a Bolivian city and an inland river port and situated on the Tamengo Canal in Bolivia, by the border with Brazil.
Puerto Suárez is an inland river port and municipality in Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.
Puquina (or Pukina) is an extinct language once spoken by a native ethnic group in the region surrounding Lake Titicaca (Peru and Bolivia) and in the north of Chile.
The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
The Río de la Plata basin (Cuenca del Plata, Bacia do Prata), more often called the River Plate basin in scholarly writings, sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region, is the hydrographical area in South America that drains to the Río de la Plata.
The Río Grande (or Río Guapay) in Bolivia rises on the southern slope of the Cochabamba mountains, east of the city Cochabamba, at.
The Real Audiencia of Charcas (Audiencia y Cancillería Real de La Plata de los Charcas) was a Spanish audiencia with its seat in what is today Bolivia.
René Barrientos Ortuño (30 May 1919 – 27 April 1969) was a Bolivian military officer and politician who served as his country's Vice President in 1964 and as its President from 1966 to 1969.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The Revolutionary Left Movement - New Majority (Spanish: Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria - Nueva Mayoría) is a social democratic political party in Bolivia.
The Revolutionary Liberation Movement Tupaq Katari (Spanish: Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Katari de Liberación, MRTKL) is a left-wing political party in Bolivia.
The Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario, MNR) is a Bolivian political party and the leading force behind the Bolivian National Revolution.
Reyesano, or Chirigua (Chiriba), is a nearly extinct Tacanan language that was spoken by only a few speakers, including children, in 1961 in Bolivia.
Riberalta is a town in the Beni Department in northern Bolivia, situated where the Madre de Dios River joins the Beni River.
Mamani Mamani is an Aymara artist from Bolivia.
Roboré is a town in eastern Bolivia.
Rogagua Lake is a lake in the pampas area in the northern Bolivia, in the José Ballivián Province of the Beni Department.
Rogaguado Lake is a tropical fresh water in the northern Bolivia, in the Yacuma Province of the Beni Department.
Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome.
Rosario is the largest city in the province of Santa Fe, in central Argentina.
Rosatom, (r) stylized as ROSATOM and also known as the Rosatom State Nuclear Energy Corporation, the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom, or the Rosatom State Corporation, is a Russian state corporation headquartered in Moscow that specializes in nuclear energy.
The royalists were the Latin American and European supporters of the various governing bodies of the Spanish Monarchy, during the Spanish American wars of independence, which lasted from 1808 until the king's death in 1833.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Mennonites (German: "Russlandmennoniten" occasionally Ukrainian Mennonites) are a group of Mennonites of German language, tradition and ethnicity, who are descendants of German-Dutch Anabaptists who settled for about 250 years in West Prussia and established colonies in the south west of the Russian Empire (present-day Ukraine) beginning in 1789.
Salar de Uyuni (or Salar de Tunupa) is the world's largest salt flat at 10 582 square kilometers (4 086 sq mi).
Natural salt pans or salt flats are flat expanses of ground covered with salt and other minerals, usually shining white under the sun.
San Matías (Santa Cruz) is a small town in Bolivia.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Santa Cruz de la Sierra ('Holy Cross of the Mountain Range'), commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the largest city in Bolivia and the capital of the Santa Cruz department.
Santa Cruz, with an area of, is the largest of the nine constituent departments of Bolivia occupying about one-third (33,74%) of the territory of the country.
Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.
The seat of government is (as defined by Brewer's Politics) "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government exercises its authority".
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
A shield is generally a large area of exposed Precambrian crystalline igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks that form tectonically stable areas.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule.
The Sirionó are an indigenous people of Bolivia.
Sirionó (also Mbia Chee, Mbya, Siriono) is a Tupian (Tupi–Guarani, Subgroup II) language spoken by about 400 Sirionó people (50 are monolingual) and 120 Yuqui in eastern Bolivia (eastern Beni and northwestern Santa Cruz departments) in the village of Ibiato (Eviato) and along the Río Blanco in farms and ranches.
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia.
Sud Yungas or Sur Yungas is a province in the Bolivian department of La Paz.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
The Supreme Court of Bolivia (Corte Suprema de Justicia de Bolivia) was the Bolivia's highest court from 1825 to 2012.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Tacana is a Western Tacanan language spoken by some 1,800 Tacana people in Bolivia out of an ethnic population of 5,000.
TAM – Transporte Aéreo Militar (Military Air Transport) is an airline based in La Paz, Bolivia.
Tarabuco is a Bolivian town in the department of Chuquisaca, capital of the Yamparáez Province and its first section, Tarabuco Municipality.
Tarija or San Bernardo de la Frontera de Tarixa is a city in southern Bolivia.
Tarija is a department in Bolivia.
Túpac Katari or Catari (also Túpaj Katari) (c. 1750–November 15, 1781), born Julián Apasa Nina, was the indigenous Aymara leader of a major insurrection in colonial-era Upper Peru (now Bolivia), laying siege to La Paz for six months.
Túpac Katari 1 or TKSat-1 is a telecommunications satellite that the government of Bolivia outsourced to People's Republic of China (PRC) to serve telecommunications in Bolivia, such as mobile, television and Internet use.
Telephone numbers in Bolivia, a landlocked country in South America, use the international calling code of +591, and the area codes range from 2–7, depending on the location calling.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia.
The Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) state was a Pre-Columbian polity based in the city of Tiwanaku in western Bolivia that extended around Lake Titicaca and into present-day Peru and Chile from 300 to 1150.
The Toba people, also known as the Qom people, are one of the largest indigenous groups in Argentina who historically inhabited the region known today as the Pampas, in the Central Chaco.
Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Wildlands is a tactical shooter video game developed by Ubisoft Paris and published by Ubisoft.
The Tomás Frías Autonomous University (Universidad Autónoma Tomás Frías or UATF) is a public university located in Potosí, Bolivia.
Toromono (Toromona) is a Western Tacanan language.
For military soldiers, a tour of duty is usually a period of time spent in combat or in a hostile environment.
Bolivia is a country with great tourism potential, with many attractions, due to its diverse culture, geographic regions rich history and food.
Transportes Aéreos Bolivianos (abbreviated TAB, also known as TAB Airlines or TAB Cargo) is an airline, which operates civil cargo flights between Bolivia and the United States.
The Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1904 between Chile and Bolivia was signed in Santiago de Chile on October 20, 1904, in order to delineate the boundary through 96 specified points between Cerro Zapaleri and Cerro Chipe and to regulate the relations between the two countries 20 years after the end of the War of the Pacific.
The Treaty of Petrópolis, signed on November 11, 1903 in the Brazilian Imperial city of Petrópolis, near Rio de Janeiro, ended tensions between Bolivia and Brazil over the then-Bolivian territory of Acre (today the Acre state), a desirable territory during the contemporary rubber boom.
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake.
Trinidad, officially La Santísima Trinidad (The Most Holy Trinity), is a city in Bolivia, capital of the department of Beni.
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are terrestrial biomes dominated by grass and/or shrubs located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes.
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
Tunari National Park is a national park located in the Cochabamba Department, Bolivia.
Uberaba Lake is a lake in the Santa Cruz Department of Bolivia and Mato Grosso, Brazil.
The UNASUR Constitutive Treaty, officially the Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations, was signed on May 23, 2008 during the extraordinary summit of heads of state and government of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) held in Brasília, Brazil.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata), earlier known as the United Provinces of South America (Provincias Unidas de Sudamérica), a union of provinces in the Río de la Plata region of South America, emerged from the May Revolution in 1810 and the Argentine War of Independence of 1810–1818.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno (Gabriel René Moreno Autonomous University) is a university in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.
The University of San Simón (Universidad Mayor de San Simón, UMSS) is a university in Cochabamba, Bolivia.
This article is about a historical region now in Bolivia.
The Uru or Uros (Qhas Qut suñi) are an indigenous people of Peru and Bolivia.
The Uru–Chipaya family is an indigenous language family of Bolivia.
UTC−04:00 is a time offset that subtracts 4 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains often with a river running through it.
Ángel Víctor Paz Estenssoro (October 2, 1907 – June 7, 2001) was a Bolivian politician who served as President of Bolivia from 1952 to 1956, 1960 to 1964 and 1985 to 1989.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Vice President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Vicepresidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia) or Vice President of Bolivia (Vicepresidente de Bolivia), is the second highest political position in Bolivia.
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Virreinato del Río de la Plata, also called Viceroyalty of the River Plate in some scholarly writings) was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in America.
Villamontes (or: Villa Montes) is a town in the Tarija Department in south-eastern Bolivia.
The Virgen de Copacabana (literal translation: Virgin of Copacabana; figurative translation: Our Lady of Copacabana; variant: Blessed Virgin of the Candelaria, Our Lady of Copacabana) is the patron saint of Bolivia.
Viru Viru International Airport in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia is Bolivia's largest international airport.
The War of the Confederation (Guerra de la Confederación) was a conflict between the Peru-Bolivian Confederation and a coalition of Argentina and the United Restorative Army, composed of Chile and North Peruvian dissidents, from 1836 to 1839.
The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Salpeter War (Guerra del Salitre) and by multiple other names (see the etymology section below) was a war between Chile on one side and a Bolivian-Peruvian alliance on the other.
Water privatization is used here as a shorthand for private sector participation in the provision of water services and sanitation.
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
White Bolivians or European Bolivians are Bolivian people whose ancestry lies within the continent of Europe, most notably Spain and Germany, and to a lesser extent, Italy and Croatia.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
The Wichí are an indigenous people of South America. They are a large group of tribes ranging about the headwaters of the Bermejo River and the Pilcomayo River, in Argentina and Bolivia.
Wichí Lhamtés Nocten, or Weenhayek, is a Wichí language primarily spoken in Bolivia, where an estimated 1,810 Wichí people spoke it in 1994.
Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yaminawa (Yaminahua) is a Panoan language of western Amazonia.
The Yata River is a river of Bolivia.
Piro is a Maipurean language spoken in Peru.
Yuracaré (also Yurakaré, Yurakar, Yuracare, Yurucare, Yuracar, Yurakare, Yurujuré, Yurujare) is an endangered language isolate of central Bolivia in Cochabamba and Beni departments spoken by the Yuracaré people.
.bo is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bolivia.
Boliva, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Bolivia, Plurinational State of, Bolivian Republic, Bolívia, Buliwya Mamallaqta, Capital of Bolivia, Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Etymology of Bolivia, ISO 3166-1:BO, Name of Bolivia, Plan de Todos, Plurinational State of Bolivia, Republic of Bolivia, República de Bolivia, The Plurinational State of Bolivia, Volivia, Volívia, Wuliwya Suyu.